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Crisis in Mortality, Health and Nutrition


After the collapse of the communist system in 1989, most Eastern European countries experienced a mortality and health crisis. However, this did not hit the traditionally most vulnerable groups - children, adolescents, women and the elderly - but male adults in the 20-59 age group.

Children of Minorities: Gypsies


Changes in Health Care Financing and Health Status: The case of China in the 1980s


Child Poverty and Deprivation in Portugal: A national case study


Child Welfare and the Socialist Experiment: Social and economic trends in the USSR 1960-90


Childhood and Urban Poverty in Brazil: Street and working children and their families


Children in the Welfare State: Current problems and prospects in Sweden


Children of Migrants and Ethnic Minorities: An overview and conceptual framework


Following the Second World War and particularly after the 1960s, many Western European countries experienced positive immigration. Migrations to each specific country differed in origin and were influenced by the historical ties between the sending and receiving countries, particularly in the case of migrations from ex-colonies. However, international economic conditions and political situations also caused similar migration trends across countries, in particular the "contract work" migrations of the 1960s and the new waves of immigrants from developing countries of the 1970s and 1980s.

Children's Participation: From tokenism to citizenship


A nation is democratic to the extent that its citizens are involved, particularly at the community level. The confidence and competence to be involved must be gradually acquired through practice. It is for this reason that there should be gradually increasing opportunities for children to participate in any aspiring democracy, and particularly in those nations already convinced that they are democratic. With the growth of children’s rights we are beginning to see an increasing recognition of children’s abilities to speak for themselves. Regrettably, while children’s and youths’ participation does occur in different degrees around the world, it is often exploitative or frivolous.

Children and the Transition to the Market Economy: Safety Nets and Social Policies in Central and Eastern Europe


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