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Heterogeneous impacts of an unconditioal cash transfer programme on schooling: evidence from the Ghana LEAP programme


The paper uses data from a quasi-experimental evaluation to estimate the impact of the Ghanaian Government’s unconditional cash transfer programme on schooling outcomes. It analyses the impacts for children by various subgroups – age, gender, cognitive ability – and finds consistent impacts. There are differences across gender, especially on secondary schooling, with enrolment significantly higher for boys 13 years or older. For girls, the effect of the Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP) programme is to improve current attendance among those who are already enrolled in school (across all age groups). The authors found a significant effect on the expenditure on schooling items such as uniforms and stationary for these groups, which helps to explain the pathway of impact because these out-of-pocket costs are typically important barriers to schooling in rural Ghana and most of Africa.

How Inequalities Develop through Childhood: Life course evidence from the Young Lives cohort study


Tackling poverty and inequalities is now embedded within the mandates of governments and organizations worldwide. UNICEF has been a leader on this, and concern about inequalities has also been picked up in the debates surrounding post 2015 development goals.

How Much Do Programmes Pay? Transfer size in selected national cash transfer programmes in sub-Saharan Africa


Over the past decade, more than a dozen government-run cash transfer programmes have been launched in sub-Saharan Africa, and there is growing evidence of their ability to improve a range of development outcomes. However, setting the size of such transfers is possibly the most important programming decision to be made. This Brief highlights some of the issues to consider.

Household Welfare Measurement in Bangladesh: A tale of two short consumption modules


The aim of the paper is to understand how short consumption modules fare relative to a longer and more detailed consumption module in terms of the accuracy of the resulting estimates. The objective is particularly challenging as the use of non-equivalent samples makes it difficult to assess the accuracy and reliability of the estimates obtained.

Handbook for the Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography


The Handbook aims to promote understanding and effective implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. The publication describes the genesis, scope and content of the Protocol, and provides examples of measures taken by States Parties to fulfil their obligations under this instrument. This essential guide is addressed principally to public officials, UN organizations, child rights advocates and others who work with and for children, and whose duties and activities can enhance the protection of children from exploitation, whether on the national or local level.

How High is Infant Mortality in Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS?


This paper examines the measurement of infant mortality in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. There are worrying indications that official infant mortality counts, based on administrative data, may underestimate the true gravity of the problem.

How Effective is the British Government's Attempt to Reduce Child Poverty?


This paper describes the specific initiatives of the British Labour government to reduce child poverty and evaluates their potential impact. The extent of the problem of child poverty is set out, the causes are discussed and Britain’s problem is set in an international perspective. Policies that address long-term disadvantage are also discussed and future strategy is considered.

A Human Rights Conceptual Framework for UNICEF


This latest 'Innocenti Essay' outlines the legal and moral stance behind UNICEF's emerging human rights ethic. It goes on to consider the implications of this thinking in terms of the organisation's perceived future role. The author attempts to end the debate between the traditional development thinkers and the rights advocates, arguing that 'development' is meaningless unless it is designed to ensure the realisation of human rights.

Home-Based Community Day Care and Children's Rights: The Colombian case


Over recent years demographic trends in Columbia (such as the increased participation of women in the workforce) have led to an increased demand for a viable day care system for 3-6 year olds. This has largely been met by an innovative programme set up by the Colombian Family Welfare Institute.

The Health Sector and Social Policy Reform in the Philippines since 1985


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