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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents before and after the COVID-19 confinement: a prospective cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Rubén López-Bueno; Joaquín Calatayud; Lars Louis Andersen (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: European Journal of Pediatrics
Long periods of free-movement restrictions may negatively affect cardiorespiratory fitness and health. The present study investigated changes after the COVID-19 confinement in maximal oxygen intake (VO2 max) levels in a sample of 89 Spanish school children aged 12 and 14 years at baseline (49.8% girls). The 20-m shuttle run test served to estimate VO2 max before and after the COVID-19 confinement.
Adaptations of music education in primary and secondary school due to COVID-19: the experience in Spain

AUTHOR(S)
Diego Calderón-Garrido; Josep Gustems-Carnicer

Published: March 2021   Journal: Music Education Research
COVID-19 caused an essential confinament in order to limit its expansion. Globally, this led to a reconsideration of education processes. The study’s purpose is to analyse how compulsory education music teachers in Spain adapted. To gather the data, 335 teachers were surveyed. The participants preferred to continue teaching in most cases. However, this situation forced them into an adaptation in which preference was given to contemplative activities. These adaptations were marked by a lack of methodological and material resources. A common complaint was the lack of specific instructions from government bodies. In addition, a difference was observed between public, private and semi-private schools. Interestingly, the teachers considered that the situation had enabled them to have more contact with students, even though the learning was asynchronous.
Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection among children in summer schools applying stringent control measures in Barcelona, Spain

AUTHOR(S)
Iolanda Jordan; Mariona Fernandez de Sevilla; Victoria Fumado (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Understanding the role of children in SARS-CoV-2 transmission is critical to guide decision-making for schools in the pandemic. We aimed to describe the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 among children and adult staff in summer schools.
Household SARS-CoV-2 transmission and children: a network prospective study

AUTHOR(S)
Antoni Soriano-Arandes; Anna Gatell; Pepe Serrano (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases
The role of children in household transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains uncertain. Here, we describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children with COVID-19 in Catalonia (Spain) and investigate the dynamics of household transmission. Prospective, observational, multicenter study performed during summer and school periods (1 July31 October, 2020), in which epidemiological and clinical features, and viral transmission dynamics were analyzed in COVID-19 patients <16 years. A pediatric index case was established when a child was the first individual infected within a household. Secondary cases were defined when another household member tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 before the child. The secondary attack rate (SAR) was calculated, and logistic regression was used to assess associations between transmission risk factors and SARS-CoV-2 infections.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 32 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: disease transmission, family, household, infectious disease, COVID-19 | Countries: Spain
Influence of the characteristics of the house and place of residence in the daily educational activities of children during the period of COVID-19’ confinement

AUTHOR(S)
María Luisa Zagalaz-Sanchez; Javier Cachon-Zagalaz; Víctor Arufe-Giraldez (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Heliyon
The period of confinement motivated by the COVID-19 pandemic and established by the governments of different countries has influenced the lifestyle of millions of children, not being able to continue carrying out multiple educational activities as they did until confinement. The objective of this research was to determine and analyze whether the living conditions of children during the period of confinement caused by COVID-19 influenced their daily educational activities. A descriptive, comparative and cross-sectional quantitative study with a non-experimental design was carried out, with a single measurement in a single group. Factors associate with living conditions were analyzed, such as the place of residence and the type of house in which Spanish children have been confined, as well as the number and use of technological devices. The parents' perception of the children's state of fatigue, happiness, energy and tiredness was also analyzed.
Fever without source as the first manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection in infants less than 90 days old

AUTHOR(S)
Daniel Blázquez-Gamero; Cristina Epalza; José Antonio Alonso Cadenas (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: European Journal of Pediatrics
Fever without source (FWS) in infants is a frequent cause of consultation at the emergency department, and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 could affect the approach to those infants. The aim of this study is to define the clinical characteristics and rates of bacterial coinfections of infants < 90 days with FWS as the first manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This is a cross-sectional study of infants under 90 days of age with FWS and positive SARS-CoV2 PCR in nasopharyngeal swab/aspirate, attended at the emergency departments of 49 Spanish hospitals (EPICO-AEP cohort) from March 1 to June 26, 2020.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 8 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, early childhood, emergency aid, COVID-19, hospitalization | Countries: Spain
Psycho-emotional adjustment in parents of adolescents: a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the impact of the COVID pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Selene Valero-Moreno; Laura Lacomba-Trejo; Alicia Tamarit (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Adolescence is a time of change and it generally entails a greater family vulnerability thus; the aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for poor emotional adjustment to COVID among parents of adolescents. 94 parents of adolescents (11–18 years old, M = 13.90, SD = 1.85) participated at different times during the state of alert in Spain. 91.5% were mothers. Their ages ranged from 35 to 63 years (M = 46.54; SD = 5.09). The variables assessed were anxiety, depression and stress (DASS), moods (MOOD), somatization (SCL) and resilience (CD-RISC). Descriptive analyses, t-tests, ANOVAs, correlations, and hierarchical regressions were performed.
Safety of tocilizumab in COVID‐19 pregnant women and their newborn: a retrospective study

AUTHOR(S)
Inés Jiménez‐Lozano; José Manuel Caro‐Teller; Nuria Fernández‐Hidalgo (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Tocilizumab is an IL‐6 receptor inhibitor agent which has been proposed as a candidate to stop the inflammatory phase of infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus‐2 (SARS‐CoV‐2). However, safety data of tocilizumab in pregnant women and their newborn are scarce. This study aimed to describe maternal and neonatal safety outcomes associated with tocilizumab treatment in pregnant women with severe COVID‐19.
Impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on pregnancy outcomes: a population-based study

AUTHOR(S)
Francesca Crovetto; Fàtima Crispi; Elisa Llurba (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases
This population-based study aims to describe the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on pregnancy outcomes. Prospective, population-based study including pregnant women consecutively attended at first/second trimester or at delivery at three hospitals in Barcelona, Spain. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgG and IgM/IgA) were measured in all participants and nasopharyngeal RT-PCR was performed at delivery.
Psychological impact and social support in pregnant women during lockdown due to SARS‐CoV2 pandemic: a cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Maia Brik; Miguel Angel Sandonis; Sara Fernández (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Anxiety and depression during pregnancy can lead to adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. The SARS CoV‐2 pandemic, and the complete lockdown required during the first wave in most countries are stressors for pregnant women and can lead to anxiety and depression during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to explore depression and anxiety symptoms, and social support in pregnant women during the SARS CoV‐2 lockdown, as well as to explore demographic risk factors.
Immediate psychological effects of the COVID-19 quarantine in youth from Italy and Spain

AUTHOR(S)
Mireia Orgilés; Alexandra Morales; Elisa Delvecchio (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
The COVID-19 quarantine has affected more than 860 million children and adolescents worldwide, but to date, no study has been developed within Western countries to examine the psychological impact on their lives. The present study aims to examine for the first time the emotional impact of the quarantine on children and adolescents from Italy and Spain, two of the countries most affected by COVID-19.
Testing the effects of COVID-19 confinement in Spanish children: the role of parents’ distress, emotional problems and specific parenting

AUTHOR(S)
Estrella Romero; Laura López-Romero; Beatriz Domínguez-Álvarez (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.
The present study aimed to examine the effects of the Spanish confinement derived from the COVID-19 crisis on children and their families, accounting for child’s age. A range of child negative (e.g., conduct problems) and positive outcomes (e.g., routine maintenance) were examined, along with a set of parent-related variables, including resilience, perceived distress, emotional problems, parenting distress and specific parenting practices (e.g., structured or avoidant parenting), which were modeled through path analysis to better understand child adjustment.
Life conditions during COVID-19 lockdown and mental health in Spanish adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Lourdes Ezpeleta; José Blas Navarro; Núria De la Osa (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Spanish children were locked down for 72 days due to COVID-19, causing severe disruption to their normal life. The threat posed by COVID-19 continues and clinicians, administrators, and families need to know the life conditions associated with more psychological problems to modify them and minimize their effect on mental health. The goal was to study the life conditions of adolescents during lockdown and their association with psychological problems. A total of 226 parents of 117 girls and 109 boys (mean age: 13.9; Standard deviation: 0.28) from the community that were participants in a longitudinal study answered an online questionnaire about life conditions during lockdown and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Stepwise regression analyses controlling by previous reports of SDQ were performed.
Changes in lifestyle behaviors during the COVID‐19 confinement in Spanish children: a longitudinal analysis from the MUGI project

AUTHOR(S)
María Medrano; Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez; Maddi Oses (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Pediatric Obesity

Home confinement during the COVID‐19 pandemic could have affected lifestyle behaviours of children, however evidence about it is emerging and yet scarce. This paper aims to examine the effects of the COVID‐19 confinement on lifestyle behaviours in Spanish children, and to assess the influence of social vulnerabilities on changes in lifestyle behaviours.

Emotion regulation skills in children during the COVID-19 pandemic: influences on specific parenting and child adjustment

AUTHOR(S)
Beatriz Domínguez-Álvarez; Laura López-Romero; José Antonio Gómez-Fraguela (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Revista de Psicología Clínica con Niños y Adolescentes
Child emotion regulation (ER) skills and specific parenting practices during the COVID-19 pandemic are likely to influence children adjustment in these unprecedented times. On this assumption, this study aimed to examine the predictive value of ER skills in relation to diverse indicators of behavioral and socio-emotional adjustment. Then, it tested whether some of these associations could be partially explained through the mediator role of the specific parenting practices displayed within the pandemic context. These hypotheses were tested considering the previous levels of child reactivity as a potential moderator of the examined relations.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.