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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 97
Mental health and health-related quality of life in German adolescents after the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic

Justine Hussong; Eva Möhler; Anna Kühn (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Children
Evaluations after the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany showed an increase in mental health problems and a reduction in health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of the study was to assess those aspects after the third wave of COVID-19 in adolescents who decided to receive a vaccination. In students aged 12–17 years recruited from schools in one German region, mental health (by the strengths and difficulties questionnaire, SDQ) and HRQoL (by KIDSCREEN-10) were assessed by both a self- and parental report. Data from 1412 adolescents (mean age 14.3 years, SD = 1.64) and 908 parents were collected. The mean self-reported HRQoL was T = 53.7 (SD = 11.2), significantly higher in boys than in girls and higher in younger (12–14 years) than in older (15–17 years) adolescents. In total, 18.7% of adolescents reported clinically relevant psychological symptoms, especially peer problems (23.5%), emotional problems (17.4%), and hyperactivity (17.1%). Comparing the present data to evaluations after the first and second waves of COVID-19, adolescents rated a higher HRQoL and reported less mental health problems after the third wave. After 1.5 years of living with the pandemic, adolescents have adapted to the changes in everyday life. Further, the relaxation of restrictions, better school organization, and the prospect of the vaccination may have increased optimism, wellbeing, and contentment, leading to declining but still alarming rates of psychological symptoms.
School health promotion in pandemic times. Results of the COVID-HL school principal study

Kevin Dadaczynski; Orkan Okan; Melanie Messer

Published: May 2022   Journal: Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz
Die vorliegende Studie untersucht, in welchem Ausmaß Schulen Maßnahmen der Gesundheitsförderung und Prävention während der COVID-19-Pandemie umsetzen. Von besonderem Interesse sind hierbei Unterschiede nach demografischen Variablen, Schulform, Bundesland und die Beteiligung an Landesinitiativen der Gesundheitsförderung.
Pediatric intensive care unit admissions after adolescent suicide attempts during the pandemic.

Nora Bruns; Lea Willemsen; Andreas Stang (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Pediatrics

The worldwide SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic challenges adolescents’ mental health. The aim of this study was to compare the number of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admissions after suicide attempts during the first German lockdown and one year later during a second, prolonged lockdown with pre-pandemic years. A retrospective multicenter study was conducted among 27 German PICUs. Cases <18 years admitted to the PICU due to accidents or injuries between March 16th and May 31st of 2017-2021 were identified based on ICD-10 codes (German modification) and patient data entered into a database. This study is a subset analysis on suicide attempts in adolescents aged 12–17.9 years. The Federal Statistics Office was queried for data on fatal suicides, which were available only for 2020 in adolescents aged 10–17.9 years.

Work-to-family conflict and parenting practices: examining the role of working from home among lone and partnered working mothers

Janine Bernhardt; Claudia Recksiedler

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Family Research

This study investigates associations between work-to-family conflict and parenting practices among lone and partnered working mothers and the role of working from home as a potential resource gain or drain for acting empathetically and supportively towards their children. Emerging evidence suggests that work-to-family conflict reduces responsive parenting practices, yet prior studies have rarely examined disparities by family structure. Although working from home has recently gained in importance in the workforce, there is still little research on its implications for the relationship between work-to-family conflict and the quality of parenting practices. If working from home is not used to do supplemental work during overtime hours, it may free up mothers’ time and emotional resources. In turn, this may either buffer the harmful impact of work-to-family conflict on parenting practices or indirectly enhance the quality of parenting practices by reducing work-to-family conflict. This could be particularly beneficial for lone mothers, who experience more role and time strain.

Measuring parents’ readiness to vaccinate themselves and their children against COVID-19

Franziska Rees; Mattis Geiger; Lau Lilleholt (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Vaccine
To reach high vaccination rates against COVID-19, children and adolescents should be also vaccinated. To improve childhood vaccination rates and vaccination readiness, parents need to be addressed since they decide about the vaccination of their children. This study adapted the 7C of vaccination readiness scale to measure parents’ readiness to vaccinate their children and evaluated the scale in a long and a short version in two studies. The study was first evaluated with a sample of N = 244 parents from the German COVID-19 Snapshot Monitoring (COSMO) and validated with N = 464 parents from the Danish COSMO.
Short report: weight management of children and adolescents with obesity during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany

Nina Eisenburger; David Friesen; Fabiola Haas (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Plos One
The aim of this analysis was to assess the effectiveness of a juvenile outpatient weight management program during the coronavirus pandemic in Germany, which was implemented digitally during the initial lockdown and thereafter under strict hygiene rules (e.g., adapted exercise sessions). Changes in body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI SDS), physical fitness, media consumption, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and social self-concept of 28 children and adolescents were compared to data of 30 participants before the pandemic.
Childcare, work or worries? What explains the decline in parents' well-being at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany?

Basha Vicari; Gundula Zoch; Ann-Christin Bächmann (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Family Research

This study examines how care arrangements, general and altered working conditions, and worries influenced subjective well-being at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic for working parents in Germany. Prior research suggests several reasons for declines in subjective well-being, particularly for working mothers. This study employs Pearlin's (1989) stress process model to explore the role of parental childcare, altered working conditions and amplified worries of working parents in terms of increased stressors and modified resources to cope with the extraordinary situation.

Rightly blamed the ‘bad guy’? Grandparental childcare and COVID-19

Christina Boll; Till Nikolka

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Public Finance and Public Choice
This study explores the link between regular grandparental childcare and SARS-CoV-2 infection rates at the level of German counties. This analysis suggests that a region’s infection rates are shaped by region-, household- and individual-specific parameters. It extensively draws on the latter, exploring the intra- and extra-familial mechanisms fuelling individual contact frequency to test the potential role of regular grandparental childcare in explaining overall infection rates.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 37 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 23 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease prevention, disease transmission, family environment, infectious disease, pandemic | Countries: Germany
Parental perceived stress and its consequences on early social-emotional child development during COVID-19 pandemic

Julia Dillmann; Özlem Sensoy; Gudrun Schwarzer (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Journal of Early Childhood Research
In 2020, the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, and the resulting highly infectious disease COVID-19 led to restrictions based on the principal of social distancing to curb the spread of the virus among the population and to prevent an overload of health system capacities. These restrictions changed the daily lives of young children and parents dramatically. This German questionnaire study aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the magnitude of stress in parent-child systems and on social-emotional child development. The sample consisted of 90 (39 male, 51 female) children (M = 17.2 months, SD = 9.7 months) aged 7–12 months (n = 38), 13–24 months (n = 31) and 25–38 months (n = 21). Parental stress was measured using the German version of the Parenting Stress Index, namely Eltern-Belastungs-Inventar. Additionally, social-emotional child development was measured using the Social-Emotional Questionnaire of the Bayley-III.
Lifestyle changes, mental health, and health-related quality of life in children aged 6–7 years before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in South Germany

Deborah Kurz; Stefanie Braig; Jon Genuneit (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health

The measures against the COVID-19 pandemic are challenging for children and parents, and detrimental effects on child health are suggested especially from lock-down measures and school closings. This study conducted a cross-sectional analysis using a population based longitudinal (birth-) cohort study (SPATZ study) conducted in the South of Germany. Data included all 6 or 7 year old children for whom a questionnaire was completed during first grade of school. Consequently, it was able to analyze children being in first grade before the first lockdown in Germany (≤ 15th March 2020), as well as children being in first grade during the pandemic (> 15th March 2020). It also conducted descriptive statistics and estimated the associations between the two time periods, before and during the pandemic, and various outcomes of child health using multivariable adjusted linear or logistic regression modeling. The analysis was stratified by gender.

The social gradient in COVID-19 vaccination intentions and the role of solidarity beliefs among adolescents

Alexander Patzin; Hans Dietrich

Published: March 2022   Journal: SSM - Population Health

Vaccines against COVID-19 play a prominent role in the policies enacted to combat the pandemic. However, vaccination rates are lowest among adolescents and young adults. Therefore, research on younger individuals is needed to provide a deeper understanding of social disparities and the motives behind vaccination intentions. This study draws on a sample (N = 4079) of German high school students and graduates. Based on cross-sectional data from March to July 2021 and linear regression models, which are conditioned on personality, risk preferences, and trust, the study analyses social disparities (i.e., gender, parental education and migration background) in vaccination intentions.

Wellbeing, coping with homeschooling, and leisure behavior at different COVID-19-related lockdowns: a longitudinal study in 9- to 16-year-old German children

Tanja Poulain; Christof Meigen; Wieland Kiess (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: JCPP Advances

School closures are an effective measure against the spread of Covid-19. However, they pose a major challenge to children, especially to those from socially disadvantaged families. The present study compared the wellbeing, coping with homeschooling, and leisure behavior of children and adolescents at two different periods of school closures in Germany. Wellbeing was also compared with wellbeing before the pandemic. Within the framework of the cohort study LIFE Child, 152 9- to 16-year-old children completed online surveys on wellbeing (KIDSCREEN-27 scales on physical wellbeing, psychological wellbeing, and peer and social support), coping with homeschooling (concentration, motivation, fun, mastering of schoolwork, fear of bad marks), and leisure behavior (TV time, computer gaming time, indoor physical activity) during two COVID-19-related lockdowns in March 2020 (t1) and in January 2021 (t2). Data from both time points were compared using mixed-effect models. Wellbeing was additionally compared with the wellbeing in 2019, before COVID-19 (t0). We also assessed the effects of the socio-economic status (SES) on all outcomes and changes between time points.

Remote learning and its effects on the well-being of primary school learners in Germany

Tobias Schroedler; Drorit Lengyel; Jürgen Budde (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education
This paper presents a study on remote learning of primary school children during the first school closures that were imposed in Germany in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2020. Data were collected at a primary school covering learners from age 6-12 and include a comprehensive survey amongst parents (n=69) as well as interviews with learners (n=17). Employing a mixed-methods approach, we first analyse the parent-survey’s quantitative dataset. The analyses demonstrate that using modern technology for teaching and for communication between teachers and learners positively impact learners’ motivation and well-being. Multivariate statistics show that teacher-learner contact frequency as well as teaching-learning transparency are predictive towards learner well-being.
COVID-19 infections in day care centres in Germany: social and organisational determinants of infections in children and staff in the second and third wave of the pandemic

Franz Neuberger; Mariana Grgic; Svenja Diefenbacher (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health volume
During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, German early childhood education and care (ECEC) centres organised children’s attendance in different ways, they reduced opening hours, provided emergency support for a few children, or closed completely. Further, protection and hygiene measures like fixed children-staff groups, ventilation and surface disinfection were introduced in ECEC centres. To inform or modify public health measures in ECEC, we investigate the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infections among children and staff in ECEC centres in light of social determinants (i.e. the socioeconomic status of the children) and recommended structural and hygiene measures. We focus on the question if the relevant factors differ between the 2nd (when no variant of concern (VOC) circulated) and the 3rd wave (when VOC B.1.1.7 (Alpha) predominated).
Students’ age and parental level of education influence COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy

Anna Zychlinsky Scharff; Mira Paulsen; Paula Schaefer (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: European Journal of Pediatrics
Widespread vaccination in pursuit of herd immunity has been recognized as the most promising approach to ending the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). The vaccination of children and adolescents has been extensively debated and the first COVID-19 vaccine is now approved in European countries for children aged > 12 years of age. This study investigates vaccination hesitancy in a cohort of German secondary school students. It assessed 903 students between age 9 and 20 in the period between 17 May 2021 and 30 June 2021. 68.3% (n = 617) reported intention to undergo COVID-19 vaccination, while 7% (n = 62) did not want to receive the vaccine and 15% (n = 135) were not yet certain. Age and parental level of education influenced COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Children under the age of 16 as well as students whose parents had lower education levels showed significantly higher vaccine hesitancy.
31 - 45 of 97

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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