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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Short report: vaccine attitudes in the age of COVID-19 for a population of children with mitochondrial disease

Eliza Gordon-Lipkina; Christopher Steven Marcumb; Shannon Kruk (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Research in Developmental Disabilities

Children with developmental disabilities are vulnerable to morbidity associated with COVID-19. This paper aims to understand attitudes toward routine childhood vaccinations versus the COVID-19 vaccine in a population of families affected by mitochondrial disease (MtD), a form of developmental disability. An online survey was administered via several advocacy groups for children with MtD.

Age and sex differences in the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and coping mechanisms in Latin American youth

Rosa Elena Ulloa; Rogelio Apiquian; Francisco R. de la Peña (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of Psychiatric Research

The COVID-19 pandemic has had negative effects on mental health. Understanding sex and age differences in the perception of stressors, the use of coping strategies, and the prevalence of depression and anxiety can lead to detecting at-risk groups. A cross-sectional online study surveyed perceived stressors, coping strategies, and the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 rating scales for symptoms of depression and anxiety. The study was open from Spring 2020 to Spring 2021 and was aimed at children, adolescents and young adults of Latin America.

Parental refusal and hesitancy of vaccinating children against COVID-19: findings from a nationally representative sample of parents in the U.S.

Thadchaigeni Panchalingam; Yuyan Shi

Published: November 2022   Journal: Preventive Medicine
The uptake rate of COVID−19 vaccines among children remains low in the U.S. This study aims to 1) identify sociodemographic and behavioral factors influencing parental refusal of vaccinating children, and 2) quantify the relative importance of vaccine characteristics in parental hesitancy of vaccinating children. An online survey was conducted from October to November 2021 among a probability-based, representative sample of 1456 parents with children under age 18. The survey included a discrete choice experiment asking parents to choose between two hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine alternatives with varying levels of characteristics in 10 hypothetical scenarios. Logistic regressions were used to estimate parental refusal (refused to choose any vaccine alternatives in all hypothetical scenarios) and random parameter logit regressions were used to estimate parental hesitancy (choice of vaccine alternatives depended on vaccine characteristics) of vaccinating children.
Confirming—and testing—bonds of trust: A mixed methods study exploring community health workers’ experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh, Haiti and Kenya

Pooja Sripad; Ann Gottert; Timothy Abuya (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Plos Global Public Health
Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic and national responses, trust (one’s belief that a system acts in one’s best interest) is important to consider. In community health systems, trust is embedded in relationships between clients, CHWs, and health system stakeholders. This mixed-methods study explores trust through the evolving COVID-19 crisis in Bangladesh, Haiti, and Kenya, where multi-country community health research was underway. It investigates the extent and ways trust between communities, community health workers (CHWs), and health system actors shift, including its relation to community fear and hostility, through self-reported positive and negative experiences of CHWs and policy/program stakeholders on a phone-based survey with 2,025 CHWs and 72 key informant interviews, including CHWs, in late 2020.
A predictive model for depression risk in Thai youth during COVID-19

Wongpanya S. Nuankaew; Patchara Nasa-ngium; Prem Enkvetchakul (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Advances in Information Technology
The risk of depression in youth affects future development of the learning process. Therefore, it is important to study on preventing the risk of depression in youth. The purpose of this research was (1) to study the risk situation of youth’ depression in Thailand, and (2) to develop a model for predicting depression among youth in Thailand. The data used in the research were 1,413 samples from 9 faculties at the Rajabhat Maha Sarakham University, and Phadungnaree School at Mueang District of Maha Sarakham Province, Thailand. Research tools and procedures used were the data mining principles to analyze and develop prototype models. It includes the decision tree, naïve bayes, and artificial neural networks techniques.
Association of SARS-CoV-2 infection with early breastfeeding

Henry H. Bernstein; Eric J. Slora; Tara Mathias-Prabhu (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Academic Pediatrics
The association of maternal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) status before delivery with breastfeeding is unknown. This study compares breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity, and duration between SARS-CoV-2-positive (+) and SARS-CoV-2-negative (-) mothers during the first 2 months of their newborns’ lives. A single center, retrospective cohort study of pediatric contacts during the first 2 months in a diverse mother-infant population (n = 285) compared breastfeeding outcomes by maternal SARS-CoV-2 status during a pandemic surge. Infants of SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers were also tested before discharge. Comparison of maternal demographics (age, race, ethnicity), maternal/infant characteristics (parity, insurance, delivery mode, infant sex, hospital length of stay), and pediatric contacts by maternal SARS-CoV-2 status included Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon tests and Poisson regression for count outcomes. Logistic regression compared breastfeeding outcomes between the 2 groups, adjusting for potential confounders and effect modifiers.
Caregiver and clinician experience with virtual services for children and youth with complex needs during COVID-19

Laura Theall; Kim Arbeau; Ajit Ninan (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
During the COVID-19 pandemic, support services for children and youth quickly shifted to virtual means. To continue delivering essential, trauma-informed, specialized services, the center transitioned to providing most services by phone/video conference. A quality improvement project using survey methods was conducted to determine if virtual delivery was timely and satisfactory for inpatient and outpatient care.
Changes in dietary practices of mother and child during the COVID-19 lockdown: results from a household survey in Bihar, India

Zakir Husain; Saswata Ghosh; Mousumi Dutta

Published: October 2022   Journal: Food Policy
The outbreak of COVID-19, and the national-level lockdown to contain it, were expected to disrupt supply chains, lead to livelihood loss, and reduce household income. Studies anticipated a decline in food security in India, leading to a near famine-like situation. This study examines the change in Dietary Score (number of food groups consumed out of a possible eight) and proportion of respondents complying with Minimum Dietary Diversity norms (consuming at least four food groups) among women aged 15–49 years and their youngest child (aged between 7 and 36 months) during the lockdown. The present study also analyses whether ownership of ration cards and contacts with the party in power locally helped the household to tide over the crisis. The data was collected through a two-phase primary survey undertaken in January-March 2020 (pre-lockdown period) and October-November 2020 (post-lockdown period). It was undertaken in six districts of Bihar, a state with a history of poor maternal and child health outcomes and dysfunctional delivery of health services.
COVID-19–related hardship and mental health in Puerto Rican children: the moderating role of adverse childhood experiences (ACES)

Mateus Mazzaferro; Prudence W. Fisher; Glorisa Canino (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Home
Research on the mental health impact of COVID-19 has called attention to the high levels of symptoms among children. Latinx children experience more COVID-19 related hardship (CRH; eg, child infection, parental job loss) and are disproportionately exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs)—a risk factor for negative mental health outcomes. ACEs are associated with alterations in physiology that may make children more vulnerable to future stressors. However, no study has investigated whether ACEs may exacerbate symptoms associated with CRH in Latinx children. This study sought to examine whether prior exposure to ACEs moderates the association between CRH and behavioral and emotional symptoms in Puerto Rican children across 2 contexts, the South Bronx (SB), NYC, and San Juan (SJ), Puerto Rico.Participants were Puerto Rican youth (n = 138; 68 in SB, 70 in SJ) aged 3 to 12 years (mean = 8.3, SD = 2.2) enrolled in the Boricua Youth Study and assessed between March 2020 and September 2021. Parents were interviewed about their child’s ACEs, CRH experienced by the family (16 items), and their child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression was performed for 2 age groups: 3-5 years (younger) and 6-12 years (older), with internalizing and externalizing as dependent variables and child ACEs, CRH, and their interaction as independent variables, adjusting for child's age and gender.
Eating disorders: the role of the family in development and maintenance of children's problems in the pandemic period

Maria Rosaria Juli; Rebecca Juli; Giada Juli (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Psychiatria Danubina

According to data released by the Ministry of Health in 2021 in Italy about three million young people suffer from eating disorders with onset before the age of 13 and the number tends to be increasing. This work aims to understand if and to what extent the areas of family functioning are related to the way of eating of adolescents in the period of restriction due to COVID-19. In particular, which dimensions of family functioning can be correlated with dysfunctional eating habits. The group that took part in the study was composed of 154 non clinical subjects, of which 124 females, 27 males and 3 non-binary gender subjects. The tests used were the McMaster Family Assessment Device and the Binge Eating Scale, in addition a personal data sheet was used containing the details of the subjects who participated anonymously, recruited at the university of Italy. The data have some limitations, first of all the low number of the sample and the online modality in compiling the tests.

Effectiveness of primary series and booster vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalisation among adolescents aged 12–17 years in Singapore: a national cohort study

Calvin J. Chiew; M. Premikha; Chia Yin Chong (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Singapore offered the BNT162b2 vaccine (tozinameran; Pfizer-BioNTech) to adolescents aged 12–17 years in May 18, 2021, and extended booster vaccines to this group in Jan 21, 2022. Literature on the effectiveness of primary series and booster vaccination among adolescents is scarce outside of Europe and North America. We aimed to determine primary series and booster vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalisation among adolescents in Singapore. This national cohort study assessed the incidence of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalisation among adolescents aged 12–17 years vaccinated with BNT162b2 in Singapore from Sept 1 to Dec 15, 2021, during the delta (B.1.617.2) variant wave, and from Jan 21 to April 28, 2022, during the omicron (B.1.1.529) variant wave. Data were collected from official databases maintained by the Ministry of Health of Singapore. Individuals were classified as partly vaccinated (those who had received one dose and those who had received the second dose no more than 7 days previously), fully vaccinated (8 days after receiving a second dose), or boosted (8 days after receiving a third dose) and compared with unvaccinated individuals.
Examining the relationship between discrimination, access to material resources, and black children's behavioral functioning during COVID-19

Nneka Ibekwe-Okafor; Jacqueline Sims; Sihong Liu (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Research Quarterly
Systemic racism and discriminatory practices continue to disproportionally expose Black children and families to less than optimal health and economic resources. COVID-19 sheds existing light on how longstanding systemic inequalities affecting Black children and families create racial disparities in accessing material resources. The purpose of this study (N = 704 Black caregivers) is to better understand the relationship between experiences of racial discrimination, access to material resources (i.e., health-promoting resources and economic resources), and Black children's behavioral functioning during the pandemic. Through the application of ordinary least squares regression analysis, we find that inadequate material resources (both health-related risks and economic hardship) during the pandemic were associated with heightened caregiver report that their child was frequently fussy or defiant (externalizing) and frequently anxious or fearful (internalizing).
Parental health beliefs, intention, and strategies about covid-19 vaccine for their children: a cross-sectional analysis from five Arab countries in the Middle East

Ali Haider Mohammed; Bassam Abdul Rasool Hassan; Abdulrasool M. Wayyes (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Vaccine

The issue around vaccination of children has brought divergent opinions among the populations across the globe and among the Arab population. There has been a low response rate to the calls for vaccination of children and this is reflective of the sentiments which parents may have towards their children being vaccinated. This study aims to explore the parents’ health beliefs, intentions, and strategies towards the COVID-19 vaccine for their children among Arab population. A cross-sectional study using an online survey from October to December 2021, was carried out in five Arab countries in the Middle East. A reliable health belief model (HBM) including five domains: severity, susceptibility, benefits, barriers and cues to action, was adopted. Chi-square, Mann–Whitney test, and multivariable logistic regression were performed for data analysis.

Parental intimate partner violence and abuse during the COVID-19 pandemic: learning from remote and hybrid working to influence future support

Hayley Alderson; Simon Barrett; Michelle Addison (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Women's Health
The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated intimate partner violence and abuse. Incidents of intimate partner violence and abuse have increased as a result of household tensions due to enforced coexistence (multiple national lockdowns and working from home practices), economic stress related to loss of income, the disruption of social and protective networks and the decreased access to support services. This study aimed to understand how female survivors of parental intimate partner violence and abuse have experienced the adapted multi-agency response to intimate partner violence and abuse during the pandemic and consider learning from remote and hybrid working to influence future support. This study adopted a qualitative research design, utilizing semi-structured interviews and a focus group. Data collection took place between March and September 2021. In total, 17 female survivors of intimate partner violence and abuse took part in the project; we conducted the semi-structured interviews via telephone (n = 9) and conducted an online focus group (n = 8).
Trrns, screens, and COVID-19: how the pandemic is changing youth's relationships with media and their psychiatrists

Erin L. Belfort

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
This study will discuss the implications of COVID-19 on mental health of youth and how the pandemic has affected access to treatment services including telepsychiatry. Pearls of telepsychiatry, a new modality of treatment for many of us, will be reviewed. The study will explore how media and technology use has changed for youth in the context of remote learning and limited opportunities to be together with friends and extended family. Based on our clinical experience, it will discuss certain populations by age and diagnosis and review the unique challenges the pandemic has created for academic, family, and peer functioning. The authors will use literature searches to supplement their clinical experiences with youth.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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