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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 103
Post-disruption catch-up of child immunisation and health-care services in Bangladesh

AUTHOR(S)
Shohel Rana; Rashed Shah; Sabbir Ahmed (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
After the first COVID-19 case was diagnosed in March, 2020, child health service delivery and use declined in rural remote communities in Bangladesh. This paper retrieved annual data for 2019 and 2020 from Bangladesh's district health information system (DHIS) for child immunisation and sick children's care-seeking in six subdistricts of Barishal, Bangladesh.
COVID-19 pandemic: a unique opportunity to ‘build back fairer’ and reduce health inequities in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

AUTHOR(S)
Ahmed Al-Mandhari; Michael Marmot; Abdul Ghaffar (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal
Evidence has shown that some of the major causes of health inequities arise from the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age, in addition to a wider set of forces and systems shaping individuals’ and societies’ health and well-being. Such conditions are known as the ‘social determinants of health’. However, efforts to address these determinants have remained challenging and unsatisfactory in many parts of the world, including in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Policies to contain the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic have further exposed and amplified the existing and even created new dimensions in social and health inequities, as we elaborate further below. Meanwhile, the pandemic offers a unique opportunity to tackle inequities and build back fairer.
Cite this research | Vol.: 27 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 217-219 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, economic and social conditions, health care, social inequality, COVID-19 response, multi-country
Psychospiritual care for parents during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Randy G. Quendan; Reiner B. Lingad; Ivan Efreaim A. Gozum

Published: March 2021   Journal: Journal of Public Health
In a recent article, energy poverty increases the likelihood of depression in parents. The authors responded that this situation must be given attention because parental well-being can influence child development and outcomes. With this, this paper proposes that an avenue that can be done is by providing a psychospiritual care for parents especially during the COVID-19 pandemic in which anxieties among family members arise.
Are COVID-19 vaccines safe in pregnancy?

AUTHOR(S)
Victoria Male

Published: March 2021   Journal: Nature Reviews Immunology
As the COVID-19 vaccination programme starts to be rolled out, many young women are hesitant to accept the vaccine, citing concerns about fertility. Meanwhile, those offered the vaccine during pregnancy must decide whether they will accept, even though pregnant people were excluded from the clinical trials. Data on accidental pregnancies that occurred during the trials and, increasingly, outcomes in pregnant people who receive the vaccine can help these groups to make informed decisions.
Unintended consequences of restrictive visitation policies during the COVID-19 pandemic: implications for hospitalized children

AUTHOR(S)
Jean L. Raphael; Woodie Kessel; Mona Patel

Published: March 2021   Journal: Pediatric research
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in devastating consequences worldwide with over 2,000,000 deaths. Although COVID-19 demonstrates less morbidity and mortality among children,1 it has dramatically altered the health-care experience for children and families. This is particularly true for those cared for in inpatient settings. The competing priorities of safeguarding families and health-care personne from a serious infection, stewardship of limited resources, ensuring family-centered care (FCC), and carrying out end-of-life care have led to tensions in how to effectively implement and execute necessary restrictive visitation policies. While the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides broad guidelines to health-care facilities on the management of visitors, hospitals must determine how to implement such guidelines.
School reopening without robust COVID-19 mitigation risks accelerating the pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Deepti Gurdasani; Nisreen A. Alwan; Trisha Greenhalgh (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: The Lancet
On Feb 22, 2021, the UK Government announced that schools in England would fully reopen on March 8, 2021. While returning to school as soon as possible is imperative for the education, social development, and mental and physical welfare of children, not enough has been done to make schools safer for students and staff. Without additional mitigations, increases in transmission are likely, this time with more infectious and possibly more virulent variants, resulting in further lockdowns, school closures, and absenteeism. Even when schools were supposed to be fully open, at points of high community transmission, 22% of secondary school children were not attending due to self-isolation. In some areas, attendance was as low as 61%.
Breaking the child labour cycle through education: issues and impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on children of in-country seasonal migrant workers in the brick kilns of Nepal

AUTHOR(S)
Angela Daly; Alyson Hillis; Shubhendra Man Shrestha (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Children's Geographies
This viewpoint offers a commentary on the status of Nepalese children of migrant workers in the brick kilns of the construction industry and the potential impacts of COVID-19 on their lives. The paper identifies a temporal cycle of movement in the life of a child from a migrant working family with the variances that need to be taken into consideration by stakeholders to tackle child labour, and to reduce risks to children of migrant workers posed by the current pandemic. It draws on the education and emergencies literature to examine ‘lessons learned’ and considers key questions to ask in the time of COVID-19, especially in the education sector, to mitigate further entrenchment of exclusion of this group of children in Nepal.
Breastfeeding and COVID-19 vaccination: position statement of the Italian scientific societies

AUTHOR(S)
Riccardo Davanzo; Massimo Agosti; Irene Cetin (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
The availability of a COVID-19 vaccine has raised the issue of its compatibility with breastfeeding. Consequently, the Italian Society of Neonatology (SIN), the Italian Society of Pediatrics (SIP), the Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine (SIMP), the Italian Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (SIGO), the Italian Association of Hospital ObstetriciansGynecologists (AOGOI) and the Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical Diseases (SIMIT) have made an ad hoc consensus statement. Currently, knowledge regarding the administration of COVID-19 vaccine to the breastfeeding mother is limited. Nevertheless, as health benefits of breastfeeding are well demonstrated and since biological plausibility suggests that the health risk for the nursed infant is unlikely, Italian scientific societies conclude that COVID-19 vaccination is compatible with breastfeeding.
Transformative learning in early-career child and adolescent psychiatry in the pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Sowmyashree Mayur Kaku; Ana Moscoso; Jordan Sibeoni (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: The Lancet Psychiatry
The COVID-19 pandemic has globally affected the practice of child and adolescent psychiatry, as well as the daily lives of early-career child and adolescent psychiatrists. There have been changes in continuity of care (eg, postponed, cancelled, or online consultations, and few functioning inpatient units, with others becoming COVID-19 units) and the usual work frame (eg, facemasks, physical distancing, and not offering toys). Work shifted to creating standard operating procedures for care with safety precautions; disseminating advice and information about mental health; offering mental health support to frontline workers; and helping with duties outside of child and adolescent psychiatry. As early-career clinicians in child and adolescent psychiatry, we feared potential problems, such as increased risk of child abuse, domestic violence; behavioural crisis or suicide in adolescents who rely mostly on peer support and their social life; diagnostic delays (eg, for neurodevelopmental disorders); and parental burn-out (as the only caregivers). The fear of infection reduced emergency visits, but probably made these at-risk families inaccessible to clinicians.
Why do children still have preventable caries?

AUTHOR(S)
Alizey Kazmi; Maryam Ismail; Nadia Kazmi

Published: January 2021   Journal: BDJ Team
Despite extensive knowledge on the pathogenesis of caries, improvements in general oral health and preventive evidencebased toolkits such as Delivering better oral health, 1 childhood caries continues to be the leading cause of paediatric admission to hospital for extraction under general anaesthesia (GA). With caries being a preventable disease2,3 and the rationale to use GA being complicated with the risk of morbidity and mortality,4 the issue of childhood caries needs to be addressed. Te COVID-19 pandemic has further complicated the situation, as routine access to care is limited.
COVID-19–related misinformation among parents of patients with pediatric cancer

AUTHOR(S)
Jeanine P. D. Guidry; Carrie A. Miller; Albert J. Ksinan (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Emerging Infectious Diseases
This survey has been conducted among 735 parents to determine differences in endorsement of misinformation related to the coronavirus disease pandemic between parents of children in cancer treatment and those with children who had no cancer history. Parents of children with cancer were more likely to believe misinformation than parents of children without cancer.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 27 | Issue: 2 | No. of pages: 650-652 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, information, parents, COVID-19
Comprehensive and safe school strategy during COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Susanna Esposito; Nicola Cotugno; Nicola Principi

Published: January 2021   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Although several studies have tried to evaluate the real efficacy of school closure for pandemic control over time, no definitive answer to this question has been given. Moreover, it has not been clarified whether children or teenagers could be considered a problem for SARS-CoV-2 diffusion or, on the contrary, whether parents and school workers play a greater role. The aims of this review are to discuss about children’s safety at school and the better strategies currently able to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection at school.
Assessment of duplicate evidence in systematic reviews of imaging Findings of children with COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Giordano Pérez-Gaxiola; Francisca Verdugo-Paiva; Gabriel Rada (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: JAMA Network Open
Formulating evidence-based recommendations for children affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is challenging. Identifying and synthesizing the evidence to inform these recommendations has become difficult. With the explosion of publications on preprint servers and in journals, waste in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) research is common. While replication of systematic reviews may be appropriate in some instances, duplication refers to needless repetition of the same review.1 Answering simple questions, such as the most common findings in children with COVID-19, requires an enormous effort. We aimed to map 1 of these questions (ie, what is the spectrum and frequency of imaging findings in children with COVID-19?) to illustrate the overlap and shortcomings of the evidence syntheses in this area.
Conducting CBT for anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder during COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Carla B. Kalvin; Rebecca P. Jordan; Sonia N. Rowley (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
This commentary describes the transition to remote delivery of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participates in a clinical trial during the COVID-19 pandemic. The effects of COVID-19 on children’s anxiety and on the family functioning are discussed. Modifications to CBT necessitated by telehealth delivery were aimed at maximizing engagement of children and their parents while maintaining treatment fidelity and adhering to the research protocol. Treatment targets were updated to address new sources of anxiety and CBT exposure exercises were modified to accommodate the new reality of quarantine restrictions. If the COVID-19 pandemic continues to affect treatment delivery it may require a widespread utilization of telehealth for treating anxiety in children with ASD.
A hidden side of the COVID-19 pandemic in children: the double burden of undernutrition and overnutrition

AUTHOR(S)
Boutaina Zemrani; Mario Gehri; Eric Masserey (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: International Journal for Equity in Health volume
The COVID-19 pandemic has deteriorated key determinants of health and caused major upheavals around the world. Children, although less directly affected by the virus, are paying a heavy price through the indirect effects of the crisis, including poor diet, mental health impact, social isolation, addiction to screens and lack of schooling and health care, particularly among vulnerable groups. This paper is aimed at discussing the potential impact of this pandemic on children’s nutrition and lifestyle. Preliminary data from the literature and from our survey show significant disruptions in nutrition and lifestyle habits of children. While undernutrition is expected to worsen in poor countries, obesity rates could increase in middle- and high-income countries especially among precarious groups widening the gap in health and social inequalities. The real impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children extends well beyond that of a viral infection. This crisis has public health implications that could have life-long consequences on children. It requires effective and targeted measures mainly for vulnerable children and households to guarantee children’s basic rights for optimal nutrition, health and development.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.