The eight essays in this volume argue that for both theoretical and practical reasons children need to be understood in their own right. They ask fundamental questions about the cultural and social variations in the perceptions we have of children and chidhood.
The aim of the Historical Perspectives series is to use a greater understanding of the history of childhood to shed light on the quest for improved policies and programmes for dealing with contemporary child-related social issues.
This paper has three parts. The first examines the problems of Romanian children at risk in their natural families; the second analyses the conditions of abandoned children, children in institutions and other children in special circumstances of risk; the third offers a summary of the policy environment.
This paper offers an analysis of the hardships and the threats to children during the transition in Poland. Because all the various poverty lines used to distinguish the poor from the non-poor point to the same conclusion that under-15-year-olds represent the population group most at risk of poverty.
This paper looks at how the transition from the planned to the free market economy has altered the nature of state protective child care provision in Central and Eastern Europe. The old systems were run according to an underlying state ideology that stressed an insensitive ‘medical model’ of care.
This Innocenti Occasional Paper examines the counter-intuitive relationship between Japan’s continuing economic achievement and the good of its child population. It would seem that adults and the elderly are harvesting the greater share of the benefits of economic success.
The 1990 World Summit for Children brought together 71 Heads of State and Government to discuss ways in which to improve the lives of the world's children. The international ‘Plan of Action’ adopted at the summit recognised the importance of grass roots initiatives at the local level.
The high primary school enrolment rates in Latin America and the Caribbean mask poor performance in terms of the quality, relevance and cost-effectiveness of formal schooling in the region. What happens to the millions of children who repeat school years, underperform in their first years of schooling and eventually drop out? The vast majority are working children of one sort or another, but their work is likely to lead nowhere in terms of expanded opportunities or eventually to a decent standard of living for them and their future families.
After the collapse of the communist system in 1989, most Eastern European countries experienced a mortality and health crisis. However, this did not hit the traditionally most vulnerable groups - children, adolescents, women and the elderly - but male adults in the 20-59 age group.