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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Incidence and clinical phenotype of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children after infection with the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant by vaccination status: a Danish nationwide prospective cohort study.

AUTHOR(S)
Ulrikka Nygaard; Mette Holm; Ulla Birgitte Hartling (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) occurs after infection with SARS-CoV-2 and its incidence is likely to depend on multiple factors, including the variant of the preceding SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccine effectiveness. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of MIS-C, and describe the clinical phenotype, following the delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.617.2 and sublineages) according to vaccination status. It aimed to compare the incidence and clinical phenotype of MIS-C from our cohort during the pre-delta era. This prospective, population-based cohort study included patients aged 0–17 years hospitalised with MIS-C in Denmark, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition, from Aug 1, 2021, to Feb 1, 2022, a period dominated by the delta variant. It identified MIS-C cases via a nationwide research collaboration involving real-time data collection from all 18 paediatric departments. Aggregated number of SARS-CoV-2 infections by vaccination status was obtained from the Danish COVID-19 surveillance registries. The incidence of MIS-C was calculated using the estimated number of infected individuals by vaccination status
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 6 | Issue: 7 | No. of pages: 459-465 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, hospitalization, infectious disease, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Denmark
Measuring parents’ readiness to vaccinate themselves and their children against COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Franziska Rees; Mattis Geiger; Lau Lilleholt (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Vaccine
To reach high vaccination rates against COVID-19, children and adolescents should be also vaccinated. To improve childhood vaccination rates and vaccination readiness, parents need to be addressed since they decide about the vaccination of their children. This study adapted the 7C of vaccination readiness scale to measure parents’ readiness to vaccinate their children and evaluated the scale in a long and a short version in two studies. The study was first evaluated with a sample of N = 244 parents from the German COVID-19 Snapshot Monitoring (COSMO) and validated with N = 464 parents from the Danish COSMO.
Risk of adverse events after covid-19 in Danish children and adolescents and effectiveness of BNT162b2 in adolescents: cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Helene Kildegaard; Lars Christian Lund; Mikkel Højlund

Published: April 2022   Journal: BMJ
This study aims to assess the risk of acute and post-acute adverse events after SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents in Denmark and to evaluate the real world effectiveness of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech) among adolescents.
Acute symptoms in SARS-CoV-2 positive adolescents aged 15–18 years – Results from a Danish national cross-sectional survey study

AUTHOR(S)
Selina Kikkenborg Berg; Pernille Palm; Susanne Dam Nielsen (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Europe

The purpose of this study was to investigate prevalence of self-reported symptom burden during the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated factors including sex differences. All Danish adolescents aged 15–18 years with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between January 2020 and July 2021 were invited to participate. A survey covered the initial four weeks of SARS-CoV-2 infection and included questions regarding 17 symptoms associated with acute COVID-19, symptom burden and medical history. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics and logistic regression.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 16 | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, COVID-19, infectious disease, pandemic, respiratory diseases | Countries: Denmark
Child well-being in early childhood education and care during COVID-19: child sensitivity in small, fixed groups

AUTHOR(S)
Anette Boye Koch

Published: March 2022   Journal: Children & Society
The article explores child well-being in Danish early childhood education and care (ECEC) during the time of COVID-19. A phased reopening of Denmark occurred in spring 2020 under strict health guidelines. Two ECEC institutions were followed first-hand to observe the impact of the pandemic on pedagogy and child well-being. Observations and interviews were conducted with follow-up interviews and an online survey a year later. The findings suggest that the pandemic caused pedagogues to work in a more child-sensitive way with elevated staff/child ratios and children in small, fixed groups; however, child well-being was not negatively affected, despite the acute situation.
Playful learning during the reopening of Danish schools after Covid 19 closures

AUTHOR(S)
A. Qvortrup; R. Lomholt; V. Christensen (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research
This article is based on qualitative and quantitative data collected from teachers and pupils in Danish schools in June 2020, as schools reopened following closures in the spring due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It investigates the transformations in school life that took place in this period in response to strict official guidelines to prevent the spread of infection, transformations both in school learning environments and in teaching activities. Using factor and cluster analyses and logistic regression, it explores the relation between teaching environment and pupils’ emotional, social, and academic wellbeing, identifying correlations between key factors in the environment and the three dimensions of wellbeing. The study contributes both to understanding and dealing with the crisis in which education systems in the Nordic countries have found themselves in and adds relevant knowledge on themes of importance for education in the future.
Impact of housing conditions on changes in youth’s mental health following the initial national COVID-19 lockdown: a cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Jonathan Groot; Amélie Keller; Andrea Joensen (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Scientific Reports
This study aimed to investigate if declines in youth’s mental health during lockdown were dependent on housing condition among 7445 youth (median age ~ 20 years) from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), with data collected at 18 years of age and again three weeks into the first national lockdown (April 2020). It examined associations between housing conditions (access to outdoor spaces, urbanicity, household density, and household composition) and changes in mental health (mental well-being, Quality of Life (QoL) and loneliness). Results from multivariate linear and logistic regression models were reported.
Alcohol use among adolescents during the first pandemic lockdown in Denmark, May 2020

AUTHOR(S)
Signe Skovgaard Hviid; Veronica Pisinger; Sofie Have Hoffman (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Scandinavian journal of public health

As alcohol is often consumed for social purposes, this study aimed to explore how restrictions during the first Danish COVID-19 lockdown affected the alcohol use among adolescents aged 15-20. In May 2020, 11,596 15- to 20-year-olds from two subpopulations answered a survey regarding their alcohol use and social life, as well as changes to these, during the Danish lockdown. Using survey data from all participants, this study performed a multinomial logistic regression to assess the association between determinants of alcohol use and perceived change in alcohol use during the Danish lockdown. It used longitudinal data from one subpopulation (n=1869) to perform negative binomial regressions exploring changes in frequency of alcohol use from 2019 to 2020.

Long COVID symptoms in SARS-CoV-2-positive adolescents and matched controls (LongCOVIDKidsDK): a national, cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Selina Kikkenborg Berg; Susanne Dam Nielsen; Ulrikka Nygaard (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health

Many adolescents have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic either directly by being infected with the virus or indirectly by lockdowns and restrictions influencing normal living. This study aimed to investigate health, including symptoms of long COVID, in adolescents (aged 15–18 years) who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared with a control group. LongCOVIDKidsDK was a national, cross-sectional study carried out in Denmark, which included SARS-CoV-2-positive adolescents and matched controls. All Danish adolescents aged 15–18 years with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test during the period Jan 1, 2020, to July 12, 2021, and a control group matched (1:4) by age and sex were sent a survey from July 20, 2021. Participants had until Sept 15, 2021, to respond.

Long COVID symptoms and duration in SARS-CoV-2 positive children — a nationwide cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Luise Borch; Mette Holm; Maria Knudsen (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: European Journal of Pediatrics
Most children have a mild course of acute COVID-19. Only few mainly non-controlled studies with small sample size have evaluated long-term recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate symptoms and duration of ‘long COVID’ in children. A nationwide cohort study of 37,522 children aged 0–17 years with RT-PCR verified SARS-CoV-2 infection (response rate 44.9%) and a control group of 78,037 children (response rate 21.3%). An electronic questionnaire was sent to all children from March 24th until May 9th, 2021.
Preterm birth after the introduction of COVID-19 mitigation measures in Norway, Sweden and Denmark: a registry-based difference-in-differences study

AUTHOR(S)
Laura L. Oakley; Anne K. Örtqvist; Jonas Kinge (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Although some studies have reported a decrease in preterm birth following the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, findings are inconsistent. This study aimed to compare the incidence of preterm birth before and after the introduction of COVID-19 mitigation measures in Scandinavian countries, using robust population-based registry data.

The effect of COVID-19-related school closures on students’ well-being: evidence from Danish nationwide panel data

AUTHOR(S)
Simon Skovgaard Jensen; David Reimer

Published: November 2021   Journal: SSM - Population Health
This study aims to determine the effect of the temporary closure of Danish schools as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2020 on students' reported levels of well-being and test whether the effect varies among students of different socioeconomic status. To this end, it draws on panel data from the mandatory annual nationwide Danish Student Well-being Survey (DSWS) and exploit random variation in whether students answered the 2020 survey before or during the spring lockdown period.
Concerns about transmission, changed services and place of birth in the early COVID-19 pandemic: a national survey among Danish pregnant women: the COVIDPregDK study

AUTHOR(S)
Katja Schrøder; Lonny Stokholm; Katrine Hass Rubin (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic caused great uncertainty about causes, treatment and mortality of the new virus. Constant updates of recommendations and restrictions from national authorities may have caused great concern for pregnant women. Reports suggested an increased number of pregnant women choosing to give birth at home, some even unassisted (‘freebirth’) due to concerns of transmission in hospital or reduction in birthplace options. During April and May 2020, this study aimed to investigate i) the level of concern about coronavirus transmission in Danish pregnant women, ii) the level of concern related to changes in maternity services due to the pandemic, and iii) implications for choice of place of birth. It conducted a nationwide cross-sectional online survey, inviting all registered pregnant women in Denmark (n = 30,009) in April and May 2020.

Health anxiety symptoms in Danish children during the first lockdown period of the COVID-19 pandemic: an Odense Child Cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Ditte Hulgaard; Charlotte Ulrikka Raskc; Henriette Boye (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has a severe impact on the general population. During the pandemic, children may develop emotional and psychological symptoms, including increased worries about health and illness, known as health anxiety symptoms (HASs). This study aimed to explore HAS in 7–9-year-old children from the Danish Odense Child Cohort (OCC) during the first COVID-19 lockdown period in Denmark, and to examine associations with potential risk factors. OCC is a cohort of children born between 2010 and 2012, which originally recruited 2874 of 6707 pregnancies (43%). Among the current OCC population of 2430 singleton children, 994 participated in this study (response rate 40%). Children and their parents filled out questionnaires about child HAS, family exposure to COVID-19 infection and parental HAS. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were calculated between high score child HAS (≥90th percentile) and covariates by use of logistic regression.

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on biopsychosocial health and quality of life among Danish children and adults with neuromuscular diseases (NMD)—Patient reported outcomes from a national survey

AUTHOR(S)
Charlotte Handberg; Ulla Werlauff; Ann-Lisbeth Højberg (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Plos One
The purpose was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on biopsychosocial health, daily activities, and quality of life among children and adults with neuromuscular diseases, and to assess the prevalence of COVID-19 infection and the impact of this in patients with neuromuscular diseases. The study was a national questionnaire survey. Responses were obtained from 811 adults (29%) and 67 parents of children (27%) with neuromuscular diseases.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.