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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 64
COVID-19 lockdown in Spain: psychological impact is greatest on younger and vulnerable children

Josep Matalí-Costa; Ester Camprodon-Rosanas

Published: December 2021   Journal: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
In 2020, quarantine home confinement measures were implemented in Spain to control a pandemic for the first time. The objective of this study is to assess both the psychological and social impact of that ‘lockdown’ on different age groups of children and adolescents and also the different strategies adopted by families in that situation. Data were collected via an online questionnaire answered by 850 participants, parents of young people aged between 4 and 18, between 24th April and 8th May 2020.
Perceived impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on the family context of foster and non-foster families

Lucía González-Pasarín; Antonio Urbano-Contreras; Isabel M. Bernedo (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of Child and Family Studies
The COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting lockdown have had a far-reaching impact across all levels of society. In Spain, severe restrictions were placed on people’s mobility, and leaving the home was only possible under special circumstances. This study analyzes the impact of lockdown on the family context of foster and non-foster families, focusing particularly on their levels of cohesion, adaptability, and perceived stress. It also examines a series of variables that may have influenced foster families’ perceptions of their family context during lockdown. Data were gathered through an online survey that was completed by 347 individuals corresponding to 100 foster families and 247 non-foster families from different regions of Spain. Analyses were descriptive and exploratory in nature.
Survey data on the consequences of COVID-19 and home confinement on the educational community and families in Spain

Guillermo Palau-Salvador; Kas Sempere; Nerea Gómez-Fernández (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Data in Brief
This paper presents a dataset concerning the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic and home confinement on the educational community and families, and the possibilities and opportunities for the return to schools. Data were collected through an online based cross-sectional survey between June 29, 2020 and July 12, 2020 in Spain. A total of 7,305 people who had children in their care during the COVID-19 crisis and the home-confinement period responded to the survey. The survey contained items concerning (i) socio-demographic information, (ii) conciliation of work, personal and family life during confinement, (iii) the impact of the pandemic on the respondent's family, and (iv) the respondents' opinion on their child(ren)'s return to school. Data were analysed using Stata (version 14) and are represented as frequencies and percentages based on responses to the entire survey.
Incidence of COVID-19 in children and young people who play federated football

Rocío Seijo Bestilleiro; Jorge Suanzes Hernández; Diego Batalla Bautista (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Sports Health

This study aims to determine the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection in children and young people who play federated football. Prospective study, from October 2020 to January 2021, in players aged 4 to 19 years from federated football clubs in Galicia, Spain (N = 23,845). Outbreaks and cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were recorded. The cumulative incidence was compared with the incidence registered in Galicia in the same age range.

Pregnancy and birth outcomes during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic: the MOACC-19 cohort

Marta Rodríguez-Díaz; Jéssica Alonso-Molero; María J. Cabero-Perez (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is devastating for specific groups of patients, but currently there is not enough information concerning its effects on pregnant women. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on pregnancy and the consequences that it could cause. It studied a cohort of pregnant ladies who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection by RT-PCR and classified as infected or not infected. The recruitment was carried out in the HUMV hospital, a third-level hospital located in Santander, northern Spain. It started on 23 March 2020 and ended on 14 October 2020. Data from our cohort were compared to another cohort recruited in 2018 at the same hospital.
State of child and adolescent mental health during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and at the beginning of the 2020–2021 school year

Anna Gatell-Carbó; Elena Alcover-Bloch; Josep Vicent Balaguer-Martínez (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Anales de Pediatría

The aim of this project was to evaluate the psychopathological impact of home confinement and school closing between March and September 2020 on the mental health of Catalonian children. PEDSAME study: first cross-sectional section (beginning of the school year) and retrospective data (lockdown), carried out through the network of Primary Care pediatricians in the Catalan population between 5 and 14 years (included) from 09/14/2020 to 10/30/2020 in a random sample. Data were collected with an online survey through the RedCap platform at the beginning of the school year. The main variable was the result of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire answered by parents to assess the risk of psychopathology, in addition to other related variable.

School–family relations: an educational challenge in times of COVID-19

Mario Ferreras-Listán; Coral I. Hunt-Gómez; Pilar Moreno-Crespo (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The COVID-19 pandemic has widened the gap regarding access to educational opportunities, which was included in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This descriptive, quantitative study aims to examine the communication strategies employed by secondary schools in Spain during the lockdown, as well as to analyse the co-responsibility of the educational process between schools and families. An ad hoc questionnaire (GIESBAFCOV-19) was designed and implemented to gather information. The results show that, in most cases, mothers were responsible for assisting and supervising their children’s homework as persons in charge of education-related matters. Additionally, before the lockdown was put in place, about half of the participating families received information from the educative centres regarding the disease and sanitary measures. Once the lockdown took place, families put the focus on their children’s schoolwork, not without difficulties in academic and digital literacy.
COVID-19 school closures and cumulative disadvantage: assessing the learning gap in formal, informal and non-formal education

Sheila González; Xavier Bonal

Published: October 2021   Journal: European Journal of Education
Reducing physical contact has been the most common strategy adopted by governments to reduce the spread of the COVID-19 disease. It has led most countries to close their schools. Previous evidence on the effects of teacher strikes, summer holidays, armed conflicts or any other cause of school closure on learning suggest that the effects of COVID-19 will be highly significant for some and will vary depending on students' previous performance, family characteristics, age or education track, among other factors. Recent evidence shows that learning losses during school closures have been widespread and especially intense among the more disadvantaged students. In this article we evaluate the magnitude of the gap regarding opportunities to learn in formal, informal and non-formal education between families depending on their cultural and economic capital. An online survey (n = 35,937) was carried out during the second week of the confinement (March 2020) in Catalonia. The survey targeted families with children between three and eighteen years. The responses show remarkable social inequalities in opportunities to learn. In this article, we describe the magnitude of the learning gap between social groups and explore which are the most significant factors that explain educational inequalities.
Pandemic-related pregnancy stress among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain

Jaqueline Garcia-Silva; Alfonso Caracuel; Alvaro Lozano-Ruiza (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Midwifery

The aim was to develop and establish the psychometric properties of the Pandemic-Related Pregnancy Stress Scale (PREPS) in European Spanish speaking pregnant women in Spain. A cross section design using a non-random sample of 206 women completed the questionnaire during the first COVID-19 pandemic lockdown from April to June 2020 in Spain. Psychological, sociodemographic and obstetric factors and the new PREPS were collected.

Reduced emotional intelligence in children aged 9–10 caused by the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown

Katya Martín-Requejo; Sandra Santiago-Ramajo

Published: September 2021   Journal: Mind, Brain, and Education
It is necessary to know the influence of the current pandemic situation on children's emotional intelligence (EI). Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the difference in 34 Spanish children's EI (aged 9–10) caused by the lockdown. EI was measured with the BarOn Emotional Intelligence Inventory (EQ-i:YV). Results have revealed a reduction in EI, specifically on intrapersonal, interpersonal, and adaptability scales (all p < .01). Thus, the study highlights the negative influence of lockdown situation on children's EI and considering the impact this may have at a cognitive, social, or academic level, it would be convenient to promote its development at school.
Gamification and family leisure to alleviate the psychological impact of confinement due to COVID-19

Ana Manzano-León; José Miguel Rodríguez-Ferrer; José Manuel Aguilar-Parra (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Children & Society
This study presents a quasi-experimental longitudinal mixed-methods research about the participation in leisure activities, physical activity, and games, as part of the family leisure programme (“Lunae Magic School”) for Spanish families with children under 12 years old during COVID-19 lockdown. The impact on parents and their perception of the psychological well-being of their children is evaluated. The results show that leisure activities reduce the parent's anxiety levels measured with STAI scale (p = .0001) and their perception of the physical and emotional discomfort of their children, measured with PSC scale (p < .0001). It is qualitatively argued that despite the confinement situation, the gamification, the variety of activities and the fact of being able to enjoy quality time with the family have allowed the creation of spaces of fun and flow. Therefore, although the findings on the importance of family leisure were encouraging, more research is needed on the implementation of similar programmes.
Good practices in perinatal care and breastfeeding protection during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic: a national situation analysis among BFHI maternity hospitals in Spain

Barbara Muñoz-Amat; Carmen Rosa Pallás-Alonso; María-Teresa Hernández-Aguilar

Published: August 2021   Journal: International Breastfeeding Journal

Although the positive effects of good clinical quality standards in perinatal care and breastfeeding support for women, newborns and families have been already demonstrated, many of these practices were disrupted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this study was to analyse the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on perinatal care and breastfeeding support practices offered by the Spanish maternity hospitals committed to the UNICEF Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), to women with and without COVID-19. Implementation of perinatal practices was assessed by a cross-sectional survey conducted in May 2020 using an online questionnaire. Comparison with pre-pandemic situation and level of commitment to BFHI practices was performed.

Analysis of psychosocial adjustment in the family during confinement: problems and habits of children and youth and parental stress and resilience

Magdalena P. Andrés-Romero; Juan M. Flujas-Contreras; Mercedes Fernández-Torres (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
The COVID-19 health crisis has led to a dramatic change in dynamics and habits of families, which may be a factor involved in the development and maintenance of problems and difficulties in children. The present study is a cross-sectional study that aims to describe and analyze the relationship between the difficulties in psychological adjustment and the change of habits of the infant-juvenile population as perceived by their parents and their stress and resilience during the total confinement of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain, as well as analyzing the course of the changes and the relationships between weeks 3 to 6, that is, the score of different participants in each week of the confinement. The sample is comprised of 883 parents of children and adolescents between 3 and 18 years of age.
Psychological adjustment of Spanish adolescents and their parents during COVID-19 lockdown: A mixed method approach

Silvia Postigo-Zegarra; Martın Julian; Konstanze Schoeps (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Plos One
Previous literature on the psychological impact of COVID-19 has shown a direct relationship between family conflicts and psychological distress among parents and their children during the domestic lockdown and social isolation; but there are also opportunities to enhance family bonding, encourage collective problem-solving and improve personal relationships. This study aimed to explore psychological adjustment processes of Spanish adolescents and their parents during the first month of lockdown by analyzing their narratives, perceived outcomes, protection and risk factors. A total of 142 people agreed to participate in this study. Of all participants, 61 were adolescents (M = 13.57; SD = 1.74; 57% women) and 81 were parents (M = 46.09; SD = 4.72; 91% mothers). All were Spanish residents and completed an online survey during the domestic lockdown in March 2020.
Evaluation of changes in pediatric healthcare activity during the Covid-19 state of alarm in the Canary Islands

Valewska G. Wallis Gómez; María Hernández Apolinario; Pedro Saavedra Santana (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Public Health in Practice

During the SARS-CoV-2 state of alarm (SoA), a 30–70% reduction was observed in the number of visits to Pediatric Emergency Departments (ED), as well as frequent delay in diagnosis or difficulty accessing healthcare services. This study evaluates modifications observed in pediatric healthcare activity during the SoA. This is a descriptive retrospective observational study of the hospital pediatric activity.

16 - 30 of 64

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.