The Egyptian government’s approach to internal development issues had traditionally been very much the product of a ‘top-down’ way of thinking. It was widely assumed that local and regional authorities lacked the necessary technical and resource-allocation know-how.
The 1990 World Summit for Children set in motion the development of what were called ‘National Programmes of Action’ in a number of countries. In the Philippines the birth of the overall government plan has been accompanied by that of a number of supporting schemes at the provincial level.
The birth of the Argentine NPA took place in a context of profound institutional reform, with the federal government placing responsibility for health care, education and social policy in the hands of the provinces.
The birth of the Mongolian NPA took place within the context of the profound economic transition that accompanied the collapse of the Soviet Union. In spite of the difficulties imposed by this widely-felt upheaval, Mongolia has succeeded in laying the foundations for a successful NPA.
The birth of the Sudanese National Programme of Action took place in an adverse context characterised by economic isolation and frequent situations of chronic emergency. This paper chronicles the country’s experience of the subsequent ‘decentralisation’ of the programme.
Using survey data from 103 UNICEF field offices across the world, this paper aims to provide a general overview of the NPA decentralisation phenomenon - where and how it is occurring, the roles of the major actors and the results that have been achieved to date.
The Vietnamese government has taken its National Programme of Action a step further than most, having actively encouraged the growth of sub-programmes at the provincial level.