This paper looks at the well-being of children in transition economies in the light of greater economic integration. The different stages of integration of the transition economies into the world economy are marked by substantial variations in trade and capital flows. International labour mobility remains limited, and unemployment has been high since the beginning of transition. Because employment is the main determinant of household income, this has had a negative effect on the well-being of children.
Innocenti Social Monitor 2004 reviews recent socio-economic trends in the 27 countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. It examines child poverty in an integrating world from four different perspectives: Economic Growth and Child Poverty; Economic Integration, Labour Markets and Children; Migration Trends and Policy Implications; Young People and Drugs: Increasing Health Risks.
Social Monitor 2003 is the second in the Innocenti Social Monitor series. It includes a Statistical Annex covering a broad range of indicators for the years 1989 to 2000-2002, including population trends, births and fertility, mortality, family formation, health, education, child protection, crime, and income, as well as comprehensive statistical profiles on each country in the region. Chapters cover: Economic Growth, Poverty and Long-Term Disadvantage; Debt Service: An Emerging Problem; Refugees and Displaced Persons: Still Large Numbers; Intercountry Adoption: Trends and Consequences; Confronting HIV?; Counting Infant Mortality and Accounting for It.
Social Monitor 2002 reviews recent socio-economic developments in the 27 countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. It contains three articles: Social trends in transition: an update on trends in a range of topics including income and poverty, fertility, infant and adult mortality, enrolment in education and care of children at risk. HIV/AIDS and young people: awareness, behaviour and policy: focuses on the spread of HIV, and young people’s knowledge about HIV prevention. Quality of learning: towards “unilateral educational disarmament”?: examines new information to compare learning outcomes in transition countries and in the West. In addition, the Statistical Annex covers a range of indicators for the years 1989 to 2000-2001.
This paper examines the impact of the Asian crisis on children in Indonesia. School attendance dropped slightly after the onset of the crisis but has since rebounded to higher than pre-crisis levels. Fewer children are now working, although the older children who are working and are not attending school seem to be working longer hours.
Children are among the most vulnerable group in any society, with no vote, no access to the powerful lobbies that influence government agendas, and little access to the legal system and courts to protect their rights. This Digest focuses on independent human rights institutions for children and the urgent need to create such institutions in every country in the world.
Progress towards the target of universal access to basic education by the year 2000, set by two global conferences in 1990, has been too slow in many countries. Most of the reasons for this inadequate progress are country-specific. However, in virtually all countries one explanation stands out: inadequate public finance for primary education.
This paper examines the successes of ten 'high-achievers' - countries with social indicators far higher than might be expected given their national wealth. Their progress in such fields as education and health offers lessons for social policy elsewhere in the developing world.
The International Children’s Rights Thesaurus has been created for use in libraries and documentation centres as a tool for indexing and retrieving documents from the point of view of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC).
The differences in income distribution between market and planned economies are considered. The picture during transition, like that under socialism, is varied. Russia has experienced very sharp increases in measured inequality while the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland have seen more modest rises.