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Juvenile Justice
This Digest focuses on the situation of children and young people under the age of 18 who come into contact with the justice system as a result of being suspected or accused of committing an offence. Its starting point is the moment of arrest. It goes through to the time when a decision is made, within or outside the formal justice system, on how they are dealt with, and looks at the implications of sentencing options, with particular attention to those involving deprivation of liberty. It also makes reference to the prevention of juvenile offending and the social reintegration of offenders, as well as to the special problem of children incarcerated with their mothers. Concern over violation of children's rights in these situations, throughout the world, is growing. Policy and practice relating to juvenile justice are among those areas most frequently criticized by the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child, the body responsible for monitoring the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Committee has in fact made reference to problems in this sphere in relation to some two thirds of the State reports it has reviewed so far. Juvenile justice, however, is not seen as a top priority in many countries, and its realities are often hidden or ignored. This Digest attempts to highlight the main issues involved and to serve as one basis for improved action.

Intercountry Adoption
This Portfolio looks at intercountry adoption as one of a series of possible solutions for children unable to live with their families. Broadly accepted international instruments specify the conditions under which intercountry adoption is to be undertaken if the rights and best interests of the children concerned are to be protected and fully respected. Although substantial efforts are being made to implement the standards and procedures set, current practices are often in violation of these norms. This Portfolio therefore sets out to identify abuses of intercountry adoption, as well as the measures required to combat such violations and to uphold "best practice" in this sphere. Discussion of arguments for or against the concept or practice of intercountry adoption falls beyond the scope of this Portfolio.