The birth of the Mongolian NPA took place within the context of the profound economic transition that accompanied the collapse of the Soviet Union. In spite of the difficulties imposed by this widely-felt upheaval, Mongolia has succeeded in laying the foundations for a successful NPA.
The birth of the Sudanese National Programme of Action took place in an adverse context characterised by economic isolation and frequent situations of chronic emergency. This paper chronicles the country’s experience of the subsequent ‘decentralisation’ of the programme.
Using survey data from 103 UNICEF field offices across the world, this paper aims to provide a general overview of the NPA decentralisation phenomenon - where and how it is occurring, the roles of the major actors and the results that have been achieved to date.
The Vietnamese government has taken its National Programme of Action a step further than most, having actively encouraged the growth of sub-programmes at the provincial level.
The ‘Plan Of Action’ adopted at the 1990 World Summit for Children recognised the importance of grass-roots initiatives for children at the provincial level. In many countries, this call for ‘decentralisation’ has triggered the beginnings of an entirely novel process. In Spain, a general trend toward the provincial and the participatory had already begun.
The differences in income distribution between market and planned economies are considered. The picture during transition, like that under socialism, is varied. Russia has experienced very sharp increases in measured inequality while the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland have seen more modest rises.