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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 178
Changes in Canadian adolescent time use and movement guidelines during the early COVID-19 outbreak: a longitudinal prospective natural experiment design

Markus Joseph Duncan; Negin Alivia Riazi; Guy Faulkner (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Comprehensive, prospective, longitudinal data are lacking on the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on adolescents’ movement behaviors (moderate to vigorous physical activity [MVPA], sleep, recreational screen use, and strengthening exercises). The purpose was to compare movement behavior changes among adolescents affected by the pandemic with controls. Survey data from 10,659 students at 82 Canadian secondary schools (aged 12–19 y) during the 2018–2019 and 2019–2020 school years were analyzed. One-year change in time spent in movement behaviors and likelihood of meeting Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines was compared between preoutbreak controls (October 2019–March 2020) and early outbreak respondents (May–July 2020) after controlling for sociodemographic factors.
Parent support Is related to physical activity among children and youth with disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic: findings from the National physical activity measurement (NPAM) study

Maeghan E. James; Nikoleta Odorico; Sarah A. Moore (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Disabilities
Physical activity (PA) among children and youth with disabilities (CYD) has been negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Parent PA support and parent PA modelling (i.e., parents engaging in PA themselves) have been shown to be associated with PA in CYD. However, parents’ influence on the PA behaviours of CYD during the pandemic remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parent PA support and parent PA modelling (i.e., parent moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA)) and the PA behaviours of CYD. It was hypothesized that higher levels of parent PA support and parent PA modelling would significantly relate to both child MVPA and child PA at any intensity. An online survey was sent to parents of CYD in November 2020 (i.e., during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada) that assessed the MVPA and total PA (any intensity), parent PA support (e.g., encouraging PA, providing transportation for PA), and parent MVPA. Separate linear regression models assessed the relationships between parent PA support and parent PA modelling with (a) child MVPA and (b) child PA at any intensity. Parent and child age, child gender and disability group, marital status, and household type were controlled for in all analyses.
Parents' perceptions on COVID-19 vaccination as the new routine for their children ≤ 11 years old

Robin M. Humble; Hannah Sell; Sarah Wilson (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Preventive Medicine
Canadian children 5–11 years old became eligible for COVID-19 vaccination on November 19, 2021, with
eligibility for younger children expected later. This study aimed to descriptively assess parents' COVID-19 vaccine in-
tentions and acceptability of future doses, including co-administration and annual vaccination for their children.
A cross-sectional Canadian online survey of parents was conducted from October 14–November 12, 2021, just
prior to authorization of the pediatric formulation of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine for children aged 5–11
Wiingushk okaadenige (Sweetgrass braid): a braided approach to indigenous youth mental health support during COVID-19

Nicole Ineese-Nash; Maggie Stein; Kruti Patel

Published: July 2022   Journal: International Journal of Indigenous Health
This paper introduces an integrative (or braided) approach to Indigenous youth mental health, designed in response to a synthesis of knowledge from three systematic literature reviews and four informant consultations with mental health providers in various disciplines. The braided approach includes core principles of Indigenous Healing models (IH), Child and Youth Care (CYC) approaches, and Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) practices. The purpose of this approach is to best serve the mental and spiritual health needs of Indigenous youth across Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings of this research project informed the design and implementation of an online Indigenous youth mental health program, which is discussed in relation to the research.
It’s difficult to grow up in an apocalypse: children's and adolescents' experiences, perceptions and opinions on the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada

Heather L. Ramey; Heather L. Lawford; Yana Berardini (et al.)

Published: June 2022

According to children and youth in Canada, what were the negative and positive impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on their lives? How did they experience changes in their relationships; daily schedule; time at home; use of technology; or feelings of anger, worry, loneliness or gratitude? How were these experienced by marginalized groups, including LGBTQ+ and Indigenous children and youth? To date, research on Canadian children’s and youth’s experiences during the pandemic has lacked a broad exploration of their own perspectives. This qualitative study, however, was informed by three child and youth advisory teams, with input from 10 focus groups; 23 semi-structured interviews and a total of 74 young people (10–19), from four provinces and one territory.

Experiences of family violence among 2SLGBTQ + youth at risk of, and experiencing, homelessness before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

Alex Abramovich; Nelson Pang; Amanda Moss

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health

Family violence is the leading cause of homelessness among youth; however, limited research has examined family violence among 2SLGBTQ + youth experiencing homelessness. The objective of this study was to engage a group of 2SLGBTQ + youth at risk of, and experiencing, homelessness in the Greater Toronto Area and surrounding areas in Ontario, Canada, to examine their experiences of family violence before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. 2SLGBTQ + youth at risk of, and experiencing, homelessness and key informants (service providers) participated in online surveys and one-on-one interviews to assess family violence during the pandemic. Qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed separately and merged for interpretation.

Weighing in on COVID-19: The impact of the pandemic on children and adolescents with obesity participating in a weight management program.

Barkha P. Patel; Thrmiga Sathiyamoorthy; Mohana Giruparajah (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Pediatric Obesity

COVID-19 mitigation measures, including closures of schools and recreational facilities and alterations in eating behaviours and physical activity, may impact weight. This study aimed to examine changes in body weight and body mass index (BMI) in children and adolescents with obesity participating in an obesity treatment program before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ontario, Canada. Body weight and BMI at baseline and 6 months were recorded for the ‘historic’ cohort (females = 34, males = 21) before the pandemic (November 1, 2018, to March 18, 2020) and for the ‘pandemic’ cohort (females = 30, males = 30) during the pandemic (March 19, 2020 to July 31, 2021). Analyses were adjusted for baseline weight/BMI, age, and ON-Marg score, a measure of the social determinants of health.

Rate of adolescent inpatient admission for psychosis during the COVID-19 pandemic: a retrospective chart review.

Barbara Deren; Katherine Matheson; Paula Cloutier (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Early Intervention in Psychiatry

Given the concerns for mental health (MH) impacts on children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the relative paucity of research in this field, this retrospective study compares the rate of paediatric inpatient MH admissions for psychosis for a period of 11 months before and during the pandemic. This study used administrative data to compare the rate and clinical characteristics of patients (<18 years) admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit for a psychotic illness before (March 17, 2019 to February 17, 2020) and during (March 17, 2020 to February 17, 2021) the COVID-19 pandemic.

Mental health profiles of autistic children and youth during the COVID-19 pandemic

Marina Charalampopoulou; Eun Jung Choi; Daphne J. Korczak (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Paediatrics & Child Health

Canadian province-wide lockdowns have challenged children’s mental health (MH) during the COVID-19 pandemic, with autistic children being at particular risk. The purpose of this study was to identify sub-groups of autistic children with distinct mental health change profiles, to understand the child-, parent-, and system-specific factors associated with such profiles in order to ultimately inform future interventions. Data were drawn from a large Canadian cohort (N=1,570) across Ontario, resulting in 265 autistic children (mean age=10.9 years, 76% male). K-means clustering analyses were employed to partition distinct MH profiles in six MH measures (mood, anxiety, OCD symptoms, irritability, inattention, hyperactivity) and group differences were examined with reference to the above factors.

Mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on children with underlying health and disability issues, and their families and health care providers

David B. Nicholas; Rosslynn T. Zulla; Olivia Conlon (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Paediatrics & Child Health
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted mental health at a population level. Families of children with health vulnerabilities have been disproportionately affected by pandemic-related policies and service disruptions as they substantially rely on the health and social care system. This study elicited the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children with health and disability-related vulnerabilities, their families, and their health care providers (HCPs).
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on youth with chronic pain and their parents: a longitudinal examination of who are most at risk

Kathryn A. Birnie; Daniel C. Kopala-Sibley; Maria Pavlova (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Children
Chronic pain and mental illness in youth and parents are poised to reach new heights amidst the societal and healthcare impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Evidence from natural disasters (i.e., hurricanes) suggests that a degree of personal impact and individual personality may moderate the effects of high stress events, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, on mental health. In a pre-existing cohort of 84 youth with chronic pain (Mage = 14.39; 12–18 years; 67.8% female) and 90 parents (86.7% female), this study examined changes in youth pain interference and youth and parent mental health (depression, anxiety) from before to during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the influence of personal impact of the pandemic (i.e., financial, familial, health, social, occupational, and educational domains) and individual personality (neuroticism, conscientiousness, extroversion).
Hiding and seeking: children's lived experiences during COVID-19

Donna Koller; Maxime Grossi; Meta van den Heuvel (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Children & Society
A qualitative study explored the perspectives and lived experiences of school-age children during COVID-19 using a child rights lens. Twenty children between the ages of 7 and 12 participated in open-ended, virtual interviews. Our hermeneutic analysis found children's right to play and education were severely compromised leaving children to navigate between two worlds: the adult world of public health restrictions and that of their childhood. Despite challenges and lost childhood opportunities, children emerged as competent social agents and responsible citizens. Planning for future pandemics should include policies and practices that balance public health needs with the protection of children's rights.
A longitudinal cohort study of youth mental health and dubstance use before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ontario, Canada: an exploratory analysis.

Natasha Y. Sheikhan; Lisa D. Hawke; Clement Ma (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry

Youth mental health appears to have been negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The impact on substance use is less clear, as is the impact on subgroups of youth, including those with pre-existing mental health or substance use challenges. This hypothesis-generating study examines the longitudinal evolution of youth mental health and substance use from before the COVID-19 pandemic to over one year into the pandemic among youth with pre-existing mental health or substance use challenges.

Youth mental health and/or addiction concerns and service needs during the COVID-19 pandemic: a qualitative exploration of caregiver experiences and perspectives.

Roula Markoulakis; Andreina Da Silva; Sugy Kodeeswaran (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
The COVID-19 pandemic has undoubtedly had a significant impact on youth mental health and/or addiction concerns and exacerbated pre-existing gaps in access to mental health and/or addiction care. Caregivers can support their youth in seeking and participating in care, however, their experiences in doing so in the pandemic and their perspectives of their youth’s care needs are not well-understood. A descriptive qualitative study was conducted to better understand youth’s and caregivers’ experiences accessing care during the pandemic, from the caregivers’ standpoint. Participants completed semi-structured qualitative interviews that focused on experiences seeking and accessing mental health and/or addiction services, with specific questions regarding their experiences accessing services during the pandemic. A total of 46 interviews were included in the thematic analysis of the data.
COVID-19-related anxiety and trauma symptoms predict decreases in body image satisfaction in children.

Philip Aucoin; Olivia Gardam; Elizabeth St. John (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Child Psychiatry & Human Development
The present study investigated short-term longitudinal effects of COVID-19-related trauma and separation, social, and generalized anxiety symptoms on children’s body image satisfaction. Participants were 247 Canadian children (121 boys, 123 girls) aged between 7 and 12 years (M = 9.04). Two cohorts of parents were recruited to complete a questionnaire at two time points on their children’s body image satisfaction and COVID-19-related trauma and anxiety symptoms. The first cohort (n = 136 children) was recruited in Summer 2020 and the second cohort (n = 111 children) was recruited in Winter 2021. For each cohort, follow-up surveys were completed approximately five months later, therefore covering an entire year with both cohorts.
31 - 45 of 178

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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