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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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The role of life satisfaction in the association between problematic technology use and anxiety in children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Raquel Luengo-González; Concepción Noriega-Matanza; Ernesto J. Espín-Lorite (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
The main aim of this study is to explore problematic technology use among adolescents (Internet, video games, mobiles, and television) and its association with anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, it also analysed the possible moderating role of life satisfaction in this relationship during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain. A cross-sectional survey of 4025 children and adolescents (52% females and 48% males) between 12 and 18 years old was carried out to explore problematic technology use and its correlation with anxiety and life satisfaction after pandemic lockdown. Four multivariate regressions containing the independent variable (problematic technology use), the moderator (life satisfaction), and their interaction were entered to predict the outcome (anxiety). The moderated models were examined using SPSS PROCESS macro software (Model 1).
Implications for balance in 11- and 12-year-old children in northern Spain during SARS-CoV-2 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Oliver Ramos-Álvarez; Víctor Arufe-Giráldez; Alberto Sanmiguel-Rodríguez (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology

The home lockdown due to the appearance of SARS-CoV-2 in Spanish society led to changes in certain habits in children and adolescents. These habits were related to the practice of physical activity and the implications of higher rates of sedentary activities. This lockdown lasted from March to June 2020. The aim of this study was to determine the implication that lockdown in Spain due to the SARS-CoV-2 virus outbreak had on balance in 11–12 year-old schoolchildren.  In total, 50 Spanish children aged 11–12 years (M = 11.40, SD = 0.50) participated, 33 (66%) boys and 17 (34%) girls. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2 (Movement ABC-2) and an ad hoc questionnaire for sociodemographic data and other relevant information were used for the three data collections.

Children playing video games during COVID-19 in Spain

AUTHOR(S)
Carolina Escudero

Published: September 2022   Journal: Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal
As has been verified, those who spend more time playing video games are children and adolescents. The lockdown caused by the COVID-19 pandemic increased the prolonged use of video games in this population. In this context it is possible to observe some risks of this use, one of them the symptoms of gaming disorder (GD). The objective of this study is to analyze video game habits and the possible impacts on children - aged between 7 and 10 years – gaming for more than 4 hours daily during confinement - the lockdown was announced on March 14, 2020 and lasted approximately three months.- in Spain.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 9 | Issue: 9 | No. of pages: 388-403 | Language: English | Topics: Mental Health | Tags: child mental health, COVID-19 response, lockdown, new media, play, social distance | Countries: Spain
Unravelling the role of the mandatory use of face covering masks for the control of SARS-CoV-2 in schools: a quasi-experimental study nested in a population-based cohort in Catalonia (Spain)

AUTHOR(S)
Ermengol Coma; Martí Català; Leonardo Méndez-Boo (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Archives of Disease in Childhood

This study aims to assess the effectiveness of mandatory use of face covering masks (FCMs) in schools during the first term of the 2021–2022 academic year. It is a retrospective population-based study conducted in the schools of Catalonia (Spain).

Meeting 24 h movement guidelines and health-related quality of life in youths during the COVID-19 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
José Francisco López-Gil; Mark S. Tremblay; Miguel Ángel Tapia-Serrano (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Applied Sciences
Limitations in the use of public spaces have impacted the frequency and duration of movement behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep) and outdoor activities of children and adolescents. Whether pandemic-induced changes in movement behaviours are related to the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of children and adolescents is unknown. The aim of the current study was to examine the association between meeting 24 h movement guidelines and HRQoL during the COVID-19 lockdown among children and adolescents. Data from 1099 3–17-year-old children and adolescents from Spain and Brazil were analysed. An online questionnaire was used to collect parent-reported information concerning physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration. For the assessment of HRQoL, the EQ-5D-Y proxy version was used.
Game over? Perceptions of children's and adolescents' play and leisure during the COVID-19 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Laura Camas; María del Prado Martín-Ondarza; Silvia Sánchez-Serrano

Published: August 2022   Journal: International Journal of Play
The restrictions adopted due to the COVID-19 health crisis established a new normality in the lives of children and adolescents in Spain. This study aims to explore the perception of adult caregivers and children and adolescents (from now CAs) regarding time, space, company, activities, screen time, and those aspects missed and desired during the lockdown. To do so, two online questionnaires were designed and distributed through foundations, schools and social networks. The sample consists of 270 adult caregivers and 126 CAs.
Compliance with COVID-19 measures in adolescents and related sociodemographic and educational variables

AUTHOR(S)
Raquel Espejo-Siles; Izabela Zych; Vicente J. Llorent

Published: July 2022   Journal: Psychology, Society & Educationwww.uco.es/ucopress/ojs/index.php/psyeKey wor d sAb s t rA c tPA l A brA sc lAv ere s u m e nPsychology, Society & Education (2022) 14(2), 59-66Compliance with COVID-19 measures in adolescents and related sociodemographic an

Increasing rule compliance in adolescents is one of the greatest challenges during the pandemic. Understanding how  different  variables  are  related  to  compliance  with  COVID-19  regulations  in  adolescents  is  needed  to  improve policy and practice against it. This study aims to analyze how sociodemographic and educational variables such as sex, age, socioeconomic status, being in a minority group, academic performance and failure, and problem behavior at school are related to the compliance with some COVID-19 regulations in a representative sample of 1,498 students (aged between 11 and 17 years M = 13.58, SD = 1.32) of compulsory secondary education in Andalusia (Spain).

Lockdown due to COVID-19 in Spanish children up to 6 years: consequences on diet, lifestyle, screen viewing, and sleep

AUTHOR(S)
Mercedes Díaz-Rodríguez; Jesús Carretero-Bravo; Celia Pérez-Muñoz (et al.)

Published: June 2022

This study aimed to record how the habits of children under 6 years of age in Cadiz have changed during lockdown, in order to identify those that could be a handicap for the problem of overweight and obesity. It developed a new questionnaire to analyse family living habits. The questionnaire was administered online to parents of children aged zero-six years. Eating habits, sedentary lifestyles, screen viewing, and sleep changes were evaluated.

Back to school in the pandemic: observations of the influences of prevention measures on relationships, autonomy, and learning of preschool children

AUTHOR(S)
Naiara Ozamiz-Etxbarria; Maitane Picaza; Eneritz Jiménez-Etxebarria (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: COVID
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a global impact on societies, economies, and education. In Spain, one of the countries most affected by the COVID-19 in the initial year, the virus began to spread at the end of February 2020. When the Spanish government declared a state of emergency, the first restrictive measure was the closure of all educational centers on the 14th of March. All schools and universities were closed until September 2020, when students returned to classes with preventative health measures in place to prevent the spread of the virus. This study focuses on the observation of children in pre-school education. Specifically, it focuses on studying how preventative health measures that were taken in the pre-schools may have influenced children’s social relationships, basic autonomy, and learning. We used a mixed method in which field notes were taken and observational scores were assigned.
Mental well-being during the COVID-19 confinement among adolescents in Catalonia: the role of demographic and other COVID-related variables

AUTHOR(S)
Cinta Folch; Helena González-Casals; Joan Colom (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Children
This study aimed to describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the social situation, self-perceived health status, and mental well-being of adolescents in Catalonia during home confinement, and to evaluate factors that are associated with poor overall mental well-being. An online cross-sectional study among a cohort of students (14–18 years old) of central Catalonia (DESKcohort) was performed during June–July 2020. Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to identify variables associated with “poor overall well-being,” measured by the short version of the Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale.
Children's experiences of lockdown and social distancing in the Covid-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Gustavo González-Calvo; Valeria Varea; Alfonso García-Monge

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Family Issues
Covid-19 was declared a pandemic in March 2020, and the world has witnessed significant changes since then. Spain has been forced to go into extreme lockdown, cancelling all school classes and outdoor activities for children, which may have significant consequences on young people. This paper explores how young children have experienced lockdown as a consequence of the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic and what they think about their future lives after Covid-19. Data were collected from 73 students aged from 7 to 9 years old, using participant-produced drawings and short questions with children’s and parents’ descriptive comments. We used a children’s rights perspective and the Freirean approach of a pedagogy of love and hope to analyse the data.
Impact of the COVID-19 confinement on the physics and chemistry didactic in high schools

AUTHOR(S)
Elena Jiménez Sánchez; Estrella Montes-López; María Jesús Santos Sánchez

Published: May 2022   Journal: Sustainability
Online education due to COVID-19 confinement impacted the use of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Spain, where it was poorly implemented. The aim of this paper was to inspect the methodological changes in Physics and Chemistry teaching during the confinement as well as in the ICT use and the lockdown impact afterwards. For this purpose, an online survey was administered by email to the Physics and Chemistry teachers of three provinces of Spain. Based on the analysis, the most widely used methodology was the traditional one. Still, during the lockdown, its use decreased, and others, such as the flipped classroom, increased significantly. Other adaptations included increasing the use of virtual simulations and self-learning by the student. It can be outlined the incorporation of new tools such as WebQuests, the smartphone, or online education platforms, whose use has continued. The ICT was used for new functionalities such as evaluation or answering student questions.
Unexplained hepatitis in children after lifting COVID-19 pandemic restrictions.

AUTHOR(S)
Pablo Barreiro

Published: April 2022   Journal: AIDS Reviews
Since January 2022, almost 150 cases of acute hepatitis with epidemic features have been reported among children aged 1-15 years old, mostly below 5 years old. A wide range of symptoms has appeared, but a subset of these children has progressed to liver failure and required liver transplantation and at least one death has been reported already.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 3 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19 response, hospitalization, lockdown, social distance | Countries: Spain
Assessment of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on a children's hospital: the point of view of patients and families

AUTHOR(S)
Maria D. Navarro-Rubio; Ana Bosque; Arian Tarbal (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Patient Experience Journal
The coronavirus pandemic has affected our health, social behavior, and quality of life. In addition to the deaths and morbidity, the crisis also affects all spheres in society. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of hospital patients and families regarding the pandemic. This is a descriptive study conducted May-July 2020 in the Sant Joan de Déu children’s hospital, Barcelona, Spain. We developed a mix-method approach. It included online semi-structured interviews and photo voice. Seventeen patients’ representatives were interviewed.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 9 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 26-34 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19 response, health care facilities, hospitalization, lockdown, social distance | Countries: Spain
Drawing the COVID-19 pandemic: how do children incorporate the health crisis and its consequences into their everyday thinking?

AUTHOR(S)
Nahia Idoiaga Mondragon; Amaia Eiguren Munitis; Naiara Berasategi Sancho (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Psychology & Health

The general objective of this research was to explore how children understand and represent COVID-19 health crisis in their everyday thinking.This research is based on a qualitative interpretive research methodology that uses 6-12 years children’s drawings from San Sebastian (Basque Country, northern of Spain) to collect data. This technique allows children to visualize how they face this situation through a tool that promotes expression of their feelings and representations.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.