According to the 2008-2009 Kenyan Demographic and Health Survey, almost a third of the women of reproductive age were married before they reached their 18th birthday, and more than 75 per cent had their first child by age 24. The role of poverty in influencing adolescent fertility has been well documented and social cash transfers (SCTs) have been recommended as a successful reduction strategy. This Research Brief examines a study comparing two groups who had and had not received unconditional cash transfers. The authors identify four factors through which such cash amounts affect adolescent well-being: increased investment in girls’ education; delay in girls’ sexual debut; improved mental health and increased aspirations for girls; and increased household economic stability.
Inconsistent and unpredictable flow of cash transfers can impact the results of the LEAP programme and its evaluation. The programme did not lead to an increase in consumption, but household debt was reduced and loans repayment improved. Informal social networks gained in strength and reinforced social cohesion and protection helping to reduce risks at the local level.
Mounting pressure from the financial markets prompted most industrialized countries to engage in fiscal consolidation since 2010-2011, with social transfers among the most popular targets. Family benefits have been particularly hard hit between 2008 and 2012. Their real value declined for lone parent households (with two school-age children) earning 20% of the average wage in 20 out of 37 countries.
This paper investigates differences in the perceived impact of the economic crisis between adults in households with and without children in 17 European countries. It also explores the channels through which the crisis affected adults in households with children and the ways in which they coped with the decline in income or economic activity.
The risk and time preferences of individuals as well as their subjective expectations regarding the future are likely to play an important role in choice behaviour. A large-scale survey in Kenya shows that cash transfers alone do not appear to impact time discounting or risk aversion, but they do have an important impact on subjective well-being measures and on future perceptions of quality of life.
The study identifies and evaluates three possible channels through which social transfers can influence child protection outcomes: direct effects observed where the objectives of social transfers are explicit chid protection outcomes; indirect effects where the impact of social transfers on poverty and exclusion leads to improved child protection outcomes; and potential synergies in implementation of social transfers and child protection.
A revised version of this report was published in the Children and Youth Services Review
These guidelines present a detailed step-by-step procedure of how to carry out a multiple overlapping deprivation analysis. They aim at providing technical guidance by capturing lessons acquired from previous research, indicating the range of decisions to be made and the various risks each of the different choices may lead to.
This research sets out to understand the why, how and with whom of rural-urban internal migration of children to Ressano Garcia, a border town between Mozambique and South Africa. It addresses the overarching research question of how to strengthen child protection systems for unaccompanied migrant children. By identifying children’s reasons for migrating, it identifies the main risks they encounter once they start living and working in Ressano Garcia. These include: lack of access to educational opportunities, exposure to child labour exploitation, trafficking and smuggling.
This paper describes the outcomes of an expert consultation on the Structural Determinants of Child Wellbeing. The participants discussed the underlying causes of child well-being and aimed to develop an initial framework for considering the impact of structural factors on children’s lives.
This paper provides an overview of research findings, legislation, policy and programme responses to prevent and respond to the sexual abuse and exploitation of boys in South Asia. The background to the paper is based on the findings from previous UNICEF IRC research on child trafficking in the region, which indicated that boys enjoy less legal protection than girls from sexual abuse and exploitation and less access to services for victims.