Innocenti Working Papers

The Working Papers are the foundation of the Centre's research output, underpinning many of the Centre's other publications. These high quality research papers are aimed at an academic and well-informed audience, contributing to ongoing discussion on a wide range of child-related issues. More than 100 Working Papers have been published to date, with recent and forthcoming papers covering the full range of the Centre's agenda. The Working Papers series incorporates the earlier series of Innocenti Occasional Papers (with sub-series), also available for download.



The Breadth of Child Poverty in Europe: An investigation into overlap and accumulation of deprivations

2011


Yannis Kontos / Polaris / Panos - UNITED KINGDOM - Girls living in the Clays Lane housing estate in Stratford, East London
Recent years have witnessed widespread acknowledgement in both academic and policy circles that children deserve a special focus in poverty measurement The case for a child focus in poverty and development debates can be made on moral, rights and efficiency based grounds. It is now widely recognized that children have different basic needs from adults and are harder hit, both in the short- and long-term, when their basic needs are not met.



Child Participation and Independent Human Rights Institutions for Children in Europe

2011


Child Participation and Independent Human Rights Institutions for Children in Europe
This paper focuses on the role played by independent human rights institutions for children in promoting children’s and adolescents’ participatory rights. It presents the conceptual and normative framework of participatory rights, including the approach of the Committee on the Rights of the Child. The paper analyses the involvement of children and adolescents in the functioning of these institutions in Europe.



Comparing Inequality in the Well-being of Children in Economically Advanced Countries: A methodology

2011


©William Daniels / Panos - A boy on a bicycle looks over a metal fence with leafless winter trees behind him.
This paper tries to respond to the complex challenge of going beyond a research approach into child well-being based on averages and proposes a complementary approach to compare inequalities across economically advanced countries. More specifically, the objective of this paper is to explore and compare the extent of disparity at the bottom-end of the distribution of child well-being, focusing on the gap between the child in the middle of the distribution and those who are disadvantaged, i.e. those at the bottom of the distribution.



The Establishment Process for a Separate Child Ombudsman in Turkey: A case study

2011


The Establishment Process for a Separate Child Ombudsman in Turkey: A case study
This paper provides an overview and analysis of the initial steps towards the establishment of a separate ombudsman for children in Turkey. Looking at children’s socio-economic conditions, the legal and political situation, as well as the perception of childhood in the country, it reviews the rationale for the creation of a children’s ombudsman. The paper then examines current processes from a child rights perspective, in particular with respect to the now cancelled general ombudsman law.



The Impact of the Food and Financial Crises on Child Mortality: The case of sub-Saharan Africa

2011


UNICEF/NYHQ2002-0298/Giacomo Pirozzi - Children queue for lunch at the Hatcliffe Primary One school in the suburban community of Hatcliffe, 22 km outside Harare, the capital
This study presents an econometric model to estimate changes in the under-five mortality rate in a number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa over the years 1995-2007. The discussion centres on models with different specifications, and on the results obtained after testing several of them. The paper argues that initial models adopted to forecast the potential impact of the food and financial crisis overestimated the increase in mortality. However, the more complex tool presented in this study proves that under-five mortality rates have indeed increased (or declined less than predicted) due to the food and financial crises. The estimates provide signposts for remedies to protect children and their families when new shocks arrive.



Independent Human Rights Institutions for Children

2011


Independent Human Rights Institutions for Children
This working paper addresses the role, contribution and impact of independent human rights institutions for children (IHRICs), also referred to as children’s ombudspersons or children’s commissioners. It looks at these institutions from the perspective and jurisprudence of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (the Committee) and the global perspective on the perception of the child and childhood resulting from contributions of these institutions to the process of implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC).



Independent Human Rights Institutions for Children and the Committee on the Rights of the Child Reporting Process

2011


This paper presents an overview of the reporting process to the Committee on the Rights of the Child in relation to independent human rights institutions for children. It examines the Committee’s approach towards independent human rights institutions for children.



Institutions, Inequality and Growth: A review of theory and evidence on the institutional determinants of growth and inequality

2011


Fredrik Naumann / Panos - DENMARK Copenhagen - Children play with an interactive globe
This study discusses the theoretical challenge posed in identifying the mechanisms that link institutions and equitable economic growth at various levels of aggregation. The relationship between governance modes and institutions on the one hand, and economic growth and development on the other hand, may take very different forms. This relates to the question of whether a single and unique combination of institutions and governance modes is optimal for (equitable) growth, or whether different governance modes and institutions may lead to good or equitable growth performance in different locations and historical contexts.



Monitoring Child Well-being in the European Union: Measuring cumulative deprivation

2011


Monitoring Child Well-being in the European Union: Measuring cumulative deprivation
The European Union (EU) is currently in the process of developing child specific indicators of well-being that will be used to monitor progress towards achieving inclusive economic growth. Although a wide range of child sensitive indicators has been proposed in recent years, none of the measures is sensitive to (changes in) cumulative deprivation i.e. the degree to which a child simultaneously experiences a range of unfavourable conditions. Children’s current well-being is a key determinant of their future situation; more often than not, well-being in one domain (e.g. health) is complementary to well-being in another domain (e.g. education); and children also have little control over, or responsibility for, the factors determining their own well-being.



Protecting Vulnerable Families in Central Asia: Poverty, vulnerability and the impact of the economic crisis

2011


Carolyn Drake / Panos - A girl sits on the edge of the Karasu bazaar, where shipping containers have been converted into shops. The Karasu bazaar is the largest in Central Asia.
This paper provides an overview of the social and economic vulnerabilities of households with children in the five Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan), and assesses the ability of national social protection systems to address these, with the main focus on the role of non-contributory cash transfers financed from general government revenues.



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