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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Education level modifies parental hesitancy about COVID-19 vaccinations for their children

Shuning Tang; Xin Liu; Yingnan Jia (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Vaccine
It is important to encourage parental acceptance of children’s vaccination against COVID-19 to ensure population immunity and mitigate morbidity and mortality. This study drew upon protection motivation theory (PMT) to explore the factors of parental hesitancy about vaccinating their children. A national online survey was performed in China. A total of 2054 Chinese parents of children aged 6–12 years were included in this study. They reported on measures that assessed hesitancy about children’s vaccination against COVID-19, PMT constructs (susceptibility, severity, response efficacy, self-efficacy, and response costs) and sociodemographic characteristics. Chinese parents reported a hesitancy rate of 29.4% for children’s vaccination. Parents with higher level education were more likely to hesitate to vaccinate their children against COVID-19.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 41 | Issue: 2 | No. of pages: 496-503 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, immunization, immunization programmes, infectious disease, pandemic, parents, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: China
Safety and tolerability of COVID-19 vaccine in children with epilepsy: a prospective, multicenter study

Zhihao Wang; Xiqin Fang; Tao Han (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Pediatric Neurology

This study aimed to investigate the effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 4 (COVID-19) vaccine on epileptic seizures, as well as its adverse effects, in children with epilepsy (< 18 years). This anonymous questionnaire study involved a multicenter prospective survey of outpatients and inpatients with epilepsy (<18 years) registered in epilepsy clinics in 8 hospitals in six cities of Shandong Province.

Parental burnout and resilience intervention among Chinese parents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Yixiao Liu; Jing Han Chee; Ying Wang

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology

Parental burnout is a mental state that combines long-term stress and depression with an overwhelming feeling of parental pressure. In Study 1, we conducted a web-based survey of 390 Chinese parents (75.1% mothers) with children aged 1–18 years old (Mean age = 9.05 years, SD = 5.098) to examine the parental burnout during the COVID-19 global pandemic and to identify associated factors during the national lockdown. In Study 2, eight weeks of resilience intervention was administered to 20 parents to compare parental resilience and parental burnout before and after the intervention.

Parents' pandemic stress, parental involvement, and family quality of life for children with autism

Shengli Cheng; Sanyin Cheng; Shushan Liu (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

Research has shown that parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suffered high levels of stress during the COVID-19 pandemic and faced poor family quality of life (FQOL). However, little is known about the inherent dynamic interaction between pandemic stress and FQOL, especially in the Chinese cultural context. This study provides preliminary evidence by examining the relationships among pandemic stress, parental involvement, and FQOL for children with autism in mainland China. A total of 709 parents of children with autism completed measures of FQOL, parental involvement, and pandemic stress. Structural equation modeling was employed to examine the interrelations among these variables.

Parental intervention strategies and operating mechanism on adolescent social media use: the concept of literacy improvement based on interaction

Bowei Wang; Jiali Chen

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
This study focuses on a realistic picture of parental intervention in the use of social media among teenagers in the post-pandemic era. First, based on a questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews, and under the guidance of the concept of interactive literacy improvement, we propose a conceptual model and a verifiable measurement dimension of parental-mediated intervention. Second, based on the comparison of parent–child samples, it was found that parental-mediated intervention strategies are often used in families, and parents and children have roughly the same cognition and preference for the four intervention strategies. However, parents reported that they use intervention strategies much more frequently than perceived by their children. Third, we constructed and verified the prediction model of “individual technical characteristics-online family environment-parental-mediated intervention,” namely, the hierarchical progressive logic of parental-mediated intervention, and realized the systematization of influencing factors.
Learning from home: widening rural-urban educational inequality and high school students' self-control in China during the COVID-19 pandemic and school closure

Gaoming Ma; Jiayu Zhang; Liu Hong

Published: December 2022   Journal: Youth & Society
Worldwide school closures and remote learning have been implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic. These measures’ impact on young populations’ academic achievements is unclear. This study (N = 1,736, ages 14–20 years, 53% female, and Chinese) analyzed academic examination scores for students at a high school in Eastern China between January and July 2020. Results showed that overall, students’ academic achievements appeared to be negatively affected amid a school closure. More importantly, students’ self-control was introduced as a moderating factor that partially accounted for this difference in the context of remote learning at home. These findings extended our understanding of school closures’ unequal impact on young populations.
The effect of duration of youth/parent communication on depression and anxiety during COVID-19 isolation in China

Weijian Hu; Cuiyun Deng; Zhaoquan Liu

Published: December 2022   Journal: School Psychology International
The current study examines the mediating roles of self-efficacy and sleep disturbance and the moderating role of gender in the association between the duration of youth/parent communication on depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 isolation period in China. It used the self-designed demographic variable questionnaire, General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Self-Rating Depression Scale, and the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale with 1,772 youths aged 15–24 from 26 provinces in China during the COVID-19 lockdown. It performed demographic variable analysis, correlation analysis, mediation analysis, and moderated analysis.
Neuroticism and fear of COVID-19 during the COVID-19 pandemic: Testing the mediating role of intolerance of uncertainty and sense of control among Chinese high school students

Donghuan Zhang; Min Fan; Lingyi Meng (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
Since the COVID-19 pandemic broke out in 2019, neuroticism has been proven a predictor of fear of COVID-19 infection. However, only few studies have been conducted on the factors affecting the relationship between neuroticism and this kind of fear. The present study is aimed at analyzing the role intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and sense of control (SOC) play in relation to neuroticism and the fear of COVID-19. It conducted a cross-sectional study in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, China, and we collected complete datasets from 792 high school students. The main results can be described as follows: (a) individuals with high neuroticism tended to have higher intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and a lower sense of control (SOC); (b) IU and SOC played a mediating role between neuroticism and fear of COVID-19, and a serial mediation effect was found between these factors; (c) after controlling for both IU and SOC, the effect of neuroticism on fear was no longer significant.
Maternal and neonatal safety of COVID‐19 vaccination during peri‐pregnancy period: a prospective study

Minghui Li; Jianzhen Hao; Tingting Jiang (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Medical Virology

To investigate the safety of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine in Chinese pregnant women and their fetuses when inoculated during the peri-pregnancy period. Eligible pregnant women were prospectively collected and divided into a vaccine group (n = 93) and control group (n = 160) according to whether they had been vaccinated against COVID-19 within 3 months before their last menstruation period (LMP) and after pregnancy. Demographic data of couples, complications during pregnancy and delivery of pregnant women, and data of newborns at birth were collected.

Effects of physical activity and use of digital devices on visual acuity in children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study

Xiao Zheng; Lei Shi; Weiyan Ou (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

To determine the association between poor visual acuity, the use of digital devices and physical activity (PA) during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 327,646 Chinese children and adolescents were included in the analysis using a cluster random sampling method; this is a case-control study, of those 144,708 children and adolescents with poor visual acuity were included in the case group, while 182,938 who did not have poor visual acuity were included in the control group. A logistic regression model was used to assess the contribution of PA and the use of digital devices to poor visual acuity.

Role of emotion regulation capacities in affective state among Chinese high school students in the post-pandemic era of COVID-19

Suyan Wang; Yuying Chu; Hongliang Dai

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology

Psychological wellbeing and emotion regulation skills of vulnerable adolescents have been severely threatened by the long-term impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to seek out the potentially effective emotion regulation strategies to minimize the mental health risk of adolescents during the COVID-19 post-pandemic era. A total of 436 high school students aged 16.07 ± 1.08 years were included in this cross-sectional study to complete questionnaires to self-report socio-demographic information, positive and negative affect state, and emotional regulation abilities. Student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for intergroup comparisons among socio-demographic variables. Pearson's correlation analysis was used for evaluating the association between each emotion regulation strategy and positivity or negativity. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was used for the determination of the predictors for adolescents' positivity and negativity.

Parent acceptance toward inactivated COVID-19 vaccination in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the power of oncologist and alliance

Yifei Ma; Nianqi Liu; Guanqing Zhong (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Vaccines
The current study aims to survey the willingness of parents to vaccinate their children, who are childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors (CALLS), and identify factors associated with vaccine acceptance. Parents of CALLS on/off treatment, with the general condition of being amendable to vaccination, were recruited for interviews with attending oncologists about COVID-19 vaccination acceptance from July to November 2021 in China. After controlling for socioeconomic factors, the Association of Oncologists’ recommendations and parent–oncologist alliance with acceptance status were investigated. For validation, propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis was used. Results: A total of 424 families were included in the study, with CALLS mean remission age of 5.99 ± 3.40 years. Among them, 91 (21.4%) agreed, 168 (39.6%) hesitated, and 165 (38.9%) parents disagreed with the vaccination.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 10 | Issue: 12 | No. of pages: 12 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, disabled children, immunization, immunization programmes, infectious disease, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: China
Determinants of the willingness of medical staff to vaccinate their children with a booster dose of the COVID-19 vaccine in Taizhou, China

Li-Li Huang; Tao-Hsin Tung; Yan-Hong Jiang (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
The study aimed to determine the willingness of medical staff to have their children vaccinated with a COVID-19 booster in Taizhou, China. From March 21 to April 19, 2022, an online questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the willingness of medical staff to vaccinate their children with a booster dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. Of the 1,252 medical staff in a tertiary grade hospital in Taizhou who were invited to answer the structured questionnaire, 514 (41.1%) samples had valid information for further data analysis. Four hundred thirty-seven medical staff (85.0%) were willing to have their children receive vaccine boosters. After adjustments for confounding factors, the opinion (‘Do you think your child needs a booster vaccination against COVID-19?’) (yes vs. no, OR = 6.91, 95% CI: 3.29–14.54), the viewpoint (‘What are your thoughts the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccine boosters for children?’ (≥12 vs. <12, OR = 13.81, 95% CI: 4.03-), and the attitude (‘Your attitude to whether your child is boosting the Covid-19 vaccine?’) (yes vs. no, OR = 4.66, 95% CI: 2.30–9.44) were significantly associated with their willingness to have their children receive a COVID-19 vaccine booster.
Psychological experience of Juvenile patients' parents in Fangcang shelter hospital during the Omicron wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Shanghai, China: a qualitative study

Hongmei Wu; Kexi Liao; Caidie Yang (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health

This study aims to explore the psychological experience of Juvenile patient’s parents in Fangcang shelter hospital during the Omicron wave of COVID-19 pandemic. A qualitative study was conducted by using a phenomenological research method. Sixteen parents of juvenile patients with COVID-19 were recruited from National Exhibition and Convention Center (Shanghai, China) Fangcang shelter hospital (FSH) using purposive sampling. Data were collected by face-to-face in-depth interviews over 27 days, from April 9 to May 6, 2022. The interview data were analyzed using Colaizzi seven-step analysis method.

Internet behavior patterns of adolescents before, during, and after COVID-19 pandemic

Qianying Wu; Qihuan Ren; Na Zhong (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

The outbreak of COVID-19 has affected the mental health of adolescents. To describe the Internet behavior-changing patterns of adolescents and to understand the impact of clinical features on changing patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is a cross-sectional cohort study using data collected through online investigation in China. A total of 625 adolescents completed the online survey from May 15 to June 7, 2020. The adolescents were asked to retrospect to the Internet behaviors and game behaviors of three time periods as follows: before the COVID-19 outbreak in China, during the COVID-19 outbreak in China, and back to school. The clinical variables of the demographic data, family functionality, and emotional and behavioral symptoms were also collected. According to the Internet behaviors and game behaviors patterns across the three time periods, the subjects will be sub-grouped.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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