This paper analyses the different concepts of inequality, in particular differentiating individual, or vertical, and group, or horizontal, inequality, and adopting a plural approach to inequality, which involves moving beyond income to include some basic capabilities such as health, education and nutrition, and also inequalities in political power and cultural status.
As in other developed countries, the recent economic crisis affected the Australian economy. Nonetheless, while the OECD countries recorded a drop of GDP near to 4 per cent in 2009, in Australia GDP grew by 1.4 per cent. An important contribution to this performance came from the fiscal stimulus implemented by the government.
The Code of Conduct for the Protection of Children from Sexual Exploitation in Travel and Tourism ('The Code') was established in 1998 by ECPAT Sweden with the assistance of the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). Since 2004 there has been no comprehensive assessment of the impact of The Code. In addition, no performance monitoring system has been put in place.This assessment was designed to review the current performance of The Code, and to propose a set of criteria based on rights-based principles for measuring the impact and effectiveness of The Code at global and country levels.
This study addresses one of the greatest challenges of our time: the damage caused by HIV and AIDS to the well-being of children and families. The book reviews the community and public policy interventions introduced to moderate the impact of the disease on children and families, and discusses the advantages and limitations of such interventions.
In this paper the situation of three EU countries that have recently experienced substantial but very different reforms of their systems to support families with children is analysed and compared: Austria, Spain and the United Kingdom. The structure of these systems is very different: Austria gives emphasis to universal benefits, Spain to tax concessions and the United Kingdom to means-tested benefits. Basically, the recent reforms have reinforced these structures in each country while increasing the amount of public resources directed towards children. However, are the chosen strategies the most adequate for each country? What would have happened to the economic well-being of children if instead of reinforcing the existing types of policies these countries had completely transformed the architecture of their systems in another direction? More concretely, what would be the effect on child poverty and on income distribution?
This Annual Review provides a brief outline of the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre's ongoing workin the areas of promoting advocacy and policy dialogue to support the implementation of international standards and the development of child friendly policies and in monitoring the impact of economic and social policies on children's rights.
IRC contributes cutting-edge research to influence policy-making in favour of the world's poorest and most marginalized children and their famililes; informs policy formulation within UNICEF, strengthens the role of UNICEF as an advocate for children's rights; and supports programme development and capacity-building.
This paper compares people’s attitudes to inequality at the end of the 1990s – the qualities they perceive are needed to get ahead, the role of government and rewards for employment – in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Western countries. Data (from the 1999 International Social Survey Programme) suggest that overall, people in CEE express substantially more ‘egalitarian’ attitudes than those in the West, even after 10 years of economic adjustment to the market economy.
Accompanying the dramatic decline in Indonesia’s economic fortunes in the late 1990s was an appropriate concern for the social impact of the crisis - its effect on poverty, health, fertility, child labour and school enrolment rates. This paper uses regression and matching techniques to examine the role played by the scholarship programme in producing this result.
The UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre aims to: - Focus on areas that are relatively new to UNICEF and that may be important for its work in the future; - Focus on statistics and areas that may be sensitive or even controversial; - Fill knowledge gaps in existing areas of UNICEF’s work.