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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Vaccine effectiveness of two-dose BNT162b2 against symptomatic and severe COVID-19 among adolescents in Brazil and Scotland over time: a test-negative case-control study

AUTHOR(S)
Pilar T. V. Florentino; Tristan Millington; Thiago Cerqueira-Silva (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Little is known about vaccine effectiveness over time among adolescents, especially against the SARS-CoV-2 omicron (B.1.1.529) variant. This study assessed the associations between time since two-dose vaccination with BNT162b2 and the occurrence of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 among adolescents in Brazil and Scotland. It did test-negative, case-control studies in adolescents aged 12–17 years with COVID-19-related symptoms in Brazil and Scotland. It linked records of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and antigen tests to national vaccination and clinical records. It excluded tests from individuals who did not have symptoms, were vaccinated before the start of the national vaccination programme, received vaccines other than BNT162b2 or a SARS-CoV-2 booster dose of any kind, or had an interval between their first and second dose of fewer than 21 days. Additionally, it excluded negative SARS-CoV-2 tests recorded within 14 days of a previous negative test, negative tests recorded within 7 days after a positive test, any test done within 90 days after a positive test, and tests with missing sex and location information. Cases (SARS-CoV-2 test-positive adolescents) and controls (test-negative adolescents) were drawn from a sample of individuals in whom tests were collected within 10 days of symptom onset. It estimated the adjusted odds ratio and vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic COVID-19 for both countries and against severe COVID-19 (hospitalisation or death) for Brazil across fortnightly periods.
Meeting 24 h movement guidelines and health-related quality of life in youths during the COVID-19 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
José Francisco López-Gil; Mark S. Tremblay; Miguel Ángel Tapia-Serrano (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Applied Sciences
Limitations in the use of public spaces have impacted the frequency and duration of movement behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep) and outdoor activities of children and adolescents. Whether pandemic-induced changes in movement behaviours are related to the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of children and adolescents is unknown. The aim of the current study was to examine the association between meeting 24 h movement guidelines and HRQoL during the COVID-19 lockdown among children and adolescents. Data from 1099 3–17-year-old children and adolescents from Spain and Brazil were analysed. An online questionnaire was used to collect parent-reported information concerning physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration. For the assessment of HRQoL, the EQ-5D-Y proxy version was used.
Vaccine effectiveness of CoronaVac against COVID-19 among children in Brazil during the Omicron period

AUTHOR(S)
Pilar T. V. Florentino; Flávia J. O. Alves; Thiago Cerqueira-Silva (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Nature Communications
Although severe COVID-19 in children is rare, they may develop multisystem inflammatory syndrome, long-COVID and downstream effects of COVID-19, including social isolation and disruption of education. Data on the effectiveness of the CoronaVac vaccine is scarce during the Omicron period. In Brazil, children between 6 to 11 years are eligible to receive the CoronaVac vaccine. This research conducted a test-negative design to estimate vaccine effectiveness using 197,958 tests from January 21, 2022, to April 15, 2022, during the Omicron dominant period in Brazil among children aged 6 to 11 years.
Pediatric dentist attire and relationship with anxiety in children and parents during covid-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Raghavendra Havale; Dhanu G. Rao; S. P. Shrutha (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences
The study aimed to evaluate children’s and parent’s preferences of dentist’s attire during Covid-19 pandemic and their relationship with dental anxiety.  A total of 139 Children(71 boys, 68 girls) aged 6-12 years were shown videos of a pediatric dentist working with different attire such as Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and pedoscrub, and they were asked to express the way they preferred their dentist to be dressed. Children’s anxiety levels with different attire of paediatric dentists were assessed in different age groups and for boys and girls separately and recorded it using the Facial image scale. A questionnaire regarding dental anxiety was created online and completed by 139 parents (76 females, 63 males) of various ages and different educational backgrounds who were asked to choose between two outfits.
Addressing child obesity via social networks: experience report of actions of the health lifestyle project at school in the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Sarah Cavalcante Brandão; Ingra Bezerra de Melo Gonçalves; Ítalo Emanoel de Sousa Chaves (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: International Journal of Health Science

Childhood obesity is a nutritional disorder considered a serious public health problem worldwide because it is responsible for a large part of the emergence of chronic degenerative diseases and, consequently, raises the levels of morbidity and mortality. The beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic contributed to the increase in the rates of this comorbidity, as the established transmission containment measures led to a reduction in physical activity, an increase in screen time and anxiety-related disorders. Thus, the Healthy Lifestyle at School extension project, developed at the Faculty of Medicine of the Federal University of Cariri (UFCA), whose objective is to act in the identification, prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, recognized the need adapting face-to-face activities to the remote context. An account was created on the social network Instagram in order to alert about the problem and with the objective of reaching the target audience through educational, preventive and control measures against childhood obesity. The study is a qualitative analysis, of the experience report type, based on data obtained between April and September of the year 2020 on the Project’s social media page. It can be seen from this study that the challenge for extension projects to remain as guides for good health practices and remote knowledge production showed satisfactory results with the use of the social network as a tool for health promotion and education.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 43 | Issue: 2 | No. of pages: 4 | Language: English | Topics: Health, Nutrition | Tags: child health, child nutrition, COVID-19 response, lockdown, obesity, physical activity, social distance, social media | Countries: Brazil
Spatial clusters, social determinants of health and risk of COVID-19 mortality in Brazilian children and adolescents: a nationwide population-based ecological study

AUTHOR(S)
Victor Santana Santos; Thayane Santos Siqueira; Ana I. Cubas Atienzar (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Americas

Data regarding the geographical distribution of cases and risk factors for COVID-19 death in children and adolescents are scarce. We describe the spatial distribution of COVID-19 cases and deaths in paediatric population and their association with social determinants of health in Brazil. This is a population-based ecological study with a spatial analysis of all cases and deaths due to COVID-19 in Brazil among children and adolescents aged 0–19 years from March 2020 to October 2021. The units of analysis were the 5570 municipalities. Data on COVID-19 cases and deaths, social vulnerability, health inequities, and health system capacity were obtained from publicly available databases. Municipalities were stratified from low to very high COVID-19 incidence and mortality using K-means clustering procedures, and spatial clusters and relative risks were estimated using spatial statistics with Poisson probability models. The relationship between COVID-19 estimates and social determinants of health was explored by using multivariate Beta regression techniques.

Physical distancing and mental well-being in youth population of Portugal and Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Jesus D. C. Gil; Pedro Manuel Vargues Aguiara; Sofia Azeredo-Lopes (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Portuguese Journal of Public Health
The COVID-19 pandemic may affect youth’s physical and mental well-being, partially because of the countries’ rules to contain the virus from spreading. However, there is still uncertainty about the impact of physical distancing on youth’s mental health. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of feeling agitated, anxious, down, sad, or low mood (FNF) due to physical distance measures and verify which factors are associated with young Portuguese and Brazilian people. It used cross-sectional data from the instrument “COVID-19 Barometer: Social Opinion” in Portugal (March 2020 and September 2021) and from “COVID-19 Social Thermometer” in Brazil (August 2020 to April 2021); these surveys included data regarding the health and socioeconomic impact on the population.
Self-reported smartphone addiction among Brazilian adolescents in the COVID-19 pandemic context: a mixed-method study

AUTHOR(S)
Bruna Hinnah Borges Martins de Freitas; Maria Aparecida Munhoz Gaíva; Paula Manuela Jorge Diogo (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Trends in Psychology
This study intended to (1) estimate the prevalence of Self-Reported Smartphone Addiction among adolescents and (2) know the adolescents’ perspective on smartphone addiction in the COVID-19 pandemic context. The research is a sequential explanatory mixed-method study conducted with adolescents aged from 15 to 18 years old. In the first phase, a cross-sectional study was carried out with 479 adolescents and, in the second, an exploratory research with a qualitative approach was conducted with 16 participants, who were in the Focus Groups sessions.
Breastfeeding promotion during the COVID-19 pandemic in northeastern Brazil

AUTHOR(S)
Brena Carvalho Pinto de Melo; Glaucia Virgínia de Queiroz Lins Guerra; Judith Correa (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: World Nutrition Journal
Early COVID-19 delivery room reports routinely described maternal and neonatal physical distancing, in both confirmed or suspected cases. Immediately, breastfeeding experts expressed their concern for the potential catastrophic consequences of such separation, with great potential for breastfeeding discontinuity, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This manuscript reports a positive experience of early breastfeeding promotion and maintenance in labour and delivery room, from the time of the first cases of COVID-19, confirmed or suspected, at a Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) and tertiary teaching hospital in Recife, in the northeastern region of Brazil.
Can high school students check the veracity of information about COVID-19? A case study on critical media literacy in Brazilian ESL classes

AUTHOR(S)
Karin Paola Meyrer; Dorotea Frank Kersch

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Media Literacy Education
In a globalized world, critical media literacy is imperative when selecting the content we consume amid countless offers. Therefore, the purpose of this case study is to analyze which resources 3rd year high school students (16-17 years old) from an English as a Second Language class in Brazil use in the construction of authorial journalistic articles demystifying fake news about COVID-19 and if the interventions conducted previous to the task were helpful in their process of developing critical media literacy. To this end, firstly students analyzed news about COVID-19 from international websites; secondly, they discussed aspects of a video that circulated widely in WhatsApp chat groups; and, finally, they produced journalistic articles demystifying popular fake news about COVID-19 in Brazil.
Association between changes in physical activity levels and depressive symptoms in high school students during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Gicele de Oliveira Karini da Cunha; Gabriel Barros da Cunha; Tiago Wally Hartwig (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Movement & Health
The study examined the association between depressive symptoms (DS) and perceptions of changes in the physical activity (PA) levels in high school students during the COVID-19 pandemic.  186 students of a federal education institution from southern Brazil participated in the study. Perception of changes in the PA levels during the pandemic and the DS were collected through questionnaires in an electronic form. DS was scored and classified in low or increased depressive symptoms.
An ethical analysis of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health of children and adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Raíssa Passos dos Santos; Eliane Tatsch Neves; Ivone Evangelista Cabral (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Escola Anna Nery
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the lives of children and adolescents around the world. Hence, this study aimed to examine how the pandemic has impacted children and adolescents in Brazil through an ethical analysis. An interpretive analysis of Brazilian research on child and adolescent health during the pandemic was conducted. Recognizing this ethical dimension is pivotal to shedding more light on how responses to crisis situations, such as the current situation of the COVID-19 pandemic, can be shaped and where the priorities for action are according to all interested parties, situating the child between these parts of interest. Our analysis highlighted both direct and indirect effects surrounding the decision-making processes for children in the COVID-19 pandemic reality. These decisional processes must sustain the child’s right to participation to ascertain that the action taken is in the child’s best interests. Nevertheless, the Brazilian reality has shown a structural exclusion of children’s voices in decisions affecting them, particularly concerning the effects of the pandemic on their lives. Further studies must be conducted to deepen the knowledge about children’s best interests and their participation in the actions planned during the pandemic.
Impact of COVID-19 on maternal health and child care behavior: Evidence from a quasi-experimental study of vulnerable communities in Boa Vista, Brazil

AUTHOR(S)
Georg Loss; Günther Fink; Luana Bessa (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Child abuse & neglect

COVID-19 related distress has been shown to have negative associations with family well-being. This study aimed to determine the immediate impact of acute COVID-19 infection on maternal well-being and parenting practices among Brazilian families. It analyzed 2′579 mothers (29′913 observations) of young children from vulnerable neighborhoods in Boa Vista, Brazil over 12 months.

Association of weight perception, body satisfaction, and weight loss intention with patterns of health risk behaviors in adolescents with overweight and obesity.

AUTHOR(S)
Samantha S. D. E. Medeiros; Carla C. Enes; Luciana B. Nucci

Published: April 2022   Journal: Behavioral Medicine
Obesity is a public health issue and childhood is a critical window in which to establish healthy eating patterns and modify risk factors for overweight. This study aims to verify the association of weight perception, body satisfaction, and weight loss intention with patterns of health risk behaviors in adolescents with overweight and obesity. It analyzed health risk behavior from a school-based national survey conducted in 2015 in Brazil (n = 2,703 students with overweight or obesity, aged 13–17 years).
Building emotional-political communities to address gendered violence against women and girls during COVID-19 in the favelas of Maré, Rio de Janeiro

AUTHOR(S)
Cathy McIlwaine; Miriam Krenzinger; Moniza Rizzini Ansari (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Social & Cultural Geography
Although the intensification of direct and indirect gendered violence against women during the COVID-19 pandemic has been extensively reported globally, there is limited research on women’s responses to it. Addressing calls to explore the relationships between emotional-affective atmospheres and politics during the pandemic as well as to centre analyses of gendered violence within geography, this paper explores how women in the favelas of Maré, in Rio de Janeiro have developed mutual support, (self)-care and activism in the face of the crisis. Engaging with nascent debates on responses to COVID-19, together with feminist geographical work on resistance to gendered violence, the article adapts the notion of ‘emotional communities’ developed by Colombian anthropologist, Myriam Jimeno, to examine how emotional bonds created among survivors of violence are reconfigured into political action. Drawing on qualitative research with 32 women residents and 9 community actors involved in two core community initiatives in Maré, the paper develops the idea of building reactive and transformative ‘emotional-political communities’ at individual and collective levels to mitigate gendered violence and wider intersectional structural violence. Emotional-political community building is premised on grassroots activism among women and organisations that develops as part of compassionate (self)-care and the quiet rather than spectacular politics of change.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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