Logo UNICEF Innocenti
Office of Research-Innocenti
menu icon

Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

RESULTS:   80     SORT BY:


Select one or more filter options and click search below.

UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
Open Access
16 - 30 of 80
Children's experiences of lockdown and social distancing in the Covid-19 pandemic

Gustavo González-Calvo; Valeria Varea; Alfonso García-Monge

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Family Issues
Covid-19 was declared a pandemic in March 2020, and the world has witnessed significant changes since then. Spain has been forced to go into extreme lockdown, cancelling all school classes and outdoor activities for children, which may have significant consequences on young people. This paper explores how young children have experienced lockdown as a consequence of the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic and what they think about their future lives after Covid-19. Data were collected from 73 students aged from 7 to 9 years old, using participant-produced drawings and short questions with children’s and parents’ descriptive comments. We used a children’s rights perspective and the Freirean approach of a pedagogy of love and hope to analyse the data.
Impact of the COVID-19 confinement on the physics and chemistry didactic in high schools

Elena Jiménez Sánchez; Estrella Montes-López; María Jesús Santos Sánchez

Published: May 2022   Journal: Sustainability
Online education due to COVID-19 confinement impacted the use of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Spain, where it was poorly implemented. The aim of this paper was to inspect the methodological changes in Physics and Chemistry teaching during the confinement as well as in the ICT use and the lockdown impact afterwards. For this purpose, an online survey was administered by email to the Physics and Chemistry teachers of three provinces of Spain. Based on the analysis, the most widely used methodology was the traditional one. Still, during the lockdown, its use decreased, and others, such as the flipped classroom, increased significantly. Other adaptations included increasing the use of virtual simulations and self-learning by the student. It can be outlined the incorporation of new tools such as WebQuests, the smartphone, or online education platforms, whose use has continued. The ICT was used for new functionalities such as evaluation or answering student questions.
Unexplained hepatitis in children after lifting COVID-19 pandemic restrictions.

Pablo Barreiro

Published: April 2022   Journal: AIDS Reviews
Since January 2022, almost 150 cases of acute hepatitis with epidemic features have been reported among children aged 1-15 years old, mostly below 5 years old. A wide range of symptoms has appeared, but a subset of these children has progressed to liver failure and required liver transplantation and at least one death has been reported already.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 3 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19 response, hospitalization, lockdown, social distance | Countries: Spain
Assessment of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on a children's hospital: the point of view of patients and families

Maria D. Navarro-Rubio; Ana Bosque; Arian Tarbal (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Patient Experience Journal
The coronavirus pandemic has affected our health, social behavior, and quality of life. In addition to the deaths and morbidity, the crisis also affects all spheres in society. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of hospital patients and families regarding the pandemic. This is a descriptive study conducted May-July 2020 in the Sant Joan de Déu children’s hospital, Barcelona, Spain. We developed a mix-method approach. It included online semi-structured interviews and photo voice. Seventeen patients’ representatives were interviewed.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 9 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 26-34 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19 response, health care facilities, hospitalization, lockdown, social distance | Countries: Spain
Drawing the COVID-19 pandemic: how do children incorporate the health crisis and its consequences into their everyday thinking?

Nahia Idoiaga Mondragon; Amaia Eiguren Munitis; Naiara Berasategi Sancho (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Psychology & Health

The general objective of this research was to explore how children understand and represent COVID-19 health crisis in their everyday thinking.This research is based on a qualitative interpretive research methodology that uses 6-12 years children’s drawings from San Sebastian (Basque Country, northern of Spain) to collect data. This technique allows children to visualize how they face this situation through a tool that promotes expression of their feelings and representations.

After-school programmes response to the COVID-19 pandemic: lessons learned from Barcelona, Spain

Txus Morata; Paco López; Eva Palasí (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Child & Family Social Work
This article explores the role of after-school programmes (ASPs) in serving underserved families in Barcelona, Spain, during the lockdown phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a mixed-method approach, this exploratory study surveyed 31 directors of ASPs administered by the Pere Tarrés Foundation. These ASPs serve almost 2000 children living under the federal poverty level in Catalonia, Spain.
Balance performance analysis after the COVID-19 quarantine in children aged between 8 and 12 years old: longitudinal study

Vicenta Martínez-Córcoles; Pilar Nieto-Gilb; Laura Ramos-Petersen (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Gait & Posture

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused great changes in daily activities, especially in children. In Spain, to avoid infections, a home quarantine was declared, which caused a drastic reduction in daily or weekly physical activity in children. This study aimed to analyse the balance performance after the COVID-19-induced quarantine on children’s balance, through the use of balance tests, considering the type of sport practiced. An observational and longitudinal study was carried out with a sample size of 150 healthy children (69 boys and 81 girls) with a mean age of 10.02 ± 1.15 years. Postural control was evaluated under different equilibrium conditions before and after the quarantine period. Two data collections using the Gyko system were compared, with a difference of 8 months between them. In addition, the influence of foot type and physical activity was analysed.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 94 | No. of pages: 203-209 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19 response, lockdown, physical activity, social distance | Countries: Spain
Disentangling youth non-compliance with COVID-19 restrictions from gender, socioeconomic vulnerability and poor mental health: lessons from the first wave in Catalonia

Eva Padrosa; Mireia Bolíbar

Published: March 2022   Journal: Journal of Youth Studies
The COVID-19 pandemic focused public attention on youth non-compliance with restrictions, but the social and health factors underpinning this behaviour were overlooked. Hereby, this study considered the complex relationships between age (16–29 vs. 30+), non-compliance, socioeconomic vulnerabilities and poor mental health using a gender perspective. Data were derived from the ‘Survey on the impact of COVID-19’, fielded on 11–15 April 2020 in Catalonia. In a non-probabilistic sample of 14,123 individuals, this study performed gender-stratified mediation analyses using Structural Equation Models.
Breastfeeding experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain:a qualitative study

Isabel Rodríguez-Gallego; Helen Strivens-Vilchez; Irene Agea-Cano (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: International Breastfeeding Journal

The pandemic caused by COVID-19 has affected reproductive and perinatal health both through the infection itself and, indirectly, as a consequence of changes in medical care, social policy or social and economic circumstances. The objective of this study is to explore the impact of the pandemic and of the measures adopted on breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted by means in-depth semi-structured interviews, until reaching data saturation. The study was conducted between the months of January to May 2021. Participants were recruited by midwives from the Primary Care Centres of the Andalusian provinces provinces of Seville, Cádiz, Huelva, Granada, and Jaén. The interviews were conducted via phone call and were subsequently transcribed and analysed by means of reflexive inductive thematic analysis, using Braun and Clarke’s thematic analysis.

Dietary patterns of adolescent students during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown

Alexandra Martín-Rodríguez; José Francisco Tornero-Aguilera; P. Javier López-Pérez (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Physiology & Behavior
This study aimed to analyze the dietary patterns of adolescent students during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. To achieve the research´s aim 127 adolescent students, 60 men (18.88±4.18 years) and 67 women (17.61±7.43 years) completed an online questionnaire that analyzed variables regarding their nutritional profile. Adolescent students presented a dietary pattern during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown characterized by different associations of food consumption, On one hand, the consumption of healthier foods such as meat, fish, vegetables, legumes, rice, or pasta, and on the other hand non-healthier foods as food, alcohol, or pastries.
COVID-19: psychological symptoms and coping strategies in preschoolers, schoolchildren, and adolescents

Elisa Delvecchio; Mireia Orgilés; Alexandra Morales (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology
The present study aimed to compare psychological symptoms and coping strategies in 1480 preschoolers, schoolchildren, and adolescents during home confinement due to COVID-19. It enrolled parents from Italy, Portugal, and Spain who completed a survey between the second and fourth week of lockdown. The results showed that preschoolers displayed more sleeping difficulties, temper tantrums, and dependency while adolescents' reactions were more related to COVID-19 worries and uncertainty. Schoolchildren showed more difficulty in concentrating. Adolescent girls showed higher anxiety levels than schoolchildren boys.
Screen media use and sleep patterns in Spanish adolescents during the lockdown of the coronavirus pandemic

Marta Moraleda-Cibrián; Javier Albares-Tendero; Gonzalo Pin-Arboledas

Published: January 2022   Journal: Sleep and Breathing

The aim of this study was to investigate screen media use and sleep patterns among Spanish adolescents during the lockdown (LD) of the first peak of the coronavirus pandemic. Cross-sectional community-based study of adolescents aged 11–18 years. An online questionnaire with queries about screen time, sleep, and other healthy habits was completed by parents or guardians.

Spanish youth at the crossroads of gender and sexuality during the COVID-19 pandemic

Miguel Ángel López-Sáez; R. Lucas Platero

Published: January 2022   Journal: European Journal of Women's Studies
This study examines some of the perceptions amongst Spanish LGBTQ+ youth during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent confinement and lockdown measures, between March and May 2020. During this time, many of these young people were forced to return to their family homes and restrict their social relations. This new situation often exposed them to forms of violence from which there was no escape, with negative consequences for their psychosocial health. The study evaluates the correlations between perceived social support, burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and the people with whom LGBTQ+ youth lived during confinement. A descriptive and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and bivariate correlations is used to examine the responses of 394 LGBTQ+ youth, between 17 and 21 years of age, residing in Spain.
Adolescent compliance with anti-COVID measures. Is it related to substance use?

Joaquín Rodríguez-Ruiz; Izabela Zych; Vicente J. Llorent

Published: January 2022   Journal: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
Prevalence rates of compliance with anti-COVID measures have been widely studied, but little is known about this issue in early adolescence. Moreover, the relation between substance use and compliance with anti-COVID regulations is still unexplored. Thus, this study aimed to determine the level of compliance with anti-COVID measures by adolescents and the link between substance use and compliance with anti-COVID regulations. This was a cross-sectional study including 909 participants (Mage = 12.57; SD = 0.81). The most complied measure was mask-wearing, followed by avoiding hug/kiss friends and, finally, social distancing. All substance use negatively correlated with compliance with measures. However, strong alcohol and tobacco were the only substances significantly related to less compliance of anti-COVID measures after controlling for covariates.
Changes in physical fitness, dietary habits and family habits for Spanish children during SARS-CoV-2 lockdown

Oliver Ramos Álvarez; Víctor Arufe Giráldez; David Cantarero Prieto (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: International Jourmal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Background: habits related to diet and physical activity in children were modified due to the lockdown that Spain had between March and June 2019 because of the health crisis caused by the appearance of SARS-CoV-2. The aim of the study was to know the impact that the lockdown had on physical fitness values in children aged 11–12. The study consisted of 50 Spanish children aged 11–12 (M = 11.40; SD = 0.50), 33 (66%) boys and 17 (34%) girls. Data collection was performed using the Alpha-Fitness Battery, a validated instrument to assess dietary intake, habits and practices, and an ad hoc survey to collect sociodemographic data and other information relevant to the study.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 18 | Issue: 24 | No. of pages: 17 | Language: English | Topics: Health, Nutrition | Tags: behavioural change, child health, child nutrition, COVID-19 response, lockdown, physical activity, social distance | Countries: Spain
16 - 30 of 80

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Subscribe to updates on new research about COVID-19 & children



facebook twitter linkedin google+ reddit print email
Article Article

Check our quarterly thematic digests on children and COVID-19

Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
Campaign Campaign

COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.