A Glossary that provides non-specialists with an understanding of child rights terminology, particularly related to the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Glossary legenda
Example:

Abduction  IRC site
   CRC = 35 1
Note:
The right of the child to protection against abduction is set forth in Article 35 of the CRC. States Parties are required to take all appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent the abduction of children for any purpose or in any form. The abduction of children is to be distinguished from the illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad (see Article 11 of the CRC). The abduction of children within one country or across frontiers for the purposes of, for example, economic exploitation, sexual exploitation, sale, trafficking or adoption is a form of exploitation. The illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad refers to the problem of the abduction of children across frontiers by one of their parents.
See also:
Disappearances   Exploitation   Illicit transfer and non-return   Recovery and reintegration   Sale and trafficking   



Abduction Term
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Except for obvious exceptions, such as the "Right to life" and the "Right to be heard", the terms in the Glossary are not formulated as rights. Under each term, however, the article of the Convention dealing with the corresponding right of the child is mentioned, if appropriate ("CRC:"), and a short description is given of the corresponding obligations of States Parties ("Note:"), followed by a listing of related terms in the Glossary ("See also:") linked to the Thesaurus descriptors. Certain terms have also been included as "lead-in" terms only to preferred synonyms. For instance, the reader searching under the term "Handicapped children", will be referred ("See:") to "Disabled children".
 

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Technical advice and assistance

CRC Article = 45(b)
Note:
The Centre for Human Rights, located at the United Nations Office at Geneva, acts as the Secretariat of the United Nations on human rights issues. One of its principal tasks is the administering of the programme of advisory services and technical assistance in the field of human rights. This programme aims to improve the effective enjoyment of human rights through concrete projects designed to strengthen regional and national human rights infrastructures including democratic institutions. Such projects range from the provision of advice to Governments on domestic human rights legislation to the translation and dissemination of major human rights conventions into local languages. These activities are directed at fostering a climate conducive to respect for human rights, thereby furthering the application of international norms and standards which have been formulated within the United Nations. The Voluntary Fund for Technical Assistance in the Field of Human Rights provides additional financial support. Article 45(b) of the CRC complements this programme of advisory services and technical assistance by providing that the Committee on the Rights of the Child shall transmit, as it may consider appropriate, to the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and other competent bodies, any State reports that contain a request, or indicate a need, for technical advice or assistance.

See also:
Committee on the Rights of the Child   Competent bodies   Developing countries   Inter-governmental organizations   International co-operation   Non-governmental organizations   United Nations Children's Fund   United Nations specialized agencies   

Testimony or confession of guilt

CRC =

See:
Self-incriminating evidence   

Thought

CRC =

See:
Freedom of conscience   

Torture

CRC Article = 37(a)
Note:
The right of the child not to be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment is set forth in Article 37(a) of the CRC. The aim of this provision is to protect both the dignity and the physical and mental integrity of the child. Noteworthy are the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1984), the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1987) and the Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture (1985).

See also:
Cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment   Discrimination and punishment   Recovery and reintegration   Treatment of accused children   Treatment of children deprived of their liberty   Treatment of convicted children   

Trade unions

CRC =
Note:
The right of the child to freedom of association is set forth in Article 15 of the CRC, but does not explicitly mention the right of the child to form and join trade unions. However, during the drafting of this provision, the view was expressed that it should be recognized that older children, particularly children above the legal minimum age for admission to employment, have the right to join trade unions.

See also:
Child labour   Enforcement of child labour standards   Freedom of association   

Traditional practices

CRC Article = 24(3)
Note:
States Parties are required to take all effective and appropriate measures with a view to abolishing traditional practices prejudicial to the health of children. Such practices include all harmful traditional practices, such as female genital mutilation, or female circumcision, son preference, female infanticide, early marriage and dowry, early pregnancy, nutritional taboos and certain practices related to child delivery. Consider the Plan of Action for the Elimination of Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children, prepared by the second United Nations Regional Seminar on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children, held at Colombo, Sri Lanka, from 4 to 8 July 1994, and adopted by the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities in its resolution 1994/30 of 26 August 1994.

See also:
Health and health services   

Trafficking and sale

CRC =

See:
Sale and trafficking   

Transformation

CRC =
Note:
Many countries have constitutional provisions which determine the status of treaties in the national law, so that the precise legal implications of becoming party to the CRC will vary from State to State. In general, the approach of States to treaties can be divided into the transformation approach and the incorporation approach. States Parties which follow the transformation approach use the provisions of the CRC as the basis for enacting appropriate national legislative rules. Therefore, if a child wishes to invoke articles of the CRC in a national court or before an administrative tribunal the child relies upon the corresponding national provision and not on the article of the CRC itself.

See also:
Applicability   Incorporation   

Treatment and punishment

Treatment of accused children

CRC Article = 40(1)
Note:
The right of the accused child to appropriate treatment is recognized in Article 40(1) of the CRC. States Parties are required to ensure that such a child is treated in a manner consistent with the promotion of the child's sense of dignity and worth, which reinforces the child's respect for the human rights and fundamental freedoms of others, and which takes into account the child's age and the desirability of promoting the child's reintegration and the child's assuming a constructive role in society.

See also:
Accused children   Administration of Juvenile Justice   Cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment   Discrimination and punishment   Privacy of accused children   Torture   Treatment of children deprived of their liberty   Treatment of convicted children   Trial in the presence of parents