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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 76
Barriers to refugee adolescents’ educational access during COVID-19: exploring the roles of gender, displacement, and social inequalities

Nicola Jones; Kate Pincock; Silvia Guglielmi (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: The Journal on Education in Emergencies
As of 2021, more than 80 million people worldwide have been displaced by war, violence, and poverty. An estimated 30 to 34 million of these are under age 18, and many are at risk of interrupting their education permanently—a situation aggravated in recent years by the global COVID-19 pandemic. This article adopts an intersectional conceptual framework to explore the roles gender and other social inequalities have played in shaping adolescents’ access to education during the COVID-19 pandemic. It examines two refugee populations: the Rohingya, who have been excluded from formal education opportunities in Bangladesh, and Syrian refugees in Jordan, who have access to formal education in their host country. It provides novel empirical data, as well as insights into the adolescent refugee experience and the short-term consequences for education resulting from the pandemic. The article draws from quantitative survey data on 3,030 adolescents, and from in-depth qualitative interviews conducted in the spring of 2020 with a subset of 91 adolescents who are part of an ongoing longitudinal study. A 40 key informant interviews with community leaders and service providers was also conducted.
Data use aids adaptation and continuation of maternal, infant and young child nutrition (MIYCN) services in urban health facilities in Bangladesh during the COVID-19 pandemic

Jessica Escobar-DeMarco; Santhia Ireen; Rowshan Kabir (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Current Developments in Nutrition

The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted health services worldwide. Alive and Thrive (A&T) is testing MIYCN integration into non-governmental organizations’ (NGOs) health services in eight facilities in Dhaka. We aimed to develop a data-driven urban MIYCN intervention pathway adapted to continue delivering nutrition services during COVID-19. A&T used its learnings from previous interventions and formative research to design an urban MIYCN intervention with a social and behavior change strategy set to improve nutrition practices. Mixed monitoring data were used to track the intervention elements capacity building, demand creation, service delivery, and supervision; and COVID-19 situation domains lockdown, restrictions, guidelines, staff turnover, contextual and behavior changes, adaptations, and budget implications. COVID-19 studies as well as external value chain, market, and food security reports were used. Monthly monitoring data were used to identify and validate potential adaptations.

Sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) in Bangladesh: impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic

Tabitha Hrynick; Violet Barasa; Syed Abbas

Institution: Institute of Development Studies
Published: May 2022
The Covid-19 pandemic has exacerbated and drawn fresh attention to long-standing systemic weaknesses in health and economic systems. The virus – and the public health response – has wrought significant disruption on sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) in Bangladesh. Known negative health outcomes include increased domestic and gender-based violence, child marriage, negative mental health, and adverse child health outcomes. This scoping paper for the Covid-19 Learning, Evidence and Research Programme for Bangladesh (CLEAR) aims to inform future research and policy engagement to support response, recovery, progress, and future health system resilience for SRHR and MNCH in Bangladesh, following the Covid-19 crisis. We present what is known on disruptions and impacts, as well as evidence gaps and priority areas for future research and engagement.
Impact of lockdown due to COVID-19 on nutrition and food security of the selected low-income households in Bangladesh

Kazi Muhammad Rezaul Karim; Tasmia Tasnimb

Published: May 2022   Journal: Heliyon
This study aims to explore the impact of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on household food security and the nutritional status of the children and identify the risk factors associated with it. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 220 households having at least one under 5 children of Narayanganj district in Bangladesh. Household food insecurity, coping strategies and nutritional status of children were the main outcome variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the significant determinants
Rapid retooling and adaptation of EIE data processes and programming: Pashe Achhi Model in early childhood education in emergencies in the Rohingya camps of Bangladesh

In March 2020, after the coronavirus cases in Bangladesh were confirmed, both Humanitarian Play Labs (HPL) and mainstream Play Labs temporarily stopped their face-to-face operations according to the government mandate. The pandemic endangered people’s physical health and highly impacted their socio-economic and mental health conditions. Hence, BRAC explored alternative approaches and designed a telecommunication model, Pashe Achhi, to support all the direct beneficiaries during the pandemic. The objective of the intervention was to be connected with the beneficiaries and promote children’s wellbeing and development through play-based learning, positive parenting, and self-care practices of caregivers. Since caregivers are the core agent for children’s learning and development during the pandemic, the model provides psychosocial support and learning support to them. To facilitate the calls, the model trained facilitators on ECD, learning through play, playfulness, and mental health. Pashe Achhi is a telecommunication model consisting of tele-counseling and tele-learning components. After receiving the training, the Play Leaders started to call the families every week to conduct a 20 minutes phone session (10 minutes with the mother and 10 minutes with the child) based on the scripts delivered. In the first 10 minutes, Play Leaders give mothers and caregivers basic psychosocial support, tips on engaging with children and discuss health and hygiene issues.

A lost generation: perpetual education insecurity among the Rohingya

Robin E. Al-Haddad; Kendra L. Duran; Saleh Ahmed

Published: May 2022   Journal: Race Ethnicity and Education
Education security exists when every child has equal access to quality education. Rohingya refugee children suffer widespread rates of education insecurity both in their home country, Myanmar and in their host country, Bangladesh. While the right to education is recognized in several human rights instruments, access to education is not ubiquitous, making the ability to achieve this right challenging for many Rohingya. Government restrictions on accredited education, COVID-19 related school closures, failures in launching a pilot of the Myanmar curriculum, and recent government plans to relocate refugees to Bhasan Char Island have created a ‘lost generation’ of Rohingya youth. This study traces the development of education insecurity among the Rohingya, a stateless ethnic minority group who fled to Bangladesh in 2017 in response to ethnic violence in Myanmar. Drawing upon available literature and primary fieldwork, this study examines the social, cultural, and political determinants of learning opportunities for Rohingya children.
Three parameters of urban K-8 education during pre- and post-Covid-19 restrictions: comparison of students of slums, tin-sheds, and flats in Bangladesh

Gazi Mahabubul Alam; Morsheda Parvin (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Education and Urban Society
According to a proverb often referring to the misery that prevails in restricted if enlightened surroundings, “It is dark under the lamp.” Urban areas have emerged as centers of excellence as far as economic development is concerned. People coming from diverse cultural, professional, and economic backgrounds live in cities. Gaps their economic conditions have led to various clusters of people much different from their rural counterparts. Comparing between urban and rural areas, studies often argued that urban education is exceptionally better. Adopting “descriptive analysis” of both secondary and primary data, this study notes that students living in urban slums suffer in terms of three parameters (access, attendance, and academic performance) of K-8 education. Government-run education neglects students living in the slums and this enabled NGOs to step in. Students living in tin-sheds receive education mainly through the government’s initiatives, while those living in flats attend private, international, and elite-public schools. Students who live in tin-sheds cannot compete with those who live in flats, let alone the slums. The Covid-19 pandemic has further aggravated this crisis. Substantial policy intervention by the government may be the only viable way to ensure developing nations’ K-8 urban education is safe from criticism.
Care of neonates and children during Corona crisis and importance of continuation of essential services

Farhana Rahat; Ahmed Murtaza Choudhury

Published: April 2022   Journal: Dhaka Shishu (Children) Hospital Journal
The corona virus disease (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread across the world and global population including children are facing unprecedented health crisis. The chance of vertical and perinatal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus in children is not proven yet. The effect of the virus on neonate and infant appears to be small. On the other hand, pregnant women suffering from corona virus disease may give birth to premature or IUGR babies who will need extra care. Breast feeding is considered as gold standard in almost all situation. Continuation of breast feeding along with other essential services have reduced the risk of transmission of corona virus.
Covid-19 related factors associated with antenatal care in rural Bangladesh: a qualitative study

Mostafa Kamal; Anisur Rahman; Sonia Singh

Published: April 2022   Journal: The Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management
Available literature reveals that usage of Maternal Health Care Services (MHCSs), including antenatal care (ANC), has been decreased significantly in the developing countries due to Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic. However, the COVID-19 related factors on the MHCSs utilization in Bangladeshi women are yet to be examined. Therefore, this study examines the effect of COVID-19 on the use of ANC services among rural communities in Bangladesh.
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of school-going adolescents: insights from Dhaka city, Bangladesh

Ridwan Islam Sifat; Maisaa Mehzabin Ruponty; Md. Kawser Rahim Shuvo (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Heliyon
The pandemic has affected every walk of life, and mental health is no exception. Bangladesh has been operating under a resource crisis, and this crisis has incurred and is incurring a governance priority dilemma. Unending vacations of the educational institutions are taxing our students' mental serenity, and among those, adolescents are more vulnerable. Unending leaves of the educational institutions are taxing our students' mental peace, and among those, adolescents are more susceptible. Across the globe, a good number of studies have been performed, and Bangladesh is no exception. However, adolescents have received less attention in those studies, and this paper fills the gap. This explorative study opted for a qualitative method that covered data collection like in-depth interviews among 60 respondents. This study aims to simultaneously unveil the causes of mental dissonance among adolescents and the impact of infection prevention measures (e.g., lockdown) on adolescents' mental health in the capital city of Bangladesh.
Emotional and behavioural changes in children and adolescents and their association with parental depression during COVID-19 pandemic: a pilot study in Bangladesh

S. E. Syed; N. M. Khan; H. U. Ahmed

Published: March 2022   Journal: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the mental health of children, adolescents, and their parents. This study aimed to assess the emotional and behavioural changes in children and adolescents and their association with parental depression during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. On 7 May 2020 during COVID-19 lockdown, an online questionnaire was distributed through social media and made available for 10 days. Data were collected from parents of children aged 4 to 17 years. The Bangla version of the parent-rated version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to determine the behavioural and emotional disturbances of the children and adolescents. The Bangla version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess the depression status of parents.
Parental coronavirus disease vaccine hesitancy for children in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study

Mohammad Ali; Sohel Ahmed; Atia Sharmin Bonna (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: F1000Research
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requires mass immunization to control the severity of symptoms and global spread. Data from developed countries have shown a high prevalence of parental COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. However, parental vaccine hesitancy data in low- and middle-income countries are scarce. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of parental vaccine hesitancy and identify subgroups with higher odds of vaccine hesitancy in parents in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted on the parents of children aged <18 years from October 10, 2021 to October 31, 2021. Parents participated in face-to-face interviews in randomly selected locations in Bangladesh using a vaccine hesitancy questionnaire. Factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy were identified using binary logistic regression analysis.
Parental COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy for children with neurodevelopmental disorders: a cross-sectional survey

Mohammad Ali; Tasnuva Shamarukh Proma; Zarin Tasnim (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Tropical Medicine and Health

Little is known about parental coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). This survey estimated the prevalence and predictive factors of vaccine hesitancy among parents of children with NDD. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted from October 10 to 31, 2021. A structured vaccine hesitancy questionnaire was used to collect data from parents aged ≥ 18 years with children with NDD. In addition, individual face-to-face interviews were conducted at randomly selected places throughout Bangladesh. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the predictors of vaccine hesitancy.

Gendered effects of COVID-19 school closures: Bangladesh case study
Institution: Population Council
Published: March 2022
Bangladesh’s education system met intensified challenges throughout the COVID-19 pandemic on top of the difficulties students have historically faced. A recent study on the impacts of COVID-19 school closures in rural communities in Bangladesh clarifies issues of remote learning access, management, and monitoring, as well as new strains on students’ time use. It also reveals general impacts on mental and physical health, economic status, as well as gendered effects including child marriage. Based on evaluations of mitigation measures, recommendations for comprehensive policies, provision of technical, financial, and social support, and improvements in education systems emerged.
Adolescent lives in Cox’s Bazar: what are we learning from longitudinal evidence? Lessons from longitudinal research with adolescents
Institution: Gender and Adolescence Global Evidence
Published: March 2022

From August 2017, the largest wave of Rohingya refugees crossed the Myanmar border into Bangladesh, fleeing crimes that the UN Special Rapporteur has claimed ‘bear the hallmarks of genocide’. Over 880,000 displaced Rohingya now live in 32 makeshift and 2 registered refugee camps in Cox’s Bazar district, one of Bangladesh’s poorest regions, where 1.36 million people – comprising both refugees and host community residents – remain in need of humanitarian assistance. This brief draws on mixed-methods data collected both before and after the onset of the covid-19 pandemic. Drawing on quantitative and qualitative data from younger (aged 10–14) and older (aged 15–19) cohorts at baseline, our research captures the voices of Rohingya and Bangladeshi adolescents and their views on everyday life, including the structural and socio-cultural constraints they face and whether they are being left behind.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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