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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Adolescents' academic self-efficacy and emotions during the COVID-19 pandemic: a latent profile analysis of family and school risk factors

K. Strasser; P. Arias; F. Alessandri (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: School Psychology
The study sought to identify family conditions and school actions associated with academic self-efficacy and emotional well-being of adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic in Chile. School closures are likely to have affected students’ sense of academic efficacy and emotional well-being by removing support factors such as teacher and peer support for both academic and social tasks. At the same time, family stressors caused by the pandemic are also likely to have affected children. Data were collected by a Chilean school district about the family conditions and well-being of 5th–12th-grade students (N = 1,941) during lockdown. Exploratory factor analysis and latent profile analysis were applied to parents’ and students’ reports about family processes and material conditions. Family profiles and school responses to lockdown were used to predict students’ academic self-efficacy and emotions. Family profiles were mainly differentiated by parenting processes, material conditions, and parenting stress. Regression analyses showed that the family profile predicted students’ negative emotions and low self-efficacy. Specifically, children of families with higher scores in all dimensions were less at risk of reporting low academic self-efficacy and negative emotions, but the two average profiles—with high and low stress—were not different in this regard. Student gender and age were predictors of negative emotions but not self-efficacy. In contrast to family factors, school actions during the pandemic did not predict academic self-efficacy and well-being.
Positive identity predicts psychological wellbeing in Chilean youth: a double-mediation model

Pablo A. Pérez-Díaz; Sergio Nuno-Vasquez; Matheus França Perazzo (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
Positive youth development (PYD) allows the youth to be comprehended from their potential, strengths and assets, in contrast to the traditional deficit view that focuses on their weaknesses. The PYD model promotes constructive behaviours in youth by highlighting the positive attributes usually found during the transition from childhood to adulthood to achieve healthy and optimal development in later life. Overall, PYD comprises five key competence (5C), the flourishing models and forty developmental assets. In the present study, a structural equation model is tested with the Chilean dataset of the PYD project on the premise that Positive Identity is the core internal developmental asset explaining Psychological wellbeing and that Confidence and Character are mediators of the relationship between Positive Identity and Psychological Wellbeing. The sample comprised 261 participants (nWomen = 189, nMen = 72), MeanAge = 22 years old, who were approached by an online survey uploaded to Qualtrics. The measures of the study included: The Developmental assets Scale, the Short-form of the Five Cs included in the PYD and the Mental Health Continuum Short-Form.
Movement behaviors during COVID-19 among Latin American/Latino toddlers and pre-schoolers in Chile, Mexico and the US

Alejandra Jáuregui; Deborah Salvo; Nicolas Aguilar-Farias (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Scientific Reports
Movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep) have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study reports changes in and factors that influenced movement behaviors during COVID-19 among Latin American/Latino children aged 1 to 5 years in Chile, Mexico, and the USA. It conducted a cross-sectional study between April and August 2020. Caregivers of 4,136 children (mean age [SD], 3.1 [1.4] years; 51% boys) reported family and household characteristics and changes in their child’s movement behaviors.
Contributions of work-to-family enrichment to parental food monitoring and satisfaction with food-related life during the COVID-19 pandemic in dual-earner parents and their adolescent children

Berta Schnettler; Ligia Orellana; Edgardo Miranda-Zapata (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Nutrients
Evidence shows that numerous family-related variables influence parents’ use of different food parenting practices (FPP), but less is known about the influence of parents’ work-related variables on their use of FPP, and their own and their children’s outcomes in the food domain. To fill this gap, the present study explored intra-individual and inter-individual effects between work-to-family enrichment (WtoFE), parents’ monitoring practices, the adolescent’s perception of their parents’ monitoring practices, and the three family members’ satisfaction with food-related life (SWFoL), in different-sex dual-earner parents with adolescent children. The mediating role of monitoring between WtoFE and SWFoL was also tested. A sample of 430 different-sex dual-earner parents and one of their adolescent children (average age 13.0 years, 53.7% female) were recruited in Rancagua, Chile, during March and June 2020.
Children's age matters: parental burnout in Chilean families during the COVID-19 pandemic

Carolina Panesso Giraldo; María P. Santelices; Daniela Oyarce (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
For families all over the world, going through a pandemic has presented a number of challenges. In particular, social distancing measures involving the closure of schools and day care centers, as well as increasing work hours at home, made parents face very demanding situations. However, we know little about whether parents’ burnout levels are influenced by the age of their children. This study sought to determine whether levels of parental burnout (PB) are higher in families with at least one child under the age of four than in families with older children (5 to 18 years). The second goal was to explore whether having children under 4 years of age moderates the relationship between parental cooperation and PB. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 651 participants (525 mothers and 126 fathers) since May 18th until August 27th, 2020.
Job satisfaction as a mediator between family-to-work conflict and satisfaction with family life: a dyadic analysis in dual-earner parents

Ligia Orellana; Berta Schnettler; Edgardo Miranda-Zapata (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Applied Research in Quality of Life
Family-to-work conflict has received less attention in the literature compared to work-to-family conflict. This gap in knowledge is more pronounced during the COVID-19 pandemic, despite the documented increase in family responsibilities in detriment of work performance, particularly for women. Job satisfaction has been identified as a mediator between the family and work domains for the individual, but these family-to-work dynamics remain unexplored at a dyadic level during the pandemic. Therefore, this study tested the relationship between family-to-work conflict and job and family satisfaction, and the mediating role of job satisfaction between family-to-work conflict and family satisfaction, in dual-earner parents. A non-probability sample of 430 dual-earner parents with adolescent children were recruited in Rancagua, Chile. Mothers and fathers answered an online questionnaire with a measure of family-to-work conflict, the Job Satisfaction Scale and Satisfaction with Family Life Scale. Data was analysed using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model with structural equation modelling.
The Covid-19 pandemic and maternal mental health: a longitudinal study of Chilean and foreign-born mothers

Alejandra Abufhele; Marigen Narea; Amanda Telias

Published: July 2022   Journal: International Journal of Public Health

This study explores the effects of the pandemic on stress, depressive symptoms and parenting practices of mothers with children aged between 24- and 30-months, residents in Santiago, Chile, and the differences between foreign‐born and native‐born mothers. Using data from the longitudinal project Mil Primeros Días and lagged-dependent models, it analyzed parental stress, depressive symptoms and parenting practices for native-born and foreign-born mothers. Lagged-dependent model allows us to take advantage of the longitudinal data by controlling for the previous score and baseline individual characteristics.

Adapting to adversity: effects of COVID-19 on parenting in Chile

J. Carola Pérez; Daniela Aldoney; Anastassia Vivanco-Carlevari (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
The pandemic outbreak in March 2020 and its associated sanitary regulations and restrictions triggered an abrupt and significant change for society in general and for families’ organization in particular. In Chile, the Santiago Metropolitan District was under a strict lockdown that involved the closure of the entire educational system. From a systemic-family stress perspective, the impact of these changes might have consequences not only for each individual family member, but for the parental dynamic and, consequently, for children’s well-being. This paper presents the results of a follow-up study showing changes in self-reported parental depression and the perceived home organization of mothers and fathers assessed at three different moments: before the pandemic, at the initial outbreak, and after 1 month of strict lockdown. Relevant moderators were explored using linear mixed models to understand the within-subject changes in mothers’ and fathers’ self-reports across the different assessment times. Financial strain, personality traits of self-criticism and dependency, previous parent–child quality interaction, recent major stressful events, and number of children are highlighted as relevant factors that moderate changes in home chaos and parental mental health perception. Significant risks and protective factors are described for fathers and mothers. The use of pre-pandemic measures as baseline levels enabled the identification of personal and family characteristics that were related to better outcomes.
Parents' modeling during the COVID-19 pandemic: influences on family members' diet quality and satisfaction with-food-related life in dual-earner parents with adolescent children

Berta Schnettler; Edgardo Miranda-Zapata; Ligia Orellana (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Nutrition
Reciprocal family influences in the food domain have been little explored, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. To fill in this gap, this study explored actor and partner effects between parents’ food modeling and parents’ and their adolescent children’s diet quality and satisfaction with food-related life (SWFoL); and the mediating role of diet quality between modeling and SWFoL. This study used a cross-sectional design. A sample of 430 different-sex dual-earner parents and one adolescent child were recruited in Rancagua, Chile, between March and June 2020. Parents answered the modeling dimension of the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire. Parents and adolescents answered the Adapted Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) and the SWFoL Scale. Analyses were conducted using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model and structural equation modeling.
Free time, gender and the pandemic: an exploration of children's daily routines in the times of COVID-19 in Chile

Rocío Díaz; Mariana Contreras; Isabel Yáñez (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Children & Society
This article discusses the differentiation by gender displayed by children between 8 and 12 years old on how they used their free time during the COVID-19 pandemic in Chile. This study had a qualitative approach, where 43 in-depth interviews were conducted with children from three different regions of the country, using participatory photo-elicitation as the central tool.
Online physically active academic lessons in COVID-19 times: a pilot study

Vagner Beserra; MiguelNussbaumbMónicaNavarrete Nussbaum; Mónica Navarrete (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Teaching and Teacher Education
Schools play an important role in promoting physical activity among students. This paper studies the perception of educators, students, and parents about the use of online physically active academic lessons during COVID-19 in the north of Chile. Starting the first week of November 2020, and for a period of five weeks, 323 students, alongside 11 educators, practiced a geometry-based dance routine online. The qualitative analysis results reveal a positive perception of the experience and an increase in physical activity without reducing the amount of time spent on academic activities. There were also improvements in learning, social relationships, and enjoyment.
The role of family support and conflict in cyberbullying and subjective well-being among Chilean Adolescents during the Covid-19 period

Matías E. Rodriguez-Rivas; Jorge J. Varela; Constanza González (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Heliyon

Life satisfaction plays a crucial role in integral development and mental health during childhood and adolescence. Recently, it has been shown that cyberbullying has severe consequences for the mental health and wellbeing of victims such as increased anxiety, depressive symptoms and even suicide risk. Although the role of the family in life satisfaction and cyberbullying behaviors has been studied, there is limited information on its impacts during the current pandemic period. The aim of this study is to determine the role of family variables regarding students' levels of life satisfaction and cyberbullying victimization during the pandemic period.

Developmental losses in young children from pre-primary program closures during the COVID-19 pandemic

Alejandra Abufhele; David Bravo; Florencia López Bóo (et al.)

Published: March 2022
The learning and developmental losses from pre-primary program closures due to COVID-19 may be unprecedented. These disruptions early in life can be long-lasting. Although there is evidence about the effects of school closures on older children, there is currently no evidence on such losses for children in their early years. This paper is among the first to quantify the actual impact of pandemic-related closures on child development, in this case for a sample of young children in Chile, where school and childcare closures lasted for about a year. It uses a unique dataset collected face-to-face in December 2020, which includes child development indicators for general development, language development, social-emotional development, and executive function.
COVID-19 and child welfare policy in Chile: the experience of front-line workers

Javiera Garcia-Meneses; Ivan Chanez-Cortes; Paulina Montoya Ceballos

Published: February 2022   Journal: International Social Work
COVID-19 arrived in Chile amid social protests that questioned the State’s ability to protect children’s rights. Nevertheless, child policy workers continued working despite the drastic changes to their daily work generated by both the pandemic and conflicts within the child welfare system. This article aims to understand how these workers have experienced and overcome these challenges. It shows that they have continued doing interventions with children at the expense of their economic resources and well-being. These findings highlight the need for the government to take immediate action, offering guidelines to improve child policy workers’ labor conditions.
Perceptions about teaching in times of COVID-19 pandemic: experience of secondary education in Chile

Alejandro Almonacid-Fierro; Andrew Philominraj; Rodrigo Vargas-Vitoria (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: European Journal of Educational Research
The following article is a qualitative study that analyses the perception of parents and high school students regarding teaching in times of Coronavirus disease COVID-19, with the idea of recognizing the facilitators and barriers for the teaching-learning process in the pandemic. The above, in the understanding that due to the sudden appearance of SARS-CoV-2, educational systems around the world had to adapt to virtual teaching, as a result of the confinement to which the population has been subjected during the year 2020 and a good part of the year 2021. The research is based on the interpretative-comprehensive paradigm, with a qualitative methodology, which considered the realization of four focus groups with students and four focus groups with secondary school parents, from two public high schools located in the province of Talca, Maule region, Chile.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 11 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 457-467 | Language: English | Topics: Education | Tags: child education, COVID-19 response, e-learning, lockdown, remote learning, school attendance, social distance, teaching methods | Countries: Chile
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