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Childhood and Urban Poverty in Brazil: Street and working children and their families

1992






Children in the Welfare State: Current problems and prospects in Sweden

1992






Children of Migrants and Ethnic Minorities: An overview and conceptual framework

1992


Following the Second World War and particularly after the 1960s, many Western European countries experienced positive immigration. Migrations to each specific country differed in origin and were influenced by the historical ties between the sending and receiving countries, particularly in the case of migrations from ex-colonies. However, international economic conditions and political situations also caused similar migration trends across countries, in particular the "contract work" migrations of the 1960s and the new waves of immigrants from developing countries of the 1970s and 1980s.



Children's Participation: From tokenism to citizenship

1992


A nation is democratic to the extent that its citizens are involved, particularly at the community level. The confidence and competence to be involved must be gradually acquired through practice. It is for this reason that there should be gradually increasing opportunities for children to participate in any aspiring democracy, and particularly in those nations already convinced that they are democratic. With the growth of children’s rights we are beginning to see an increasing recognition of children’s abilities to speak for themselves. Regrettably, while children’s and youths’ participation does occur in different degrees around the world, it is often exploitative or frivolous.



Children and the Transition to the Market Economy: Safety Nets and Social Policies in Central and Eastern Europe

1991






Children and the Transition to the Market Economy: Safety nets and social policies in Central and Eastern Europe - Summary

1991






Children in Institutions in Central and Eastern Europe

1991


To help deal with the particular needs of children at a time of rapid political and economic change in central and eastern Europe, in 1990 the UNICEF Executive Board approved a special three-year effort of "transitional support". In response to specific requests for cooperation, UNICEF was authorized "to provide technical support to rethink policies for child survival, development and protection in the context of the new situations" and to support "data collection on the situation of children and women, analytical studies, technical workshops, information materials and other related activities".



Children of the Runaway Cities: The impact of urban poverty on childhood and family life in the Philippines

1991






The Convention: Child rights and UNICEF experience at the country level

1991






Causes and Consequences of Child Poverty in the United States

1990






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