A Glossary that provides non-specialists with an understanding of child rights terminology, particularly related to the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Glossary legenda

Abduction  IRC site
   CRC = 35 1
The right of the child to protection against abduction is set forth in Article 35 of the CRC. States Parties are required to take all appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent the abduction of children for any purpose or in any form. The abduction of children is to be distinguished from the illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad (see Article 11 of the CRC). The abduction of children within one country or across frontiers for the purposes of, for example, economic exploitation, sexual exploitation, sale, trafficking or adoption is a form of exploitation. The illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad refers to the problem of the abduction of children across frontiers by one of their parents.
See also:
Disappearances   Exploitation   Illicit transfer and non-return   Recovery and reintegration   Sale and trafficking   

Abduction Term
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Except for obvious exceptions, such as the "Right to life" and the "Right to be heard", the terms in the Glossary are not formulated as rights. Under each term, however, the article of the Convention dealing with the corresponding right of the child is mentioned, if appropriate ("CRC:"), and a short description is given of the corresponding obligations of States Parties ("Note:"), followed by a listing of related terms in the Glossary ("See also:") linked to the Thesaurus descriptors. Certain terms have also been included as "lead-in" terms only to preferred synonyms. For instance, the reader searching under the term "Handicapped children", will be referred ("See:") to "Disabled children".

Glossary Display

Judicial body

CRC Article = 37(d); 40(2)(b)(iii)(v)
A body with judicial power conferred by law, independent of the executive and of the parties, and with discretionary power to decide, by reference to legal criteria, on controversies over law.

See also:
Accused children   Administration of Juvenile Justice   Children deprived of their liberty   Determination of lawfulness of detention   Due process   Fair trial   Impartial and independent authority   Independent and impartial authority   

Judicial review

CRC Article = 9 (1)(2)
According to Article 9(1), States Parties shall ensure that the child shall not be separated from his or her parents against their will, except when competent authorities, subject to judicial review, determine, in accordance with applicable law and procedures, that such a separation is necessary for the best interests of the child. In any proceedings pursuant to Article 9(1), all interested parties shall be given an opportunity to participate in the proceedings and make their views known (Article 9(2)).

See also:
Adoption   Alternative care   Children deprived of their family environment   Inter-country adoption   Intercountry adoption   National adoption   Periodic review of placement   Placement in institutions   Respect for the views of the child   Right to be heard   Separation from parent(s)   


CRC Article = 2(1)
States Parties are required to respect and to ensure the rights set forth in the CRC to each child within their jurisdiction. Jurisdiction concerns the power of the State to exercise authority affecting people, property and circumstances within its territory and, in accordance with international law, outside its territory.

See also:
Obligation of States   

Juvenile delinquency

Juvenile justice

CRC Article = 40(3)
Justice system applied to a "juvenile": a child or a young person who, under the legal system concerned, is to be dealt with for a offence in a manner which is different from an adult. The age limit used to define a juvenile varies between countries. States Parties are required to promote the establishment of laws, procedures, authorities and institutions specifically applicable to accused and convicted children, in particular the establishment of a minimum age for criminal responsibility and diversions.

See also:
Administration of Juvenile Justice   Diversions   Juvenile delinquency   Juvenile offenders   Minimum age for criminal responsibility   Non-custodial measures   

Juvenile offenders

A "juvenile" is a child or young person who, under the legal system concerned, is to be dealt with for an offence in a manner which is different from an adult. An "offence" is any behaviour (act or omission) that is punishable by law under the legal system concerned. A "juvenile offender" is a child or young person who is alleged to have committed or who has been found to have committed an offence (see Rule 2.2 of the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (1985), otherwise known as the Beijing Rules).

See also:
Administration of Juvenile Justice   Juvenile justice   Minimum age for criminal responsibility   Offence   

Juveniles deprived of their liberty