This initial exploratory study examines the governance and finance of Early Childhood Services (ECS) in three countries (Cambodia, Kenya and Lao People's Democratic Republic) using an in-depth qualitative approach. The methodologies and tools provide an innovative strategy built upon the literature of governance and finance to understand how to improve access, quality and equity of ECS.
As in other developed countries, the recent economic crisis affected the Australian economy. Nonetheless, while the OECD countries recorded a drop of GDP near to 4 per cent in 2009, in Australia GDP grew by 1.4 per cent. An important contribution to this performance came from the fiscal stimulus implemented by the government.
The focus in this paper is on non-contributory social transfers which are considered to be the main social protection instruments targeted specifically at poor and vulnerable households, and which are financed from general government revenues.
The study identifies and evaluates three possible channels through which social transfers can influence child protection outcomes: direct effects observed where the objectives of social transfers are explicit chid protection outcomes; indirect effects where the impact of social transfers on poverty and exclusion leads to improved child protection outcomes; and potential synergies in implementation of social transfers and child protection.
The Report card considers five dimensions of children’s lives: material well-being, health and safety, education, behaviours and risks, and housing and environment. In total, 26 internationally comparable indicators have been included in the overview. The Report updates and refines the first UNICEF overview of child well-being published in 2007 (Report Card 7 ). Changes in child well-being over the first decade of the 2000s are examined.
This paper compares the well-being of children across the most economically advanced countries of the world. It discusses the methodological issues involved in comparing children’s well-being across countries and explains how a Child Well-being Index is constructed to rank countries according to their performance in advancing child well-being. This paper is one of the three background papers written as the basis for Report Card 11 (2013), ‘Child Well-being in Rich Countries: A Comparative Overview’.
This paper links the concept and practice of accountability with child rights, by asking: (1) What accountability means when children are the rights holders, and whose role is it to exact that accountability? (2) What are the assumptions underpinning social accountability, and how can they be revised from the child-rights perspective? (3) How do social and political dynamics at community and national levels, often not linked to child rights issues, shape accountability outcomes?
The aim of this paper is to assess the inter-temporal change in child well-being over the last decade. For this purpose, it compares the child well-being index calculated in the Innocenti Report Cards 7 and 11. Although the two Report Cards use the same methodological framework, they differ in the set of indicators used. It is therefore necessary to compute a modified child well-being index based on the common indicators used in the two Report Cards for the countries under study.
This paper is based on background research undertaken for the UNICEF Innocenti Report Card 11 on child well-being in rich countries. It develops a new domain index of subjective well-being based on several indicators drawn from the Health Behaviour of School Aged Children (HBSC) survey 2009/10, which includes life satisfaction, relationships with family and friends, well-being at school, and subjective health.
Le Bilan prende en compte cinq dimensions de la vie des enfants : le bien-être matériel, la santé et la sécurité, l’éducation, les comportements et les risques et enfin le logement et l’environnement. Au total, 26 indicateurs comparables à l’échelle internationale ont été inclus dans cette synthèse. Le Bilan Innocenti met à jour et affine la première synthèse de l’UNICEF concernant le bien-être des enfants publiée en 2007 (Bilan n °7 ).