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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 238
The growing digital divide in education among primary and secondary children during the COVID-19 pandemic: an overview of social exclusion and education equality issues

AUTHOR(S)
Ali Cheshmehzangi; Tong Zou; Zhaohui Su (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment
The growing digital divide issues due to the COVID-19 pandemic are critical to widening disparities and inequalities. Yet, only a few studies have explored the impacts of the digital divide on the education sector. In particular, there is a research gap related to younger students of primary and secondary schools. This study addresses this research gap by providing an overview of the digital divide’s impacts on social exclusion and education equality issues. In doing so, the study argues the effects of COVID-19 on the growing digital divide. Such influence is then studied based on the increasing education inequalities due to the digital divide and the eventual social exclusion increase among primary and secondary school children. The study explores the nexus between social exclusion and the digital divide before reflecting on EI as a type of social exclusion.
China survey report on the online learning status of high schools during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Congbin Guo; Zhuzhu Xu; Chenchen Fang (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: ECNU Review of Education

This study examined the results of a large-scale national survey of online secondary education in China. The online survey of 33,194 high school students and 5,667 teachers provides comprehensive and representative data regarding the quality of online education and its implementation during the pandemic. Questionnaire surveys of different grades and comparative analysis of different cohorts reflect the group heterogeneity of the online learning effect.

COVID-19 among Chinese high school graduates: Psychological distress, growth, meaning in life and resilience

AUTHOR(S)
Yongju Yu; Yongjuan Yu; Jiangxia Hu

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Health Psychology
This study examined perceived impact of COVID-19 (PIC) on mental health outcomes (anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic growth) and roles of resilience and meaning in life. In October 2020, 430 Chinese high school graduates completed self-report measures. Results showed that 4.4% and 5.8% participants had anxiety and depression symptoms (⩾10), respectively, while 13.3% developed posttraumatic growth (⩾37.5). Resilience and meaning in life mediated the relationships between PIC and mental health outcomes. These findings underline psychological distress and growth coexisted in COVID-19, while resilience and meaning in life served as important protective factors of mental health.
Caregivers’ perceived changes in engaged time with preschool-aged children during COVID-19: Familial correlates and relations to children's learning behavior and emotional distress

AUTHOR(S)
Xiao Zhang

Published: April 2022   Journal: Early childhood research quarterly
The COVID-19 pandemic and its resulting containment measures have forced many children and their caregivers around the world to spend unprecedented amounts of time at home. Based on a sample of 764 households with preschool-aged children in Wuhan, China, where the pandemic began, this study examined how primary caregivers perceived changes in the amount of time spent engaging with their children (i.e., engaged time) from the start of the pandemic and whether these changes were associated with children's learning behavior and emotional distress.
Problematic Internet use and academic engagement during the COVID-19 lockdown: The indirect effects of depression, anxiety, and insomnia in early, middle, and late adolescence

AUTHOR(S)
Sihan Liu; Shengqi Zou; Di Zhang (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of affective disorders

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the transition of online learning introduces challenges for adolescents to engage in learning. The increased access and persistent Internet use could heighten the risk of problematic Internet use (PIU) that has been increasingly recognized as a risk factor for academic engagement. This study aims to investigate the direct and indirect relationships between PIU and academic engagement through psychopathological symptoms (i.e., depression, anxiety, insomnia) in early, middle, and late adolescence. In all, 4852 adolescents (51.5% females; Mage = 13.80 ± 2.38) from different regions of Chinese mainland participated in the study and completed questionnaires.

The protective role of parental involvement at home in negative psychological outcomes among Chinese adolescents during the COVID-19 epidemic

AUTHOR(S)
Fangyuan Ding; Yuncheng Jia; Xianmeng Xiong (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of affective disorders

The COVID-19 outbreak has generated many negative psychological outcomes, such as depression, in adolescents. Exploration of protective factors for adolescent mental health is urgently needed, and no research has examined the role of parental involvement. From March to April 2020, valid data were collected from 1663 Chinese adolescents through online demographic and other questionnaires. Parental involvement at home was assessed by an adapted questionnaire on parental support in learning at home, stress since the COVID-19 outbreak was measured by the Perceived Stress Scale, and three negative psychological outcomes (i.e., depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS)) were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale, and PTSD Check List-Civilian Version, respectively.

Assessing the transition of COVID-19 burden towards the young population while vaccines are rolled out in China

AUTHOR(S)
Jun Cai; Juan Yang; Xiaowei Deng (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Emerging Microbes & Infections
SARS-CoV-2 infection causes most cases of severe illness and fatality in older age groups. Over 92% of the Chinese population aged ≥12 years has been fully vaccinated against COVID-19 (albeit with vaccines developed against historical lineages). At the end of October 2021, the vaccination programme has been extended to children aged 3–11 years. This study aimed to assess whether, in this vaccination landscape, the importation of Delta variant infections could shift COVID-19 burden from adults to children. It developed an age-structured susceptible-infectious-removed model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission to simulate epidemics triggered by the importation of Delta variant infections and project the age-specific incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections, cases, hospitalizations, intensive care unit admissions, and deaths.
The cross-sectional survey on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and it predictors among Chinese parents of 3–17 years aged children in Shenzhen City

AUTHOR(S)
Ting Li; Xichenhui Qiu; Xue Gong (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine
Vaccinations programs on 3–17 years aged children in China have been launched in some cities since July 2021; and comparative evaluations are important to push the programs forward. Therefore, this study is conducted to explore the COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and it predictors among Chinese parents of 3–17 years aged children; and their willingness to vaccinate their child/children. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on the online survey; and 3484 participants were recruited in health centers of Shenzhen, China.
Depression among schoolchildren and adolescents aged 9–17 years during the outbreak of COVID‑19 in Beijing: a cross-sectional online survey

AUTHOR(S)
Fuyuan Wen; Yi Meng; Kuo Liu (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Psychology, Health & Medicine
The COVID-19 outbreak and related confinement have highly impacted psychological health among children and adolescents. This study aimed to explore the potential risk factors for depression among primary and middle school students and provide advices for psychological interventions during the outbreaks. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among 18 primary and middle school students via quota sampling in Beijing during March 2020. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to assess depression. Differences between characteristics and depression were examined by chi-square tests. Multivariate logistic regression was used to reveal the potential risk factors for depression. A total of 7377 participants were included.
The associations of parental COVID-19 related worries, lifestyles, and insomnia with child insomnia during the COVID-19 outbreak

AUTHOR(S)
Nalan Zhan; Yeqing Zhang; Dongjie Xie (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: European Sleep Research
The impacts of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on sleep health have been studied extensively. However, little is known about sleep problems within the family system during the pandemic. This study aimed to examine the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on insomnia in both adults and children, and to explore whether parental COVID-19 related worries, lifestyles, and insomnia were associated with child insomnia. A total of 1355 parent–child dyads (39.2% fathers, mean age 38.37 years, SD = 5.34; 52.7% boys, mean age 12.47 years, SD = 1.67) were recruited from Jiangxi province in China from 4 to 18 February 2020.
Gender-specific related factors for suicidal ideation during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown among 5,175 Chinese adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Jin Zhu; Baohua Li; Fengcheng Hao (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health
Suicide was an urgent issue during the pandemic period in adolescents. However, few studies were focused on suicide during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic lockdown. An online survey was conducted among 5,175 Chinese adolescents from June 9th to 29th in 2020 to investigate the prevalence of suicidal ideation (SI) during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. A gender-specific stepwise logistic regression model was used. All analyses were performed with STATA 15.0
The relationship between adolescent risk perception and emotions during the COVID-19: a short-term longitudinal study

AUTHOR(S)
Tong-tong Xin; Xiu-jun Li; Lei-Shen (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Current Psychology
This study explores the relationship between adolescents’ perceptions of epidemic risk and their emotions through three follow-up surveys during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic on February 11th (T1), 18th (T2), and 25th (T3), 2020. Three hundred and four adolescents in different academic stages (junior high middle school, senior high middle school, and university) participated in the online survey, and cross-lag analysis was used to examine the causal relationship between epidemic risk perceptions and positive and negative emotions.
The effect of parent phubbing on Chinese adolescents’ smartphone addiction during COVID-19 pandemic: testing a moderated mediation model

AUTHOR(S)
Jun Zhao; Baojuan Ye; Laisong Luo (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
COVID-19 has affected the health and well-being of tens of millions of people and contributed to smartphone addiction. The prior studies found several characteristics that influenced smartphone addiction, but little research was undertaken on the epidemic. This study aims to test a moderated mediation model of smartphone addiction. Three classes in each grade from grade 7 through grade 9 at random were recruited in the target junior high schools. A total of 931 Chinese adolescents (Mage=13.54 years, SDage =1.08) completed valid questionnaires via online surveys from February 5– 19, 2021.
Household chaos and caregivers’ and young children’s mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: a mediation model

AUTHOR(S)
Xiao Zhang

Published: March 2022   Journal: Journal of Child and Family Studies
Based on 764 households with young children in Wuhan, China, where the COVID-19 pandemic started, this study investigated how household chaos during the pandemic was associated with the mental health problems of children and their caregivers. It also examined the familial correlates of household chaos.
The short- and long-term impact of COVID-19 lockdown on child maltreatment

AUTHOR(S)
Mengqing Long; Jia Huang; Yishun Peng (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought a new threat to child health and safety. Some studies suggest that social isolation and economic stress have exacerbated child abuse and neglect, whereas other studies argue that orders to stay at home are likely to promote parent–child relationships during this stressful time. Due to a lack of prospective studies including before–during–after lockdown assessments, the impacts of lockdown measures on child maltreatment are unclear. This study retrospectively investigated child maltreatment of 2821 Chinese children and adolescents from 12 to 18 (female, 59%) before, during and after lockdown, and identified risk factors. Potential predictors including socio-economic and individual mental health status were collected.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.