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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Continuing learning for the most vulnerable during COVID-19: Lessons from Let Us Learn in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Liberia, Madagascar and Nepal

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted every aspect of society. In mid-April 2020, 192 countries had closed their schools, putting 9 out of 10 enrolled children out of school.

These closures disproportionately affected marginalized children, worsening existing inequities across education systems worldwide.

This brief draws on the experience of five UNICEF education country programmes supported by the Let Us Learn (LUL) initiative, to document tangible lessons in adapting education programmes to support the most marginalized children during school and learning centre closures.

The evidence in this brief stems from a series of semi-structured interviews with Education and Child Protection specialists, as well as a document review of available COVID-19 response studies, in the five LUL-supported UNICEF Country Offices.

Factors associated with dietary diversity and physical activity of pregnant women in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study at an antenatal care setting

AUTHOR(S)
Satyajit Kundu; Dilruba Easmin Jharna; Md. Hasan Al Banna (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Lifestyle Medicine
Both dietary diversity and physical activity during pregnancy are very important since they are known to affect pregnancy and birth outcomes. However, little is documented on dietary diversity and physical activity among pregnant women in Bangladesh. Accordingly, this study was designed to assess the dietary diversity and physical activity level, as well as their associated factors, among pregnant women at an antenatal care setting in Bangladesh.
Ready to start school, learn and work: evidence from three education programmes for out-of-school children and adolescents in Bangladesh

AUTHOR(S)
Marco Valenza; Cirenia Chávez; Annika Rigole (et al.)

Institution: *UNICEF
Published: June 2021
Children in the Sylhet division, in the Northeast of Bangladesh, face complex challenges in accessing quality education, at all school levels. The region ranks among the poorest performers in learning attainment across education levels. UNICEF Bangladesh and its partners have leveraged resources from the Let Us Learn (LUL) initiative to deliver three alternative learning pathways for out-of-school children and adolescents in remote areas of Sylhet. The three pathways cover key transition points in a child’s education: Getting ready to start school (Pre-Primary Education programme), learning foundational skills (A​bility-B​ased Accelerated Learning programme) and entering the job market (Alternative Learning Pathway programme). This report presents evidence on the achievements of the three programmes, highlighting key policy recommendations. The findings draw on analysis of programme monitoring data, qualitative case studies, focus group discussions and interviews. This paper is one of a series of research reports presenting emerging evidence on programmes supported by the LUL initiative, which aims to expand quality learning opportunities for disadvantaged children in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Liberia, Madagascar and Nepal.
COVID 19, technology-based education and disability: the case of Bangladesh, emerging practices in inclusive digital learning for students with disabilities

AUTHOR(S)
Vashkar Bhattacharjee; Shahriar Mohammad Shiblee

Institution: UNESCO
Published: June 2021

This  study  sheds  light  on  Bangladesh’s  initiatives  in  the  area  of  disability-inclusive  education.  The  particu-lar  focus  is  on  the  role  of  its  Accessible  Reading  Materials  (ARM)  initiative  and  how  this  has  contributed  to ensuring disability-inclusive and accessible education during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. ARM is a government-led initiative that was launched in 2014 by the then Access to Information (a2i) programme of   the    Prime Minister’s Office, now the    Aspire to   Innovate Programme of    the    Information and    Communica-tion Technology (ICT) Division of the Government of Bangladesh. It was launched in recognition of the need for solutions to ensure virtual, as well as regular reading access for all students, including children and young people with barriers to reading. ARM is aimed at satisfying the educational needs of all students including students with print and learning disabilities.

Mental health of young people amidst COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh

AUTHOR(S)
Md. Abdullah Saeed Khan; Sourav Debnath; Md. Shahnoor Islam (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Heliyon
The psychological burden of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak and lockdown strategy among young people not diagnosed with COVID-19 in the general population remains unknown and often have been overlooked. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of anxiety, depression and stress among young people diagnosed with COVID-19 of Bangladesh amidst the pandemic.
Adolescents’ experiences of covid-19 in Chittagong and Sylhet divisions, Bangladesh

AUTHOR(S)
Farhana Alam; Md Sajib Rana; Samira Ahmed Raha (et al.)

Institution: Gender and Adolescence Global Evidence
Published: April 2021

This study is part of a cross-country series designed to share emerging findings in real time from qualitative interviews with adolescents and school teachers in the context of covid-19. Our sample for this study was purposefully selected from an ongoing baseline GAGE impact evaluation study, and includes two cohorts: younger adolescents (10–14 years) and older adolescents (15–19 years), all of whom are in-school (grades 7 and 8). Adolescent respondents were drawn from both urban and rural schools in Chittagong and Sylhet divisions of Bangladesh. The objectives of the research are as follows: 1) to understand adolescents’ experiences of transition from childhood to adulthood, and to identify differences in their experiences by age, gender, disability and geographic location; 2) to identify adolescents’ knowledge of covid-19, and how the pandemic response has affected adolescent lives. To inform the pandemic response, this study aims to understand adolescents’ knowledge, perceptions and practices during the covid-19 pandemic, their challenges and worries, and the coping mechanisms they are using to deal with the evolving situation.

Revisiting the impact of covid-19 on adolescents in urban slums in Dhaka, Bangladesh: round 2

AUTHOR(S)
Samira Ahmed Raha; Md. Sajib Rana; Saklain Al Mamun Al Mamun (et al.)

Institution: Gender and Adolescence Global Evidence
Published: March 2021

This research is part of the Gender and Adolescence: Global Evidence (GAGE) programme, a nine-year, mixed methods longitudinal research and evaluation programme following the lives of 20,000 adolescents in six low- and middle-income countries. BRAC James P Grant School of Public Health (BRAC JPGSPH) and the BRAC Institute of Governance and Development (BIGD) partnered to carry out rapid-response research in Dhaka to gain an understanding of vulnerable and underprivileged adolescents’ lives during the pandemic. This policy brief presents findings from the second round of data collection which included 30 in-depth interviews with adolescents living in three sites in Dhaka. Findings show inequalities in access to and continuation of distance education, negative effects in psychosocial well-being, unequal access to digital connectivity, financial constraints, with inequalities between different socio-economic classes, gender and age groups, which put them at risk of discontinuing education, entering into child labour and also early marriage.

Changes in children’s surgical services during the COVID-19 pandemic at a tertiary-level government hospital in a lower middle-income country

AUTHOR(S)
Md. Abdullah Al Farooq; S M Humayun Kabir; Tanvir Kabir Chowdhury (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: BMJ Paediatrics Open
The aim of this study was to quantify the changes that occurred in the surgical services of children during the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of a low/middle-income country. Design A case–control study was conducted at a large referral centre in Bangladesh among patients aged ≤12 years. Comparisons were made between cases admitted during a period of ‘April to September 2020’ (Pandemic period) and controls during a similar period in 2019 (Reference period). The number of admissions and outpatient department (OPD) attendances, age and sex distribution, diagnosis, number and types of surgeries performed (elective vs emergency), variations in treatment of acute appendicitis, types of anaesthesia and mortality were compared
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 5 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 6 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child care services, child health, COVID-19 response, hospitalization, low-income countries | Countries: Bangladesh
Post-disruption catch-up of child immunisation and health-care services in Bangladesh

AUTHOR(S)
Shohel Rana; Rashed Shah; Sabbir Ahmed (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
After the first COVID-19 case was diagnosed in March, 2020, child health service delivery and use declined in rural remote communities in Bangladesh. This paper retrieved annual data for 2019 and 2020 from Bangladesh's district health information system (DHIS) for child immunisation and sick children's care-seeking in six subdistricts of Barishal, Bangladesh.
Early effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on children in rural Bangladesh

AUTHOR(S)
Momoe Makino; Abu S. Shonchoy; Zaki Wahhaj

Published: January 2021   Journal: Studies in Economics
Using data collected through a telephone-based survey in rural Bangladesh during the height of the pandemic, this study presents evidence on the effects of COVID-19-led lockdown and school closures on children, focusing on three child-related outcomes: time use of children during the school closure, plans regarding children’s schooling continuation, and the incidence of child marriages.
Are we asking the right questions?: choices and challenges in assessing COVID-19 impact on the vulnerable in Bangladesh

AUTHOR(S)
Debapriya Bhattacharya; Sarah Sabin Khan; Towfiqul Islam Khan

Institution: Citizen’s Platform for SDGs
Published: January 2021
The paper puts forward a framework to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on vulnerable population groups in a developing country context. Bangladesh has been used as a case study. The pandemic has not only exacerbated pre-existing vulnerabilities of these groups but has also induced new ones. Policy actions towards recovery and resumption—both immediately and over the medium-term—need to be informed by genuine and disaggregated evidence based on realities on the ground. The paper urges a need to have conceptual, analytical and methodological clarity on the relevant issues. Towards this end, it explores the current state of knowledge on the topic and digs deep into the existing literature to analyse these issues. The paper offers a set of analytical questions to construct the assessment framework. The resultant framework presented can be adopted and replicated across national contexts.
A simulation of COVID-19 school closure Impact on student learning in Bangladesh

AUTHOR(S)
Tashmina Rahman; Uttam Sharma

Institution: The World Bank
Published: January 2021
This Note presents results from a series of simulations that aim to capture the impacts that school closures in Bangladesh might have on the learning levels, enrollment and future earnings of children and students using a methodological tool developed by the Education Global Practice of the World Bank .
Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to the COVID-19 pandemic among Bangladeshi youth: a web-based cross-sectional analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Rajon Banik; Mahmudur Rahman; Md. Tajuddin Sikder (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Journal of Public Health
This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) toward COVID-19 among youth in Bangladesh. Subject and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from 5 May to 25 May 2020. People aged between 18 and 35 years were approached via social media to complete an online questionnaire that consisted of socio-demographic information and KAP toward COVID-19. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted
Impact of lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic in changes of prevalence of predictive psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents in Bangladesh

AUTHOR(S)
Chiro Islam Mallik; Rifat Binte Radwan

Published: January 2021   Journal: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Lockdown, isolation, quarantine and social distancing are proved to be only effective measures to prevent and tackle COVID-19 till date. Unfortunately, these measures have caused physical, economical and mental health problems. Children and adolescents are not immune to the adverse mental health effect due to the new changes. Research around the globe shows children and adolescents are suffering from an increased number of depressive symptoms, clinginess, inattention, irritability and worry. This cross-sectional online-based survey type study was aimed to get a snapshot of the prevalence of predictive psychiatric disorders in the child and adolescent population in Bangladesh before and during lockdown.
Social isolation and disrupted privacy impacts of COVID-19 on adolescent girls in humanitarian contexts

AUTHOR(S)
Sarah Baird; Sarah Alheiwidi; Rebecca Dutton (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: Girlhood Studies
The COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdown has shattered the everyday lives of young people, limiting peer interactions and disrupting privacy, with potential for long-term detrimental impacts. This study uses rapid virtual quantitative and qualitative surveys undertaken from April to July 2020 with over 4,800 adolescents affected by displacement in Bangladesh and Jordan to explore adolescent girls’ experiences of social isolation and lack of privacy.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.