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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Balance performance analysis after the COVID-19 quarantine in children aged between 8 and 12 years old: longitudinal study

Vicenta Martínez-Córcoles; Pilar Nieto-Gilb; Laura Ramos-Petersen (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Gait & Posture

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused great changes in daily activities, especially in children. In Spain, to avoid infections, a home quarantine was declared, which caused a drastic reduction in daily or weekly physical activity in children. This study aimed to analyse the balance performance after the COVID-19-induced quarantine on children’s balance, through the use of balance tests, considering the type of sport practiced. An observational and longitudinal study was carried out with a sample size of 150 healthy children (69 boys and 81 girls) with a mean age of 10.02 ± 1.15 years. Postural control was evaluated under different equilibrium conditions before and after the quarantine period. Two data collections using the Gyko system were compared, with a difference of 8 months between them. In addition, the influence of foot type and physical activity was analysed.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 94 | No. of pages: 203-209 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19 response, lockdown, physical activity, social distance | Countries: Spain
Disentangling youth non-compliance with COVID-19 restrictions from gender, socioeconomic vulnerability and poor mental health: lessons from the first wave in Catalonia

Eva Padrosa; Mireia Bolíbar

Published: March 2022   Journal: Journal of Youth Studies
The COVID-19 pandemic focused public attention on youth non-compliance with restrictions, but the social and health factors underpinning this behaviour were overlooked. Hereby, this study considered the complex relationships between age (16–29 vs. 30+), non-compliance, socioeconomic vulnerabilities and poor mental health using a gender perspective. Data were derived from the ‘Survey on the impact of COVID-19’, fielded on 11–15 April 2020 in Catalonia. In a non-probabilistic sample of 14,123 individuals, this study performed gender-stratified mediation analyses using Structural Equation Models.
Breastfeeding experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain:a qualitative study

Isabel Rodríguez-Gallego; Helen Strivens-Vilchez; Irene Agea-Cano (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: International Breastfeeding Journal

The pandemic caused by COVID-19 has affected reproductive and perinatal health both through the infection itself and, indirectly, as a consequence of changes in medical care, social policy or social and economic circumstances. The objective of this study is to explore the impact of the pandemic and of the measures adopted on breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted by means in-depth semi-structured interviews, until reaching data saturation. The study was conducted between the months of January to May 2021. Participants were recruited by midwives from the Primary Care Centres of the Andalusian provinces provinces of Seville, Cádiz, Huelva, Granada, and Jaén. The interviews were conducted via phone call and were subsequently transcribed and analysed by means of reflexive inductive thematic analysis, using Braun and Clarke’s thematic analysis.

Dietary patterns of adolescent students during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown

Alexandra Martín-Rodríguez; José Francisco Tornero-Aguilera; P. Javier López-Pérez (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Physiology & Behavior
This study aimed to analyze the dietary patterns of adolescent students during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. To achieve the research´s aim 127 adolescent students, 60 men (18.88±4.18 years) and 67 women (17.61±7.43 years) completed an online questionnaire that analyzed variables regarding their nutritional profile. Adolescent students presented a dietary pattern during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown characterized by different associations of food consumption, On one hand, the consumption of healthier foods such as meat, fish, vegetables, legumes, rice, or pasta, and on the other hand non-healthier foods as food, alcohol, or pastries.
COVID-19: psychological symptoms and coping strategies in preschoolers, schoolchildren, and adolescents

Elisa Delvecchio; Mireia Orgilés; Alexandra Morales (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology
The present study aimed to compare psychological symptoms and coping strategies in 1480 preschoolers, schoolchildren, and adolescents during home confinement due to COVID-19. It enrolled parents from Italy, Portugal, and Spain who completed a survey between the second and fourth week of lockdown. The results showed that preschoolers displayed more sleeping difficulties, temper tantrums, and dependency while adolescents' reactions were more related to COVID-19 worries and uncertainty. Schoolchildren showed more difficulty in concentrating. Adolescent girls showed higher anxiety levels than schoolchildren boys.
Screen media use and sleep patterns in Spanish adolescents during the lockdown of the coronavirus pandemic

Marta Moraleda-Cibrián; Javier Albares-Tendero; Gonzalo Pin-Arboledas

Published: January 2022   Journal: Sleep and Breathing

The aim of this study was to investigate screen media use and sleep patterns among Spanish adolescents during the lockdown (LD) of the first peak of the coronavirus pandemic. Cross-sectional community-based study of adolescents aged 11–18 years. An online questionnaire with queries about screen time, sleep, and other healthy habits was completed by parents or guardians.

Spanish youth at the crossroads of gender and sexuality during the COVID-19 pandemic

Miguel Ángel López-Sáez; R. Lucas Platero

Published: January 2022   Journal: European Journal of Women's Studies
This study examines some of the perceptions amongst Spanish LGBTQ+ youth during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent confinement and lockdown measures, between March and May 2020. During this time, many of these young people were forced to return to their family homes and restrict their social relations. This new situation often exposed them to forms of violence from which there was no escape, with negative consequences for their psychosocial health. The study evaluates the correlations between perceived social support, burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and the people with whom LGBTQ+ youth lived during confinement. A descriptive and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and bivariate correlations is used to examine the responses of 394 LGBTQ+ youth, between 17 and 21 years of age, residing in Spain.
Adolescent compliance with anti-COVID measures. Is it related to substance use?

Joaquín Rodríguez-Ruiz; Izabela Zych; Vicente J. Llorent

Published: January 2022   Journal: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
Prevalence rates of compliance with anti-COVID measures have been widely studied, but little is known about this issue in early adolescence. Moreover, the relation between substance use and compliance with anti-COVID regulations is still unexplored. Thus, this study aimed to determine the level of compliance with anti-COVID measures by adolescents and the link between substance use and compliance with anti-COVID regulations. This was a cross-sectional study including 909 participants (Mage = 12.57; SD = 0.81). The most complied measure was mask-wearing, followed by avoiding hug/kiss friends and, finally, social distancing. All substance use negatively correlated with compliance with measures. However, strong alcohol and tobacco were the only substances significantly related to less compliance of anti-COVID measures after controlling for covariates.
Changes in physical fitness, dietary habits and family habits for Spanish children during SARS-CoV-2 lockdown

Oliver Ramos Álvarez; Víctor Arufe Giráldez; David Cantarero Prieto (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: International Jourmal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Background: habits related to diet and physical activity in children were modified due to the lockdown that Spain had between March and June 2019 because of the health crisis caused by the appearance of SARS-CoV-2. The aim of the study was to know the impact that the lockdown had on physical fitness values in children aged 11–12. The study consisted of 50 Spanish children aged 11–12 (M = 11.40; SD = 0.50), 33 (66%) boys and 17 (34%) girls. Data collection was performed using the Alpha-Fitness Battery, a validated instrument to assess dietary intake, habits and practices, and an ad hoc survey to collect sociodemographic data and other information relevant to the study.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 18 | Issue: 24 | No. of pages: 17 | Language: English | Topics: Health, Nutrition | Tags: behavioural change, child health, child nutrition, COVID-19 response, lockdown, physical activity, social distance | Countries: Spain
Exploring the psychological impact of COVID-19 on adolescents with borderline personality disorder and their mothers: a focus group study

Anna Vilaregut; Mariona Roca; Marc Ferrer (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
The aim of this study was to explore the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on adolescents diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and their mothers. This exploratory study used a qualitative focus group approach. This study’s sample group consisted in nine participants: five adolescents diagnosed with BPD and their four mothers. Patients were recruited from a specialized BPD outpatient unit of a university hospital psychiatry department. The results are divided into two main areas, the first regarding the lockdown period and the second examining the period of gradual relaxation of lockdown restrictions.
COVID-19 lockdown in Spain: psychological impact is greatest on younger and vulnerable children

Josep Matalí-Costa; Ester Camprodon-Rosanas

Published: December 2021   Journal: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
In 2020, quarantine home confinement measures were implemented in Spain to control a pandemic for the first time. The objective of this study is to assess both the psychological and social impact of that ‘lockdown’ on different age groups of children and adolescents and also the different strategies adopted by families in that situation. Data were collected via an online questionnaire answered by 850 participants, parents of young people aged between 4 and 18, between 24th April and 8th May 2020.
Perceived impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on the family context of foster and non-foster families

Lucía González-Pasarín; Antonio Urbano-Contreras; Isabel M. Bernedo (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of Child and Family Studies
The COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting lockdown have had a far-reaching impact across all levels of society. In Spain, severe restrictions were placed on people’s mobility, and leaving the home was only possible under special circumstances. This study analyzes the impact of lockdown on the family context of foster and non-foster families, focusing particularly on their levels of cohesion, adaptability, and perceived stress. It also examines a series of variables that may have influenced foster families’ perceptions of their family context during lockdown. Data were gathered through an online survey that was completed by 347 individuals corresponding to 100 foster families and 247 non-foster families from different regions of Spain. Analyses were descriptive and exploratory in nature.
Survey data on the consequences of COVID-19 and home confinement on the educational community and families in Spain

Guillermo Palau-Salvador; Kas Sempere; Nerea Gómez-Fernández (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Data in Brief
This paper presents a dataset concerning the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic and home confinement on the educational community and families, and the possibilities and opportunities for the return to schools. Data were collected through an online based cross-sectional survey between June 29, 2020 and July 12, 2020 in Spain. A total of 7,305 people who had children in their care during the COVID-19 crisis and the home-confinement period responded to the survey. The survey contained items concerning (i) socio-demographic information, (ii) conciliation of work, personal and family life during confinement, (iii) the impact of the pandemic on the respondent's family, and (iv) the respondents' opinion on their child(ren)'s return to school. Data were analysed using Stata (version 14) and are represented as frequencies and percentages based on responses to the entire survey.
Incidence of COVID-19 in children and young people who play federated football

Rocío Seijo Bestilleiro; Jorge Suanzes Hernández; Diego Batalla Bautista (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Sports Health

This study aims to determine the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection in children and young people who play federated football. Prospective study, from October 2020 to January 2021, in players aged 4 to 19 years from federated football clubs in Galicia, Spain (N = 23,845). Outbreaks and cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were recorded. The cumulative incidence was compared with the incidence registered in Galicia in the same age range.

Pregnancy and birth outcomes during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic: the MOACC-19 cohort

Marta Rodríguez-Díaz; Jéssica Alonso-Molero; María J. Cabero-Perez (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is devastating for specific groups of patients, but currently there is not enough information concerning its effects on pregnant women. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on pregnancy and the consequences that it could cause. It studied a cohort of pregnant ladies who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection by RT-PCR and classified as infected or not infected. The recruitment was carried out in the HUMV hospital, a third-level hospital located in Santander, northern Spain. It started on 23 March 2020 and ended on 14 October 2020. Data from our cohort were compared to another cohort recruited in 2018 at the same hospital.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.