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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 214
Prospective examination of adolescent emotional intelligence and post-traumatic growth during and after COVID-19 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Wanjie Tang; Zhouxingyu Yan; Yi Lu (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of affective disorders
While there have been some studies examining the post-traumatic growth (PTG) responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, few have been longitudinal studies exploring the changes over time or examining the underlying psychological PTG mechanisms. This study examined whether baseline perceived emotional intelligence (EI) predicted PTG through self-esteem and emotional regulation (ER) in a five-month follow-up study conducted on Chinese adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Psychological symptom progression in school-aged children after COVID-19 home confinement: a longitudinal study

AUTHOR(S)
Xinyan Xie; Qi Liu; Kaiheng Zhu (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

The long-term mental health effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children are rarely reported. This study aimed to investigate the progression of depressive and anxiety symptoms among a cohort of children in the initial epicenter of COVID-19 in China. Two waves of surveys were conducted in the same two primary schools in Wuhan and Huangshi, Hubei province: Wave 1 from 28 February to 5 March, 2020 (children had been confined to home for 30–40 days) and Wave 2 from 27 November to 9 December, 2020 (schools had reopened for nearly 3 months). Depressive and anxiety symptoms were estimated using the Children's Depression Inventory – Short Form (CDI-S) and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), respectively. ΔCDI-S and ΔSCARED scores between Wave 2 and Wave 1 were calculated and further categorized into tertiles. Multivariable linear regression and multinomial logistic regression models were then applied.

Depressive symptoms among children and adolescents in China during the Coronavirus disease-19 epidemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Jianghe Chen; Kun Yang; Yujia Cao (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

The Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic negatively impacts mental health. Some published studies have investigated the prevalence of depression among children and adolescents in China during the pandemic. However, the results vary widely. This study aimed to systematically analyze and estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and attempted to reveal the reasons for prevalence variety in previous studies. Published studies were searched in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central, the Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP Database), China National Knowledge database (CNKI), and the WanFang database from December 2019 to May 2021. The quality of all included studies was assessed by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) checklist and the American Agency for Health Care Quality and Research’s (AHRQ) cross-sectional study quality evaluation items. Meta-analysis was performed using random-effects modeling.

Maternal anxiety symptoms and Chinese adolescents' mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: the protective role of adolescents' self-compassion

AUTHOR(S)
Tong Zhou; Xiaohua Bian; Kening Zhang (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Front. Psychiatry
The COVID-19 outbreak triggered dramatic changes to family life. Parents, especially mothers, were found to experience more psychological distress during the pandemic, which may have had an impact on their children's mental health. The primary goal of this study was to examine the potential protective role of adolescents' self-compassion in the relationship between maternal anxiety and adolescents' mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants included 5,720 adolescents (48.9% girls; Mage = 11.60, SDage = 1.36) and their mothers from Zhengzhou city, Henan province, in Mainland China. Adolescents reported their level of self-compassion, PTSD symptoms, and negative affect during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mothers reported their own anxiety symptoms and their children's depression and anxiety symptoms. Results indicated that older female adolescents reported higher levels of PTSD symptoms and negative affect and lower levels of self-compassion than their counterparts. Maternal anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic was consistently positively associated with adolescents' psychological maladjustment. These associations were buffered by adolescents' self-compassion. Specifically, adolescents with higher levels of self-compassion were found to be less psychologically affected by their mothers' anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Family resilience and adolescent mental health during COVID-19: a moderated mediation model

AUTHOR(S)
Ran Zhuo; Yanhua Yu; Xiaoxue Shi

Published: April 2022   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted and is still impacting people’s lives, including physical and mental health. Family plays an important role in adolescent mental health due to the long staying at home. This paper aimed to investigate the impact of family resilience on adolescent mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the mediation role of pandemic stress perception and the moderation role of meta-mood. A total of 2691 Chinese adolescents were recruited using convenient sampling. Their mental health, family resilience, pandemic stress perception and meta-mood were surveyed.
Willingness toward COVID-19 vaccination, coadministration with other vaccines and receive a COVID-19 vaccine booster: a cross-sectional study on the guardians of children in China

AUTHOR(S)
Libing Ma; Jin Yang; Ting Zhang (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
This study aimed to investigate the changes in the willingness of guardians to administer the COVID-19 vaccine to their children, allow the coadministration of other vaccines, and administer the COVID-19 vaccine booster dose. This was a follow-up study conducted 6 months after a similar previous study. The self-administered questionnaire was distributed through the “Xiao Dou Miao” app and 9424 guardians with access to this app participated in the survey that was conducted from September 15 to October 8, 2021. Of all the participating guardians, 86.68% were willing to vaccinate their children with the COVID-19 vaccine, which was approximately 16% more than those in our previous study. Guardians aged ≥40 years, healthcare workers, and those with children aged ≥3 years were more willing to vaccinate their children. Approximately 77% of the guardians were willing toward the coadministration of COVID-19 and influenza vaccines. Approximately 64% of the guardians were willing toward the coadministration of other nonimmunization program vaccines with the COVID-19 vaccine for their children.
The growing digital divide in education among primary and secondary children during the COVID-19 pandemic: an overview of social exclusion and education equality issues

AUTHOR(S)
Ali Cheshmehzangi; Tong Zou; Zhaohui Su (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment
The growing digital divide issues due to the COVID-19 pandemic are critical to widening disparities and inequalities. Yet, only a few studies have explored the impacts of the digital divide on the education sector. In particular, there is a research gap related to younger students of primary and secondary schools. This study addresses this research gap by providing an overview of the digital divide’s impacts on social exclusion and education equality issues. In doing so, the study argues the effects of COVID-19 on the growing digital divide. Such influence is then studied based on the increasing education inequalities due to the digital divide and the eventual social exclusion increase among primary and secondary school children. The study explores the nexus between social exclusion and the digital divide before reflecting on EI as a type of social exclusion.
China survey report on the online learning status of high schools during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Congbin Guo; Zhuzhu Xu; Chenchen Fang (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: ECNU Review of Education

This study examined the results of a large-scale national survey of online secondary education in China. The online survey of 33,194 high school students and 5,667 teachers provides comprehensive and representative data regarding the quality of online education and its implementation during the pandemic. Questionnaire surveys of different grades and comparative analysis of different cohorts reflect the group heterogeneity of the online learning effect.

COVID-19 among Chinese high school graduates: Psychological distress, growth, meaning in life and resilience

AUTHOR(S)
Yongju Yu; Yongjuan Yu; Jiangxia Hu

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Health Psychology
This study examined perceived impact of COVID-19 (PIC) on mental health outcomes (anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic growth) and roles of resilience and meaning in life. In October 2020, 430 Chinese high school graduates completed self-report measures. Results showed that 4.4% and 5.8% participants had anxiety and depression symptoms (⩾10), respectively, while 13.3% developed posttraumatic growth (⩾37.5). Resilience and meaning in life mediated the relationships between PIC and mental health outcomes. These findings underline psychological distress and growth coexisted in COVID-19, while resilience and meaning in life served as important protective factors of mental health.
Caregivers’ perceived changes in engaged time with preschool-aged children during COVID-19: Familial correlates and relations to children's learning behavior and emotional distress

AUTHOR(S)
Xiao Zhang

Published: April 2022   Journal: Early childhood research quarterly
The COVID-19 pandemic and its resulting containment measures have forced many children and their caregivers around the world to spend unprecedented amounts of time at home. Based on a sample of 764 households with preschool-aged children in Wuhan, China, where the pandemic began, this study examined how primary caregivers perceived changes in the amount of time spent engaging with their children (i.e., engaged time) from the start of the pandemic and whether these changes were associated with children's learning behavior and emotional distress.
Problematic Internet use and academic engagement during the COVID-19 lockdown: The indirect effects of depression, anxiety, and insomnia in early, middle, and late adolescence

AUTHOR(S)
Sihan Liu; Shengqi Zou; Di Zhang (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of affective disorders

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the transition of online learning introduces challenges for adolescents to engage in learning. The increased access and persistent Internet use could heighten the risk of problematic Internet use (PIU) that has been increasingly recognized as a risk factor for academic engagement. This study aims to investigate the direct and indirect relationships between PIU and academic engagement through psychopathological symptoms (i.e., depression, anxiety, insomnia) in early, middle, and late adolescence. In all, 4852 adolescents (51.5% females; Mage = 13.80 ± 2.38) from different regions of Chinese mainland participated in the study and completed questionnaires.

The protective role of parental involvement at home in negative psychological outcomes among Chinese adolescents during the COVID-19 epidemic

AUTHOR(S)
Fangyuan Ding; Yuncheng Jia; Xianmeng Xiong (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of affective disorders

The COVID-19 outbreak has generated many negative psychological outcomes, such as depression, in adolescents. Exploration of protective factors for adolescent mental health is urgently needed, and no research has examined the role of parental involvement. From March to April 2020, valid data were collected from 1663 Chinese adolescents through online demographic and other questionnaires. Parental involvement at home was assessed by an adapted questionnaire on parental support in learning at home, stress since the COVID-19 outbreak was measured by the Perceived Stress Scale, and three negative psychological outcomes (i.e., depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS)) were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale, and PTSD Check List-Civilian Version, respectively.

Assessing the transition of COVID-19 burden towards the young population while vaccines are rolled out in China

AUTHOR(S)
Jun Cai; Juan Yang; Xiaowei Deng (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Emerging Microbes & Infections
SARS-CoV-2 infection causes most cases of severe illness and fatality in older age groups. Over 92% of the Chinese population aged ≥12 years has been fully vaccinated against COVID-19 (albeit with vaccines developed against historical lineages). At the end of October 2021, the vaccination programme has been extended to children aged 3–11 years. This study aimed to assess whether, in this vaccination landscape, the importation of Delta variant infections could shift COVID-19 burden from adults to children. It developed an age-structured susceptible-infectious-removed model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission to simulate epidemics triggered by the importation of Delta variant infections and project the age-specific incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections, cases, hospitalizations, intensive care unit admissions, and deaths.
The cross-sectional survey on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and it predictors among Chinese parents of 3–17 years aged children in Shenzhen City

AUTHOR(S)
Ting Li; Xichenhui Qiu; Xue Gong (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine
Vaccinations programs on 3–17 years aged children in China have been launched in some cities since July 2021; and comparative evaluations are important to push the programs forward. Therefore, this study is conducted to explore the COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and it predictors among Chinese parents of 3–17 years aged children; and their willingness to vaccinate their child/children. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on the online survey; and 3484 participants were recruited in health centers of Shenzhen, China.
Depression among schoolchildren and adolescents aged 9–17 years during the outbreak of COVID‑19 in Beijing: a cross-sectional online survey

AUTHOR(S)
Fuyuan Wen; Yi Meng; Kuo Liu (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Psychology, Health & Medicine
The COVID-19 outbreak and related confinement have highly impacted psychological health among children and adolescents. This study aimed to explore the potential risk factors for depression among primary and middle school students and provide advices for psychological interventions during the outbreaks. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among 18 primary and middle school students via quota sampling in Beijing during March 2020. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to assess depression. Differences between characteristics and depression were examined by chi-square tests. Multivariate logistic regression was used to reveal the potential risk factors for depression. A total of 7377 participants were included.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.