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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Social network analysis research report: realizing relationships for distance education
Institution: Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies
Published: February 2023

This report explores how social network analysis (SNA) could shed light on educational shifts, such as the switch to distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic, and presents findings from pilot SNA studies of distance education for refugees in Jordan and Uganda. SNA measures how actors are connected within a network. It illuminates how the structure of or an actor’s positionality within a network affects social outcomes (Folke, 2006; Light & Moody, 2020), in this case the provision of distance education for refugees. Traditionally, the provision of education has been viewed as the output of a static system governed by hierarchical relationships. However, it is increasingly understood as a complex and dynamic ecosystem in which influence, resources, and ideas enter at different points and travel along diverse pathways. The pilot studies conducted in Jordan and Uganda explored what facilitated and what inhibited distance education for refugees in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, with particular attention given to the network of relationships among distance education policy, content development and curation, teacher preparation, and delivery actors. Data was collected from individuals who worked for organizations that delivered, or supported the delivery of, distance education for refugees in Uganda and Jordan in 2021.

The onset of a pandemic: impact assessments and policy responses in Malaysia during the early months of COVID-19
Institution: United Nations Development Programme
Published: February 2023
This report is a call to action, to prepare for future crises, and the ones that we are experiencing today to tackle the multi-faceted social and economic dimensions of crises. It is, above all, a call to focus on people – women, youth, low-wage workers, small and medium enterprises, the informal sector and on vulnerable groups who are already at risk. Rapid assessments during the first months of the pandemic were critical to pinpoint the social, economic and political impacts of the crisis, and discover ways to mitigate them with sustainable, resilient and rights-based solutions forged through both the public and private sector.
World employment and social outlook: trends 2023
Institution: International Labour Organisation
Published: January 2023

This year’s World Employment and Social Outlook: Trends provides a comprehensive assessment of current decent work deficits and how these have been exacerbated by multiple, overlapping crises in recent years. It analyses global patterns, regional differences and outcomes across groups of workers. The report provides labour market projections for 2023 and 2024 and presents trends in labour productivity growth, analysing the factors contributing to its decline.

Spotlight on COVER: evaluating world vision’s COVID-19 emergency response through the experiences of key stakeholders
Institution: World Vision
Published: January 2023

World Vision’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic was the organisation’s largest ever in terms of geographic reach.  Launched March 11, 2020 - the day the World Health Organization declared the pandemic - the response spanned more than 70 countries and reached more than 81 million people over its two-and-a-half-year lifespan. In order to find out how effective the response was and what lessons needed to be learned World Vision consulted with 5,700 community members, health workers and faith leaders in eight countries, as well as staff from more than 50 offices.  The lessons showed what we got right and where we needed change or improve. This report also provided insights into the critical role our partners played in working with World Vision to reduce the spread of the disease, support health systems and staff, stand with children caught in the middle of the crises and advocate to protect the most vulnerable among them.

Are the kids alright? The early careers of education leavers since the COVID-19 pandemic

Sam Ray-Chaudhur; Xiaowei Xu

Published: January 2023
There is substantial evidence from the UK and other countries that entering the labour market during a recession leads to persistent negative effects on employment and earnings (von Wachter, 2020). Young people graduating from school or university during an economic downturn have a harder time finding employment, and those who do find work may be forced to take jobs that are less well-suited to their skills and the development of those skills. This can keep them on poorer career trajectories for years to come. This report presents the first evidence on how the cohorts of young people who entered the labour market during the pandemic have fared up to now.

Inclusive and resilient societies: equality, sustainability and efficiency
Institution: UNESCO
Published: December 2022

Inclusive and Resilient Societies explores the evolution of inequalities of different types and assesses their interaction with the Covid crisis across people, firms, and places. It shows how the impact of the pandemic varied widely, depending on whether and where people work, their gender, age, education, income levels, and the place they live in, and highlights how economic inequalities have expanded and left our societies with deep social scars.

Characterization of newborn born to mothers infected and not infected by SARS-COV-2 during the pregnancy period

Alessandra Madalena Garcia Santos; Aline Dahmer Da Silva; Claudia Silveira Viera

Published: November 2022
This study aimed to characterize the mothers affected by SARS-CoV-2 during the gestational period, as well as to present and compare the birth variables of Newborns (NB) of mothers who were infected by SARS-CoV-2 during the gestational period in relation to babies whose mothers were not infected by the virus during the gestational period. Quantitative, retrospective research, carried out in the databases of health information systems: SIVEP – Influenza (Information System for Epidemiological Surveillance of Influenza), Notifies Covid-19 and Information System for Live Births (SINASC). The sample consisted of all live births and their mothers in the municipality of Cascavel/PR, from July 2020 to December 2021, compared to those newborns of mothers who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy in that period. Descriptive analysis of data using mean, standard deviation and proportion.
The effect of home exercises given to school-aged children during the COVID-19 pandemic process on sports motivation

Kayhan Söğüt; Elisa Calisgan; Betül Akyo (et al.)

Published: November 2022
This study aimed to investigate the effect of home exercises given to secondary and high school students during the pandemic process on sports motivation. This study was conducted on 117 (n:61 female, n:56 male) people aged 11-15 years. The children given online via the EBA home exercises program in the study were reached at Kangal Mehmet Salih Şirin, Sivas Selçuk, Sivas Durdulu, Gürün 80. Yıl Boarding District Secondary School and Kangal Koç Anatolian High School. Individuals were evaluated with Sport Motivation Scale at the pre-post exercise program.
Consequences of COVID-19 lockdown on Lebanese adolescents' experience of elearning: a call to action

Nadine Daibess; Nabil Georges Badr; Joumana Yeretzian (et al.)

Published: November 2022
In general, adolescents are vulnerable to lifestyle changes, with implications on their physical and mental health. During COVID-19 lockdown, mental disorders emerged among the Lebanese youth, with prevalence of psychiatric symptoms related to insomnia, depression, and anxiety. The case of the adolescent population in Lebanon was alarming. Suicidal intentions appeared among Lebanese adolescents from 9th to 12th grades. Our study identifies depressive tendencies, stress and anxiety indicators in the respondents remarks. Our adolescent informants have volunteered a few suggestions for coping strategies.
The COVID-19 consequences on child labour in agrifood systems

This paper provides insights and evidence on how the COVID-19 pandemic and related policy responses to curb its spread influence the risk of child labour in agriculture through different pathways.It draws on case studies from seven countries covering different production systems: Côte d’Ivoire (cocoa), Ethiopia (cattle keeping and farming), (Lebanon (horticulture and greenhouse farms), the Philippines (municipal fisheries), and Viet Nam (crop farming, livestock, and citrus fruit chains). Based on these evidence, the document provides concluding reflections and recommendations on priority areas regarding knowledge generation and data collection, policy responses (social protection, education), and household- and community-level responses.

Adaptive social protection in Southern Africa
Institution: The World Bank
Published: November 2022
The countries of the Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU) - Botswana, Eswatini, Lesotho, Namibia, and South Africa are exposed to climatic shocks, especially drought, that pose a continual threat to lives and livelihoods across the subregion. The pandemic has compounded these existing vulnerabilities. Climatic shocks such as these tend to affect the poorest most, exacerbating inequalities and increasing poverty. Food insecurity, which is chronic in the subregion and both a root cause of vulnerability to drought and an outcome of it also increased as a result of impacts from the pandemic. Social safety net programs can help poor and vulnerable households manage the risks they face from shocks, helping to mitigate the impacts on poverty and food insecurity, but their effectiveness can be constrained in several ways. The mobilization of social protection in response to COVID-19 and the challenges that have emerged to that mobilization have strengthened the case for investments in preparedness ahead of future shocks. Adaptive social protection refers to an agenda for preparing social protection systems to improve their response to shocks and to build the resilience of poor and vulnerable households. This report takes stock of ASP in four of the five SACU countries and provides targeted recommendations for each country’s development.
Cambodia poverty assessment: toward a more inclusive and resilient Cambodia

Wendy Karamba; Kimsun Tong; Isabelle Salcher

Institution: The World Bank
Published: November 2022
This poverty assessment evaluates Cambodia’s poverty reduction progress between 2009 and 2019 and contributing factors. Based on the authors understanding of contributing factors, the assessment asks what the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been, and what will be needed to support inclusive recovery. The Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) recently updated the national poverty lines for Cambodia. Prompted by Cambodia’s transition to lower middle-income status in 2015, the RGC revisited the poverty measurement methodology in 2017; the review confirmed that the way Cambodians live and spend today has changed considerably as the country became richer, and that the national poverty lines needed revising to better reflect economic realities. This assessment uses the new poverty lines to evaluate Cambodia between 2009 and 2019, coupled with other data sources. This poverty assessment covers 5 chapters. Chapter 1 examines the progress Cambodia made in reducing poverty and boosting shared prosperity between 2009 and 2019. Chapter 2 examines the evolution of nonmonetary poverty between 2009 and 2019. Chapter 3 examines the profile of poverty and inequality in 2019/20. Chapter 4 examines the 2019 fiscal system and its effects on poverty and inequality in 2019/20. Chapter 5 examines COVID-19 socio-economic effects on Cambodian Households in 2020.
The World Bank’s early support to addressing Coronavirus (COVID-19) health and social response: an early-stage evaluation
Institution: The World Bank
Published: November 2022
This evaluation assesses the quality of the World Bank’s early response to the COVID-19 crisis and the initial steps toward recovery, focusing on the health and social response. It concentrates on the relief stage and support to restructure systems in the first 15 months of the pandemic (February 1, 2020, to April 30, 2021) in 106 countries. A parallel Independent Evaluation Group evaluation looks at the World Bank Group support to address the economic implications of the pandemic. To assess the quality of the response, the evaluation is guided by a theory of action that synthesizes evidence in three dimensions: relevance of support to the needs of countries; implementation, learning, and adjustment; and operational policy and partnerships to support smooth responses in countries. As the response is ongoing, the evaluation does not assess effectiveness but considers early results and pathways that are expected to lead to outcomes.
Problems of digital-based children's literature learning in pandemic times

Heny Kusuma Widyaningrum; Andayani Andayani; Sarwiji Suwandi (et al.)

Published: October 2022
Enforcement Digital-based distance learning is a form of Indonesian government policy during the Covid-19 pandemic so that learning can still run well. However, the reality is that based learning has found several obstacles from students and learning support facilities. This study aims to describe the use of media in children's literacy learning and to describe the condition of the internet network during learning experienced by PGSD students from PGRI Madiun University. The method used is descriptive qualitative, defining students' obstacles when learning digital-based children's literature.
Using learning assessment data for educational planning in Sub-Saharan Africa: a comparative analysis

Ieva Raudonytė; Tuamanaia Foimapafisi

Institution: Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies, UNESCO
Published: October 2022

How do countries in sub-Saharan Africa use data from large-scale learning assessments in different phases of the educational planning cycle? What facilitates and impedes the use of the data? How can governments and development partners sustain and improve the use of learning data? The new IIEP-UNESCO publication compares data from The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Namibia, Senegal, and Zambia to answer these questions. It explores the complex dynamics of the use of learning data, examining among other factors, the interactions among the different actors.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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Check our quarterly thematic digests on children and COVID-19

Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.