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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 55
Outcomes and risk factors of death among hospitalized children and adolescents with obesity and COVID-19 in Brazil: An analysis of a nationwide database

AUTHOR(S)
Ana Cristina Simões e Silva; Mariana A. Vasconcelos; Enrico A. Colosimo (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Pediatric Obesity

Obesity is a well-recognized risk factor for critical illness and death among adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study aimed to characterize the clinical outcomes and risk factors of death related to obesity in a cohort of hospitalized paediatric patients with COVID-19. It performed an analysis of all paediatric patients with obesity and COVID-19 registered in SIVEP-Gripe, a Brazilian nationwide surveillance database, between February 2020 and May 2021. The primary outcome was time to death, which was evaluated by using cumulative incidence function.

Mortality in children under five years old in Brazil: evolution from 2017 to 2020 and the influence of COVID-19 in 2020

AUTHOR(S)
Erly C. Moura; Juan Cortez-Escalante; Rodrigo T. S. Lima (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Jornal de pediatria

This paper aims to analyse the mortality trends in children under five years old in Brazil from 2017 to 2020 and the influence of COVID-19 in 2020.A retrospective study employing secondary data from the Brazilian Mortality Information System. Deaths according to cause were extracted and disaggregated into early, late, postneonatal, and 1 to 4-year-old periods. Corrected mortality rates per 1,000 live births and relative risk ratio for the cause of death were calculated.

Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 9 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, child mortality, COVID-19, infectious disease, pandemic | Countries: Brazil
Influence of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on sleep habits in a pediatric population

AUTHOR(S)
Sara Completo; Andreia Fiúza Ribeiro; Ana Rute Manuel (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Sleep Science
This study aims to describe the health characteristics of rotating shift mining workers that may be related to a worse course scenario for COVID-19, according to literature data. It is a cross-sectional from three studies with 1478 shift workers. Social, demographic, clinical, and biochemical variables were analyzed. Risk factors for COVID-19 analyzed: hyperglycemia, altered blood pressure, dyslipidemia, hypovitaminosis D, obesity, presence of pre-existing cardiovascular diseases, and smokers.
A home-based exercise program during COVID-19 pandemic: perceptions and acceptability of juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus and juvenile idiopathic arthritis adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Sofia Mendes Sieczkowska; Camilla Astley; Isabela Gouveia Marques (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Lupus

To investigate the perceptions and acceptability of a home-based exercise intervention in systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) adolescent patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to explore the effects of the intervention on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), sleep quality, and mental health conditions parameters.This was a randomized controlled trial of a 12-week, home-based exercise training program conducted between October and December 2020. During this period, social distancing measures were in place in Brazil to contain the spread of COVID-19. Adolescent patients diagnosed with JSLE and JIA participated in the study. Health-related qualitative and quantitative data were collected before and after the follow-up.

Risk factors for COVID-19-related mortality in hospitalized children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus: an observational retrospective cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Eduardo A. Oliveira; Robert H. Mak; Enrico A. Colosimo (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Pediatric Diabetes

Diabetes has been recognized as a major comorbidity for COVID-19 severity in adults. This study aimed to characterize the clinical outcomes and risk factors for COVID-19-related death in a large cohort of hospitalized pediatric patients with diabetes. It performed an analysis of all pediatric patients with diabetes and COVID-19 registered in SIVEP-Gripe, a Brazilian nationwide surveillance database, between February 2020 and May 2021. The primary outcome was time to death, which was evaluated considering discharge as a competitive risk by using cumulative incidence function.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 23 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, child health, COVID-19, diabetes, hospitalization, infectious disease, mortality rate, pandemic | Countries: Brazil
Depressive symptoms and their associated factors in vocational–technical school students during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Michele Da Silva Valadão Fernandes; Thays Martins Vital da Silva; Priscilla Rayanne (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of depressive symptoms, behavioral habits, and QoL in students from two vocational–technical schools, and to determine the association of depressive symptoms with behavioral habits and quality of life (QoL) in these students during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with students attending the institution of the Brazilian Federal Network of Professional, Scientific and Technological Education. The students answered a questionnaire on sociodemographic variables, situations related to the COVID-19 pandemic, behavioral habits, QoL, and depressive symptoms.
Relationship between lifestyle and self-reported smartphone addiction in adolescents in the COVID-19 pandemic: a mixed-methods study

AUTHOR(S)
Bruna Hinnah Borges Martins de Freitas; Maria Aparecida Munhoz Gaíva; Paula Manuela Jorge Diogo (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing

This study aims to verify the association between lifestyle and self-reported smartphone addiction in adolescents; and to analyze the adolescents' perception of this relationship in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. A mixed-methods research study with a sequential and explanatory design, developed with Brazilian adolescents aged between 15 and 18 years old. In the first phase, a quantitative, observational and cross-sectional study was carried out with 479 participants and, in the second, a qualitative approach of an exploratory and descriptive nature, with 16 participants.

Sanitary measures to contain COVID-19 spread decreased pediatric hospitalizations due to other respiratory infections in São Paulo, Brazil

AUTHOR(S)
Gabriela Marengone Altizani; Viviane da Mata Pasti Balbão; Gilberto Gambero Gaspar (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Jornal de Pediatria

After the Covid-19 pandemics hit Brazil and sanitary measures were adopted to contain its dissemination, pediatric hospital admissions were apparently fewer than usual. The authors aimed to describe the time trends of public hospital admissions of children and adolescents due to respiratory infections (RIs) in São Paulo State, Brazil, before and after the adoption of sanitary measures to contain the dissemination of Covid-19. Ecological, time-series study on the monthly average number of admissions per day of children and adolescents (< 16 years) admitted to public hospitals of São Paulo due to acute RIs between January 2008 and March 2021. Data from 2008 to 2019 were used to adjust the statistical model, while data from 2020 and 2021 were compared to the values predicted by the model.

The impact of COVID-19 on routine pediatric vaccination delivery in Brazil

AUTHOR(S)
Carolina Moura; Paul Truche; Lucas Sousa Salgado (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Vaccine
Childhood vaccination rates have decreased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Brazilian immunization program, Programa Nacional de Imunização (PNI), is a model effort, achieving immunization rates comparable to high-income countries. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in pediatric vaccinations administered by the PNI, as a proxy of adherence to vaccinations during 2020.
The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on young children and their caregivers

AUTHOR(S)
Priscila Costa; Andréia Cascaes Cruz; Annelise Alves (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Child

The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted child development and the well-being of caregivers, and such evidence ought to be used to inform public policy decisions. This study investigated the impact of COVID-19 on children's behaviours and their caregivers' needs. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 153 caregivers of children (from 0 to 5 years old) from three public daycare centres in Brazil. The Nurturing Care Framework of the World Health Organization was used to guide the assessment of caregivers' needs. Online data collection using a questionnaire was conducted from June to July 2020.

Changes in children’s self-perceived physical fitness: results from a physical education internet-based intervention in COVID-19 school lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Vanilson Batista Lemes; Camila Felin Fochesatto; Caroline Brand (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Sport Sciences for Health

Children have a higher chance of decreasing health-related physical fitness during periods of school lockdown due to pandemic situations such as with COVID-19 disease. This paper aims to establish the changes in children’s self-perceived physical fitness (SPPF) during pandemic COVID-19 social distancing in a school lockdown and to describe the individual prevalence of changes in SPPF according to sex. It is an intervention study with a convenient sample, 67 children (6–13 years old; 50.7% girls). An intervention occurred according to the Brazilian Base Nacional Comum Curricular (BNCC) and the State Education Secretary orientations for remote Physical Education classes. SPPF was evaluated through a questionnaire (QAPA). Generalized estimative equations (GEE) and the prevalence of changes in individual score delta (Δ) from baseline to follow-up determined the effects.

Association between breastfeeding and complementary feeding in pre-pandemic and pandemic COVID-19 times: maternar cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Bruna Luiza Holanda; Clarissa de Oliveira Agostini; Marcela Caridad Medina Pacheco (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Jornal de Pediatria

This study aims to evaluate the association between breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding at six months and the introduction of complementary feeding and the pre-pandemic and COVID-19 pandemic periods. Cohort study conducted with puerperal women and their newborns in the immediate postpartum period at a reference maternity hospital in Southern Brazil between 2018-2020. The COVID-19 pandemic period and the need to work outside the home during restricted circulation were the factors of exposure. The outcome evaluated was the weaning in the first six months (breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding) and the introduction of complementary feeding before the sixth month of life.

COVID-19 and children’s screen time in Ceará, Brazil: a repeated cross-sectional survey

AUTHOR(S)
Hermano Alexandre Lima Rocha; Luciano Lima Correia; Álvaro Jorge Madeiro Leite (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Children and Media
The present study assessed changes in screen time exposure among 3–6-year-old children in Ceará, Brazil, in 2017 and in 2020 during the pandemic. Data from a state-wide repeated cross-sectional survey were analyzed. The COVID impact research was conducted by phone interviews. American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines were used to define elevated screen exposure. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the proportion of children with screen exposure above recommended levels was 96.8% among 3–4-year-old and 84.2% among 5–6-year-old children. There was a significant increase in proportion of 3–4-year-old children with elevated screen time (risk difference 15.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 12.3–19.2; p-value < 0.001). Children participating in remote learning activities had significantly lower television time with a mean difference of −0.8 hours daily (95% CI −0.3 – −1.3; p-value: 0.003) as compared to children not participating in remote learning. The necessary COVID-19 response measures appear to increase screen time among 3–6-year-old children in Ceará, Brazil. Interventions to reduce excess screen time, potentially participation in remote early learning activities should be developed and evaluated in Brazil.
Comparison of the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in children and adolescents in a middle-income country: Clinical impact associated with SARS-CoV-2 gamma lineage

AUTHOR(S)
Eduardo A. Oliveira; Ana Cristina Simões e Silva; Maria Christina L. Oliveira (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: The Journal of Pediatrics

To evaluate the severity and clinical outcomes of the SARS-CoV-2 gamma variant in children and adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19 in Brazil. In this observational retrospective cohort study, we performed an analysis of all 21,591 hospitalized patients aged < 20 years with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection registered in a national database in Brazil. The cohort was divided into two groups according to the predominance of SARS-CoV-2 lineages (WAVE1, n = 11,574 and WAVE2, n = 10,017). The characteristics of interest were age, sex, geographic region, ethnicity, clinical presentation, and comorbidities. The primary outcome was time to death, which was evaluated by competing-risks analysis, using cumulative incidence function. A predictive Fine-Gray competitive risks model was developed based on WAVE1 cohort with temporal validation in WAVE2 cohort.

Infants’ and toddlers’ digital media use and mothers’ mental health: a comparative study before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Bruna Gabriella Pedrotti; Manoela Yustas Mallmann; Carla Regina Santos Almeida (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Infant Mental Health Journal
This study compared children's and mothers’ digital media use and mothers’ mental health in two samples: one accessed before (Group 1; N = 257; M = 33.18 years; SD = 4.79) and the other accessed during (Group 2; N = 256; M = 33.51 years; SD = 4.96) the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. Mothers of children up to 3 years old (Group 1: M = 17.95 months, SD = 9.85; Group 2: M = 16.48 months, SD = 10.15) answered an online survey. Bivariate analysis, factorial ANOVA tests, and multiple linear regression were performed. Results suggest that mothers’ and children's media use duration was higher during the pandemic only among children over 12 months. Mothers’ media use duration (β = .18) and mothers’ intention to offer media (β = .23) contributed to the explanation of children's media use duration (F(4, 474) = 16.81; p < .001; R2 = .12; R2 adjusted = .117). Higher mothers’ common mental disorders symptoms were also positively correlated to mothers’ intention to offer media to children both before and during the pandemic. Results suggest that interventions focusing on infants and toddlers screen time reduction should target maternal aspects such as mental health, maternal screen time, and intention to offer media, taking into account the mothers’ needs when planning these actions.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.