search advanced search
UNICEF Innocenti
Office of Research-Innocenti
search menu

Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

RESULTS:   38     SORT BY:


Select one or more filter options and click search below.

UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
Open Access
1 - 15 of 38
Good practices in perinatal care and breastfeeding protection during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic: a national situation analysis among BFHI maternity hospitals in Spain

Barbara Muñoz-Amat; Carmen Rosa Pallás-Alonso; María-Teresa Hernández-Aguilar

Published: August 2021   Journal: International Breastfeeding Journal

Although the positive effects of good clinical quality standards in perinatal care and breastfeeding support for women, newborns and families have been already demonstrated, many of these practices were disrupted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this study was to analyse the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on perinatal care and breastfeeding support practices offered by the Spanish maternity hospitals committed to the UNICEF Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), to women with and without COVID-19. Implementation of perinatal practices was assessed by a cross-sectional survey conducted in May 2020 using an online questionnaire. Comparison with pre-pandemic situation and level of commitment to BFHI practices was performed.

Analysis of psychosocial adjustment in the family during confinement: problems and habits of children and youth and parental stress and resilience

Magdalena P. Andrés-Romero; Juan M. Flujas-Contreras; Mercedes Fernández-Torres (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
The COVID-19 health crisis has led to a dramatic change in dynamics and habits of families, which may be a factor involved in the development and maintenance of problems and difficulties in children. The present study is a cross-sectional study that aims to describe and analyze the relationship between the difficulties in psychological adjustment and the change of habits of the infant-juvenile population as perceived by their parents and their stress and resilience during the total confinement of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain, as well as analyzing the course of the changes and the relationships between weeks 3 to 6, that is, the score of different participants in each week of the confinement. The sample is comprised of 883 parents of children and adolescents between 3 and 18 years of age.
Psychological adjustment of Spanish adolescents and their parents during COVID-19 lockdown: A mixed method approach

Silvia Postigo-Zegarra; Martın Julian; Konstanze Schoeps (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Plos One
Previous literature on the psychological impact of COVID-19 has shown a direct relationship between family conflicts and psychological distress among parents and their children during the domestic lockdown and social isolation; but there are also opportunities to enhance family bonding, encourage collective problem-solving and improve personal relationships. This study aimed to explore psychological adjustment processes of Spanish adolescents and their parents during the first month of lockdown by analyzing their narratives, perceived outcomes, protection and risk factors. A total of 142 people agreed to participate in this study. Of all participants, 61 were adolescents (M = 13.57; SD = 1.74; 57% women) and 81 were parents (M = 46.09; SD = 4.72; 91% mothers). All were Spanish residents and completed an online survey during the domestic lockdown in March 2020.
Evaluation of changes in pediatric healthcare activity during the Covid-19 state of alarm in the Canary Islands

Valewska G. Wallis Gómez; María Hernández Apolinario; Pedro Saavedra Santana (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Public Health in Practice

During the SARS-CoV-2 state of alarm (SoA), a 30–70% reduction was observed in the number of visits to Pediatric Emergency Departments (ED), as well as frequent delay in diagnosis or difficulty accessing healthcare services. This study evaluates modifications observed in pediatric healthcare activity during the SoA. This is a descriptive retrospective observational study of the hospital pediatric activity.

The views of children in residential care on the COVID-19 lockdown: implications for and their well-being and psychosocial intervention

Carme Montserrat; Marta Garcia-Molsosa; Joan Llosada-Gistau (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Recent international research has warned of the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on vulnerable children. However, little is known regarding the in-care population. This cross-sectional study aims too find out how children in residential care perceived the influence of the COVID-19 lockdown in their everyday life, relationships and subjective well-being. 856 children from 10 to 17 years old (Mage = 15.5, males = 71.2%, females = 28.8%) living in residential centres in Catalonia responded to an on-line questionnaire administered between June and July 2020. Bivariate analysis and multiple linear regression were used comparing the answers by sex.

Psychological symptoms in Italian, Spanish and Portuguese youth during the COVID-19 health crisis: a longitudinal study

Mireia Orgilés; Rita Francisco; Elisa Delvecchio (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Child Psychiatry & Human Development
Aiming to slow down the spread of the COVID-19, a lockdown was declared in the first term of 2020 in many European countries, applying different restrictions measures. Although the psychological effects of home confinement in children have been described, there is a lack of longitudinal research examining the impact of the confinement over time. The present study analyzes the evolution of the psychological wellbeing of children and adolescents from three European countries with different restrictions. Parents of 624 Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese children and adolescents aged 3 to 18 years old completed the “Impact Scale of COVID-19 and Home Confinement on Children and Adolescents” two, five, and eight weeks after the lockdown.
Effects of Covid-19 confinement on the mental health of children and adolescents in Spain

Juan Pablo Pizarro-Ruiz; Nuria Ordóñez-Camblor

Published: June 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports
In Spain, in order to control COVID-19 transmission, one of the strictest confinement measures in the world for children and teenagers has been implemented. From 14 March to 26 April 2020 underage Spaniards were not allowed to leave their homes, except for reasons of force majeure. This could have consequences on their mental health in both the short and the long term. Thus, the aim of the present study was to explore the consequences of confinement on the mental health of Spanish children and teenagers, at the time when minors had been locked down in their homes between 8 and 10 days. The sample was composed of 590 confined Spanish children and teenagers between 8 and 18 years old. The scales of Depression, Self-esteem, Anxiety, Problems with Emotional Regulation, Rage Control Problems, Integration and Social Competence, Somatic Complaints, Rebellious Behaviour, as well as Awareness of the Problems of the Assessment System for Children and Adolescents (SENA) were used.
A world through glass: a narrative around the family experiences during the confinement of COVID-19

Gustavo González-Calvo; Marta Arias-Carballal

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Family Issues
COVID-19 was declared a pandemic in March 2020, and the world has witnessed significant changes since then. Spain has been forced to go into extreme lockdown, cancelling all school classes and outdoor activities for children. Our study explores how parents of a group of school children aged 7 to 8 years have experienced confinement due to the COVID-19 health crisis. Following a narrative methodology, the results have been organized around a story that takes as a reference the period of confinement for a mother and worker in times of confinement. The conclusions of our study suggest that participants have experienced significant changes in their routines, having faced numerous personal and professional dilemmas in a climate of great emotional burden. This study is the first of its kind in investigating how the COVID-19 pandemic has influenced the ways that children and their families live and its possible implications for their futures.
Impact of COVID-19 home confinement in children’s refractive errors

Cristina Alvarez-Peregrina; Clara Martinez-Perez; Cesar Villa-Collar (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Myopia is a public health problem, with estimations that 50% of the world population will be myopic by 2050. Some environmental factors, such as time spent outdoors, doing near work, and using digital devices, influence the development of myopia in children. Home confinement in Spain has increased these risk factors, so this study aims to investigate the impact of home confinement during the COVID-19 outbreak in the vision of school-aged children;
Cite this research | No. of pages: 12 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19 response, lockdown, physical activity, public health | Countries: Spain
Family-school cooperation: an online survey of parents and teachers of young children in Spain

Andrea Otero‑Mayer; Ana González-Benito; Belén Gutiérrez-de-Rozas (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Early Childhood Education Journal
Given the closure of schools due to the global confinement resulting from the COVID-19 crisis, family-school cooperation has become a priority in most educational stages, but especially in Early Childhood Education and Care. This research analysed how parents dealt with this new situation, as well as the way in which family-school cooperation was established. Two online questionnaires were developed by the researchers. Respondents included 1266 families with children between the ages of infancy and six years, as well as 1235 early childhood education teachers from all regions of Spain. Results show that family-school cooperation is associated with several family and school characteristics and that families have neither the tools to face this new situation, nor the time to educate their children at home. This, together with the fact that some households do not have Internet access, makes family-school cooperation a challenging matter, especially in times of pandemic.
Social inequalities in health determinants in Spanish children during the COVID-19 lockdown

Yolanda González-Rábago; Andrea Cabezas-Rodríguez; Unai Martín

Published: April 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The COVID-19 lockdown was imposed in a context of notable inequalities in the distribution of the social determinants of health. It is possible that the housing conditions in which children and their families experienced the confinement, and the adoption of healthy behaviors, may have followed unequal patterns. The aim was to describe social inequalities in housing conditions and in health-related behaviors among children during the lockdown in Spain. This cross-sectional study was based on data from an online survey collecting information on the child population (3–12 years) living in Spain (n = 10,765).
SARS-COV-2 infection in pregnant women and newborns in a Spanish cohort (GESNEO-COVID) during the first wave

Itzíar Carrasco; Mar Muñoz-Chapuli; Sara Vigil-Vázquez (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

Knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy and newborns is scarce. The objective of this study is to analyse clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a cohort of women infected with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy and their newborns exposed to SARS-CoV-2 during gestation. Multicentric observational study of Spanish hospitals from the GESNEO-COVD cohort, participants in RECLIP (Spanish Network of Paediatric Clinical Assays). Women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by PCR and/or serology during pregnancy, diagnosed and delivering during the period 15/03/2020–31/07/2020 were included. Epidemiological, clinical, and analytical data was collected.

Psychological impact during COVID-19 lockdown in children and adolescents with previous mental health disorders

Jara Lopez-Serrano; Rosalía Díaz-Bóveda; Laura González-Vallespí (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental

During the COVID-19 pandemic, authorities confined adults, adolescents and children to their homes. Recent articles warn of possible long-term consequences on mental health, especially for those who suffer from underlying psychiatric conditions and for vulnerable sections of the population. The present study explores the psychological impact of the COVID-19 quarantine on outpatients at the Centre of Child and Adolescent Mental Health (CAMHS), which is based in Barcelona. A total of 441 caregivers answered an online ad-hoc survey on their sociodemographic and economic situation, perceived stress, and clinical changes and coping strategies observed in their children during lockdown.

Coping behaviors and psychological disturbances in youth affected by the COVID-19 health crisis

Mireia Orgilés; Alexandra Morales; Elisa Delvecchio (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
The COVID-19 pandemic and the quarantine undergone by children in many countries is a stressful situation about which little is known to date. Children and adolescents' behaviors to cope with home confinement may be associated with their emotional welfare. The objectives of this study were: (1) to examine the coping strategies used out by children and adolescents during the COVID-19 health crisis, (2) to analyze the differences in these behaviors in three countries, and (3) to examine the relationship between different coping modalities and adaptation.
Cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents before and after the COVID-19 confinement: a prospective cohort study

Rubén López-Bueno; Joaquín Calatayud; Lars Louis Andersen (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: European Journal of Pediatrics
Long periods of free-movement restrictions may negatively affect cardiorespiratory fitness and health. The present study investigated changes after the COVID-19 confinement in maximal oxygen intake (VO2 max) levels in a sample of 89 Spanish school children aged 12 and 14 years at baseline (49.8% girls). The 20-m shuttle run test served to estimate VO2 max before and after the COVID-19 confinement.
1 - 15 of 38

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Read the latest quarterly digest on children and youth mental health under COVID-19.

Subscribe to updates on new research about COVID-19 & children



facebook twitter linkedin google+ reddit print email
Campaign Campaign

COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.