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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 56
Learning loss in Cambodia and the use of EdTech during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Saurav Dev Bhatta; Saurav Katwal; Tobias Pfutze (et al.)

Institution: The World Bank
Published: November 2022
This report estimates the effects of Coronavirus (COVID-19) on learning and earnings in Cambodia, analyzes the country’s EdTech readiness and the extent to which EdTech access and use are correlated with learning, and discusses the policy implications of the study findings for enhancing learning and for improving system resilience through EdTech based teaching and learning. More specifically, it first analyzes the state of learning outcomes in Cambodia in the immediate post-COVID period (November 2021) using the government’s national learning assessment (NLA) data for grade six students and estimates the declines in learning outcomes experienced by students in this grade between 2016 and 2021 in Khmer and mathematics. Additionally, using a learning loss simulation model developed at the World Bank, it also estimates losses in learning adjusted years of schooling (LAYS) and future earnings of students resulting from pandemic. Second, it analyzes the relationship between the EdTech based distance learning measures implemented at the school level and learning outcomes, as well as the extent to which the country is prepared to systematically integrate and expand the use of EdTech in the education system. And third, it provides recommendations for enhancing learning recovery and learning outcomes, and for addressing gaps in policy provision and implementation to support the scaling up of EdTech for the purpose of improving system resilience.
Equity and inclusion in education in Asia and the Pacific: building back better and more equal: technical paper

AUTHOR(S)
Sheldon F. Shaeffer

Institution: UNESCO
Published: October 2022

Following the commitment to ensure ‘inclusive and equitable quality education’ and promote ‘lifelong learning for all’ made in 2015 in Goal 4 of   the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (UNESCO, 2016), the Asia-Pacific region made significant progress in terms of   both access to, and the quality of, education. However, as the mid-point to the 2030 deadline approaches, millions of   learners have failed to learn what they need to reach their fullest potential, producing a ‘learning crisis’ of   serious proportions. This crisis has only become more severe as a result of   COVID-19,increasing pre-existing inequalities, hindering the achievement of   equitable and inclusive education and stalling global progress towards meeting the SDG promise to ‘leave no one behind’. This learning crisis, however, does not affect all learners equally. The most vulnerable and excluded learners before the pandemic – girls; those with disabilities and living in poverty, remote areas and refugee/migrant families and those not speaking the language of   formal education – are facing increased vulnerability and exclusion compared to their more ‘included’ peers after the pandemic – in other words, even greater learning loss. Unfortunately, due to a range of   barriers, there is currently an insufficient number of   national and local policies, strategies and programmes to mitigate this loss.

‘The urgency of financing education recovery: a call to action for children’s futures’: technical paper

AUTHOR(S)
Ivan Coursac; Daniel Kelly

Institution: UNESCO, *UNICEF
Published: October 2022

This background paper outlines the scale and urgency of   financing education for SDG4 in the post-COVID Asia-Pacific  region.  The  paper  focuses  primarily  on  the  public  financing  of    education  and  it  directly addresses three main questions: (i)  What are the key issues and challenges for education finance in the Asia-Pacific?   Situating   public   education financing   within   the   broader  contexts  of     human   capital development   and  social  sector  spending;  (ii)  What  has  been  the  impact  of    COVID-19  on  education finance? From the immediate economic and education system impacts to the longer-term effects linked to  significant  and  inequitable  learning  loss;  and  finally  (iii)  What  are the  priority  areas  for  action?  The paper  proposes  five  main  recommendations  to  guide  post-COVID  recovery  and  the  financing  of    more inclusive, efficient and resilient regional education systems. The paper includes a list of   resources at the end to support the implementation of   the recommendations.

Enhancing the health and well-being of Asia-Pacific learners and teachers at school post-COVID-19: technical paper

AUTHOR(S)
Inon Schenker

Institution: UNESCO, *UNICEF
Published: October 2022

A  new  social  contract  for  education  in  the  Asia-Pacific  region  paves  the  way  for  building fairer and strengthened education systems in the post-COVID-19 era. It will repair inequalities, while transformingthe future, rebuild relationships with each other, with the planet and with technology and support full realization of   all the inter-connected Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (UNESCO, 2022).  In this new social contract, schools must continue to play a vital role in enhancing health, nutrition andthe well-being of   learners, teachers and the community. School Health and Nutrition (SHN) programmesthat  address  the  health,  nutrition  and  well-being  of    learners  and  teachers  are  not  only  essential  for maximizing every child’s life expectancy and potential as a learner; they are cost effective, with benefitsacross multiple sectors and they are a sound economic investment (Oliveira de FPSL et al., 2020).

Building back better: preparing and supporting teachers to address the learning crisis

AUTHOR(S)
Lay Cheng Tan

Institution: *UNICEF, UNESCO
Published: October 2022

The UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education (UNESCO Bangkok), in partnership with the UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia (ROSA), the UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Regional Office (EAPRO)and the Ministry of   Education of   Thailand, will convene the 2nd Asia-Pacific Regional Education Ministers’ Conference  (APREMC-II)  in  June  2022 to  reflect  on  how  education  systems can  be  strengthened  and transformed to become more equitable, inclusive, responsive, relevant and resilient to better deliver on the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4 commitments. This background paper has been commissioned by UNESCO Bangkok and the convening partners to facilitate discussions  on  teacher  education and  professional  development  at    the  primary  and secondary  education levels. The participating Member States will deliberate priorities and plans for teachers in their post-COVID-19 learning  recovery  and  reconstruction  efforts  during  the  conference.  Drawing  on  existing  studies  and reports, the paper focuses on the following issues in the Asia-Pacific region: 1) Overview of   the teaching profession and the impact of   the learning crisis and COVID-19pandemic on teachers; 2) Promising policies and practices to strengthen teachers’ competencies and performance for thepost-COVID-19 learning recovery and reform; 3) Teacher competencies required for learning recovery (including assessment of   learning levels,identification of   learning loss and recuperation), addressing the learning crisis, teaching in digital and hybrid environments, optimizing governance and leadership and enhancing teachers’ well-being; and; 4) Recommendations for preparing and supporting teachers for learning recovery, addressing the learning crisis and for education in the new normal and for the future.

Learning recovery and addressing the learning crisis: technical paper
Institution: UNESCO, *UNICEF
Published: October 2022

This background paper was prepared to inform the thematic panel discussion on Learning Recovery and Addressing  the  Learning  Crisis  at  the  2nd  Asia-Pacific  Regional  Education  Ministerial  Conference  (APREMC-II) in June 2022. The  purpose  of  this  paper  is  to  provide key  recommendations  for  the  provision  and  delivery  of  school  education2  to  facilitate  post-COVID-19  learning  recovery  in  the  immediate  and  short-term.  The  recommendations  focus  on  how  education  systems  could  provide  safe  schools  and  deliver  a  more  equitable, inclusive and relevant education for all learners.

National distance learning programmes in response to the COVID-19 education disruption: case study of the Republic of Korea
Institution: UNESCO
Published: October 2022

This study aimed to collect information on national or government-led distance learning programmes that were established in response to the educational disruption caused by COVID-19. The key objective is to enable reflection on these policy responses and their effectiveness in minimizing the disruption and learning loss, and maintaining continuity, quality, inclusiveness and equity. This case study is on the Republic of Korea. It is based on information and relevant documents supplied by the Korean Government for scrutiny, and reflects a centralized model where the execution of policy is devolved to 17 metropolitan and provincial offices of education.Korea was well-prepared for pandemic-related school closures in terms of infrastructure with almost 100 per cent of its population having access to high-speed broadband and an excellent mobile network. Ownership of digital devices stands at 118 per cent, and all teachers have access to devices both at home and in school (Kemp, 2021). Collaboration among teachers was widely encouraged for the production of resources. Several important lessons were learnt, which have resulted in further plans to strengthen online learning.

Transformational innovation, the Global Education Coalition in action: compendium
Institution: UNESCO
Published: October 2022

From its launch in 2020, and against the backdrop of the unprecedented crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Global Education Coalition (GEC) responded to education crises with new and innovative approaches, following its mandate of “acting for [the] recovery, resilience and reimagining” of education. It did so in alignment with core pillars of operation that defined the global response to these historic challenges to the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG 4), which aims to “ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.”This new global model for cooperation features a methodology that matches needs at the point of education provision with local and global solutions; mobilizes the actors and resources required to develop active responses; coordinates the action to maximize impact and ensure efficiency; and provides remote learning opportunities through a variety of high-, low- and no-tech solutions. Benefits to this model include: speed, efficiency, and the ability to leverage resources normally unavailable; the ability to deliver results and yield impacts; lower investment cost of resources needed compared to traditional education development programming.

Learning losses during COVID-19: global estimates of an invisible and unequal crisis

AUTHOR(S)
João Pedro Azevedo; Maryam Akmal; Marie-Helene Cloutier (et al.)

Institution: The World Bank
Published: October 2022
This paper presents updated simulation results of the potential effects of COVID-19-related school closures on learning outcomes globally. The simulation, which updates and extends prior work by Azevedo, Hasan et al. (2021) and Azevedo (2020), examines potential learning losses as the pandemic moves into the third year. Beyond reflecting the longer duration of the crisis, the paper extends prior work by using country-specific observed school closure information, accounts for the partial reopening of some education systems, updates the baseline Learning Poverty estimates to reflect its best estimate to date just before the pandemic (circa 2019), and uses updated June 2021 macroeconomic projections to reflect the economic magnitude of the crisis. The analysis finds that the overall learning levels are likely to fall substantially around the world. Under an “intermediate” scenario, school closures could potentially increase the share of children in Learning Poverty in low- and middle-income countries by 13 percentage points, to 70 percent. Globally, learning adjusted years of schooling could fall by 1.1 years, and the share of youth below minimum proficiency on the Programme for International Student Assessment could rise by 12.3 percentage points. Furthermore, school shutdowns could generate lifetime earning losses of $21 trillion. These results imply that decisive action is needed to recover and accelerate learning.
Pivoting to inclusion: leveraging lessons from the COVID-19 crisis for learners with disabilities

AUTHOR(S)
Charlotte Mcclain-Nhlapo; Vuyiswa ; Ruchi Kulbir Singh (et al.)

Institution: The World Bank
Published: August 2022
The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic quickly turned into a global health crisis that evoked an education emergency of an unprecedented scale. At the peak of the lockdown, the pandemic caused 180 countries to close schools temporarily, forcing 85 percent of the world’s learners out of school. In parallel, the subsequent pandemic-control measures also drove the global economy to a complete halt, precipitating the multi-dimensional inequalities for marginalized populations. The looming global economic recession is causing the re-direction of government financing to meet competing urgent demands in the health and finance sectors. Consequently, this will have short-, medium- , and long-term effects on education,social protection, and nutrition budgets.
Remote parent coaching in preschool mathematics: evidence from Peru

AUTHOR(S)
Emma Näslund-Hadley; Juan Manuel Hernández-Agramonte; Carolina Mendez (et al.)

Published: August 2022
This study evaluates the effects of a 10-week intervention that randomly provided access to remote coaching to parents of preschool children over the summer break in Peru. In response to learning losses during COVID-19 induced school closures, education coaches offered guidance and encouragement to parents in activities aimed to accelerate the development of core mathematical skills.
Transforming education in Africa through innovation: the Global Education Coalition leading in action
Institution: UNESCO, Global Education Coalition
Published: May 2022

The COVID-19 pandemic illuminated the vulnerabilities of our education systems, worsening existing inequalities and digital divides even as it highlighted the essential value of accessible, inclusive and quality education. Learning communities, expected to make rapid, sweeping changes, were caught unprepared, causing learning losses that will reverberate for years to come. This was particularly true for many countries in Africa, where further infrastructural development, training, domestic resources and funding were – and are – needed to mitigate the effects of pandemic-related education disruptions that exacerbated the pre-COVID-19 learning crisis. Unprecedented change has followed, involving new collaborations and innovations that engaged the regional community at every level, from policy-makers to school leaders, teachers and learners, through original examples of ingenuity and transformation.

High-stakes exams and assessments during the COVID-19 crisis: what is the status at the end of the 2020-2021 school year?

AUTHOR(S)
Huong Le Thu; Schwabe Markus

Institution: UNESCO
Published: May 2022

The analyses made and findings presented in this paper are based on the data collected through  a rapid assessment carried out in July/August 2021 by UNESCO staff  (Section of Education Policy, Education Sector)  from various sources including information available online (articles, papers, blogs, websites of countries’ Ministries of Education), media reports, national and international organizations’ databases and reports (e.g. the UNESCO-UNICEF-World Bank-OECD Survey of National Education Responses to COVID-19 (2021) and the UK ENIC Special ReportonCOVID-19 -Guide to International Secondary Assessment in 2020.

An analysis of COVID-19 student learning loss

AUTHOR(S)
Harry Patrinos; Anthony Vegas; Emiliana Carter-Rau (et al.)

Institution: The World Bank
Published: May 2022
COVID-19 caused significant disruption to the global education system. Early reviews of the first wave of lockdowns and school closures suggested significant learning loss in a few countries. A more recent and thorough analysis of recorded learning loss evidence documented since the beginning of the school closures between March 2020 and March 2022 finds even more evidence of learning loss. Most studies observed increases in inequality where certain demographics of students experienced more significant learning losses than others. But there are also outliers, countries that managed to limit the amount of loss. This review aims to consolidate all the available evidence and documents the empirical findings. Thirty-six robust studies were identified, the majority of which find learning losses on average amounting to 0.17 of a standard deviation, equivalent to roughly a one-half year’s worth of learning. These findings confirm that learning loss is real and significant, even compared to the first year of the pandemic. Further work is needed to increase the quantity of studies produced, and to ascertain the reasons for learning loss and in a few cases mitigation of loss.
School is closed: simulating the long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic–related school disruptions in Kuwait

AUTHOR(S)
Simon Bilo; Mohamed Ihsan Ajwad; Ebtesam AlAnsari (et al.)

Institution: The World Bank
Published: May 2022

The schooling disruption caused by COVID-19 in Kuwait is among the longest in the world. Using the similarities between the schooling disruptions due to the Gulf War and the schooling disruption due to the COVID-19 pandemic, this note shows that students in school during the COVID-19 pandemic face significant reductions in the present value of their lifetime income. Furthermore, the findings show that students in higher grades during the pandemic are likely to face larger reductions in lifetime earnings than students in lower grades. Kuwaiti females in secondary school who will become civil service workers face a reduction of close to $40,000. The corresponding reduction for males is more than $70,000.

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