Children's Participation: From tokenism to citizenship

Innocenti Essay 4

Children's Participation: From tokenism to citizenship
  • Format
  • Author(s)
    • Hart, Roger A.;
  • Publisher
    • UNICEF ICDC, Florence
  • Date of Publication
    • 1992
  • Pages
    • 44
  • ISBN
    • 88-85401-05-8
  • IRC Stock Number
    • 100U
  • Publication Cost
    • free
  • Language
    • English
  • Other languages


A nation is democratic to the extent that its citizens are involved, particularly at the community level. The confidence and competence to be involved must be gradually acquired through practice. It is for this reason that there should be gradually increasing opportunities for children to participate in any aspiring democracy, and particularly in those nations already convinced that they are democratic. With the growth of children’s rights we are beginning to see an increasing recognition of children’s abilities to speak for themselves. Regrettably, while children’s and youths’ participation does occur in different degrees around the world, it is often exploitative or frivolous. This Essay is written for people who know that young people have something to say but who would like to reflect further on the process. It is also written for those people who have it in their power to assist children in having a voice, but who, unwittingly or not, trivialize their involvement.


Thematic area

Children's Participation   / 


children's participation   /  children's rights   /  right to be heard   /