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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 187
Impacts of the COVID-19 control measures on widening educational inequalities

AUTHOR(S)
Merike Darmody; Emer Smyth; Helen Russell

Published: July 2021   Journal: Young
COVID-19 has resulted in a global public health crisis. Measures adopted by governments across the world to reduce transmission have resulted in the closure of educational institutions and workplaces and reduced social interaction. The aim of the article is to reflect on the consequences of the COVID-19 global pandemic for the lives of young people from different social groups, with a special focus on education. It is a desk-based review of empirical research that has emerged in the wake of COVID-19 that has explored the impact of the control measures adopted, resulting in ‘learning loss’ and the widening of the ‘learning gap’ among students. The review shows that rather than utilizing the current situation to tackle pre-existing social inequalities in education, current debates often narrowly focus on immediate rather than long-term measures. The article calls for a broader research agenda on the short- and long-term compensatory measures needed to re-engage students, especially those from more disadvantaged backgrounds.
A systematic review and meta-analysis of data on pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19: Clinical presentation, and pregnancy and perinatal outcomes based on COVID-19 severity

AUTHOR(S)
Zohra S. Lassi; Ali Ana; Jai K. Das (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Global Health
This study determined the clinical presentation, risk factors, and pregnancy and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19 and identified if these are different based on COVID-19 severity. It also included all observational studies on pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19 reporting clinical presentation, risk factors, and pregnancy and perinatal outcomes.
Children’s role in the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review of early surveillance data on susceptibility, severity, and transmissibility

AUTHOR(S)
KatyA. M. Gaythorpe; Sangeeta Bhatia; Tara Mangal (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports
SARS-CoV-2 infections have been reported in all age groups including infants, children, and adolescents. However, the role of children in the COVID-19 pandemic is still uncertain. This systematic review of early studies synthesises evidence on the susceptibility of children to SARS-CoV-2 infection, the severity and clinical outcomes in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 by children in the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed. Reviewers extracted data from relevant, peer-reviewed studies published up to July 4th 2020 during the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak using a standardised form and assessed quality using the NIH Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies.
The influence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including the COVID-19 pandemic, and toxic stress on development and health outcomes of Latinx children in the USA: a review of the literature

AUTHOR(S)
Natalie Claypool; Arelis Moore de Peralta

Published: July 2021   Journal: International Journal on Child Maltreatment: Research, Policy and Practice
The purpose of this review is to synthesize existing literature to analyze the influence of the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), including the COVID-19 pandemic, and toxic stress on child development and lifelong health outcomes of Latinx children in the USA, utilizing the ACE framework. Without adequate protective factors, children’s early experiences with adversity and toxic stress have implications for their physiological, psychological, and social health. The COVID-19 pandemic has shown to exacerbate childhood adversity and toxic stress and has disproportionately harmed Latinx communities. In applying the ACE framework to US-Latinx populations, relevant findings concerning a potential failure of ACEs to accurately capture Latinx experiences of adversity were highlighted, as well as the need to classify the COVID-19 pandemic as an ACE. Research suggest that first-generation Latinx immigrants report lower-than-average rates of ACEs despite the various disparities ethnic minorities face in the USA.
SARS-CoV-2 infection and racial disparities in children: protective mechanisms and severe complications related to MIS-C

AUTHOR(S)
Sanjana Kurup; Regan Burgess; Fatou Tine (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
A novel coronavirus has resulted in a pandemic with over 176 million confirmed cases and over 3.8 million recorded deaths. In the USA, SARS-CoV-2 infection has a significant burden on minority communities, especially Hispanic and Black communities, which are overrepresented in cases compared to their percentage in the population. SARS-CoV-2 infection can manifest differently in children and adults, with children tending to have less severe disease. A review of current literature was performed to identify the hypothesized protective immune mechanisms in children, and to describe the rare complication of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) that has been documented in children post-SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Exploring the impact of COVID-19 on the movement behaviors of children and youth: a scoping review of evidence after the first year

AUTHOR(S)
Derek C. Paterson; Katelynn Ramage; Sarah A. Moore (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Sport and Health Science
The objective of this scoping review was to summarize systematically the available literature investigating the relationships between the Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep) of school-aged children (aged 5−11 years) and youth (aged 12−17 years) in the first year of the COVID-19 outbreak.
COVID-19 in children: where do we stand?

AUTHOR(S)
Georgia B. Nikolopoulou; Helena C. Maltezou

Published: July 2021   Journal: Archives of Medical Research
From the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic it became evident that children infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remain mostly asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. This study reviewed the epidemiologic and clinical features of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The true prevalence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection is most likely underestimated, as asymptomatic children are less frequently tested. Serologic surveys indicate that half of children tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 report no symptoms. Anosmia/ageusia is not frequent in children but it is the strongest predictor of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. In general, children with COVID-19 are at lower risk of hospitalization and life-threatening complications. Nevertheless, cases of severe disease or a post-infectious multisystem hyperinflammatory syndrome named multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) have been described. Rarely children with severe COVID-19 develop neurologic complications.
Thrombotic risk in children with COVID-19 infection: a systematic review of the literature

AUTHOR(S)
Marco Zaffanello; Giorgio Piacentini; Luana Nosetti (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Thrombosis Research
Coagulation and inflammatory parameters are mildly altered in children with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection, and laboratory evidence of a proinflammatory and procoagulant state has been noted in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). It is not clear whether this pediatric condition is related to thrombotic events. This study reviewed the literature for thrombotic complications in children with COVID-19 infection and MIS-C.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 205 | No. of pages: 92-98 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19 response, health services, infectious disease, lockdown
Prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Lu Ma; Mohsen Mazidi; Ke Li (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the prevalence of depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, and posttraumatic stress symptoms among children and adolescents during global COVID-19 pandemic in 2019 to 2020, and the potential modifying effects of age and gender. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and two Chinese academic databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang) for studies published from December 2019 to September 2020 that reported the prevalence of above mental health problems among children and adolescents. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to estimate the pooled prevalence.

Challenges in maternal and child health services delivery and access during pandemics or public health disasters in low-and middle-income countries: a systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Krushna Chandra Sahoo; Sapna Negi; Kripalini Patel (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Healthcare
Maternal and child health (MCH) has been a global priority for many decades and is an essential public health service. Ensuring seamless delivery is vital for desirable MCH outcomes. This systematic review outlined the challenges in accessing and continuing MCH services during public health emergencies—pandemics and disasters. A comprehensive search approach was built based on keywords and MeSH terms relevant to ‘MCH services’ and ‘pandemics/disasters’. The online repositories Medline, CINAHL, Psyc INFO, and Epistemonikos were searched for studies. We included twenty studies—seven were on the Ebola outbreak, two on the Zika virus, five related to COVID-19, five on disasters, and one related to conflict situations. The findings indicate the potential impact of emergencies on MCH services. Low utilization and access to services have been described as common challenges. The unavailability of personal safety equipment and fear of infection were primary factors that affected service delivery. The available evidence, though limited, indicates the significant effect of disasters and pandemics on MCH. However, more primary in-depth studies are needed to understand better the overall impact of emergencies, especially the COVID-19 pandemic, on MCH.
Student engagement in K12 online education during the pandemic: the case of Turkey

AUTHOR(S)
Gökçe Kurt; Derin Atay; Huriye Arzu Öztürk

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Research on Technology in Education
Student engagement has become a challenge for K-12 students and teachers in online education during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study explored the factors underlying student engagement and the strategies teachers developed to engage students. Thematically analyzed interview data coming from 22 teachers and 20 students of public high schools revealed teachers’ and students’ similar perceptions of the factors affecting student engagement. The four themes identified were instructional and student related factors along with those related to the learning environment and policies. The teacher strategies for the facilitation of student engagement were instructional, managerial, and affective. Teachers also discussed which of these strategies were helpful in fostering student engagement.
Prevalence of anxiety and depression among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic: a meta-analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Mohammad Dordeh; Fereshteh Bahrami; Farzaneh Rashidi Fakari (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a newly emerged respiratory illness, which has spread around the world. Pregnant women are exposed to additional pressure due to the indirect adverse effects of this pandemic on their physical and mental health. Since the psychological wellness framework is weak in developing countries, it is likely that geographical factors affect the prevalence. Therefore, the goal of this meta-analysis is to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depression among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. Databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library have been searched for articles. The quality of studies was determined based on the STROBE checklist. I2 and Cochrane Q-test were used to determine heterogeneity. Fixed effects and/or random effects models were also employed to estimate pooled prevalence.

Psychological impact of COVID-19 on children and adolescents: a systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Nishtha Chawla; Ashlyn Tom; Mahadev Singh Sen (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine

The outbreak of COVID-19 led to a significant psychological impact on individuals, particularly those belonging to vulnerable groups. This study aimed to synthesize literature on the psychological impact of COVID-19 among children and adolescents. Electronic search engines were used to identify studies till March 2021 that reported symptoms of psychological origin in children and adolescents. Information was extracted using a predefined template, and qualitative analysis was conducted using STROBE.

Vaccination against COVID-19 infection: the need of evidence for diabetic and obese pregnant women

AUTHOR(S)
A. Lapolla; M. G. Dalfrà; S. Burlina

Published: June 2021   Journal: Acta Diabetologica

The recent availability of vaccines against COVID-19 has sparked national and international debate on the feasibility of administering them to pregnant and lactating women, given that these vaccines have not been tested to assess their safety and efficacy in such women. As concerns the risks of COVID-induced disease, published data show that pregnant women who develop COVID-19 have fewer symptoms than patients who are not pregnant, but they are more likely to need hospitalization in intensive care, and neonatal morbidity. Aim of the present perspective paper is to analyze the current literature regarding the use of the vaccine against COVID-19 infection, in terms of safety and protection, in high risk pregnant women as those affected by diabetes and obesity. Analysis of literature about vaccination against COVID-19 infection in pregnancy.

Global changes in maternity care provision during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Rosemary Townsend; Barbara Chmielewska; Imogen Barratt (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: EClinicalMedicine
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on healthcare systems globally, with a worrying increase in adverse maternal and foetal outcomes. This study aimed to assess the changes in maternity healthcare provision and healthcare-seeking by pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. It performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of the effects of the pandemic on provision of, access to and attendance at maternity services.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.