Logo UNICEF Innocenti
Office of Research-Innocenti
menu icon

Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

RESULTS:   37     SORT BY:


Select one or more filter options and click search below.

UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
Open Access
1 - 15 of 37
The impact of COVID-19 on supplies of routine childhood immunization in Oromia regional state, Ethiopia: a mixed method study

Takele Menna Adilo; Samson Zegeye Endale; Takele Gezahegn Demie (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
Globally, national immunization programs are at risk of disruption due to severe health system constraints caused by the ongoing Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 on the availability of supplies of routine childhood immunization in the Oromia Regional State in Ethiopia. A health facility-based mixed-methods of study design was conducted. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected using pre-tested questionnaires and key informant interview question guides, respectively. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, means, and standard deviations were performed. Binary logistic regression analysis was employed to assess the associations between the COVID-19 pandemic and the availability of vaccine-related supplies at health facilities in study area. The qualitative data were analyzed using a thematic content analysis approach.
Development and validation of Health Belief Model based instrument to assess secondary school student's adherence to COVID-19 self-protective practices in Jimma, Oromia, Ethiopia

Kasahun Girma Tareke; Genzebie Tesfaye; Zewdie Birhanu Koricha

Published: December 2022   Journal: Plos One

The study aimed in developing and validating a Health Belief Model (HBM) based instrument used for cross-sectional studies among secondary school students in Jimma town, Oromia, Ethiopia. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 25 to June 10, 2021. The sample size was 634, and students were randomly selected from public and private secondary schools. The 81 items were developed reviewing different literatures based on the constructs of HBM. The constructs were perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, perceived benefit, perceived barrier, self-efficacy, cues to action, perceived school support and self-protective practice. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The data were cleaned, entered into and analyzed using SPSS 23.0. A principal axis factoring with varimax rotation was carried out to extract items. Items with no loading factor or cross-loaded items were deleted. Items having factor loading coefficient of ≥0.4 were retained. An internal reliability was ensured at Cronbach’s alpha >0.70. All items with corrected item-total correlation coefficient below 0.30 were deleted from reliability analysis.

COVID-19-related attitude and risk perception among pregnant women attending antenatal care, and the associated factors, at public health facilities of East Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia, 2020: a multi-center cross-sectional study

Keralem Anteneh Bishaw; Yibelu Bazezew Bitewa; Mamaru Getie Fetene (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Public Health

This study aimed to assess COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019)-related attitude and risk perception among pregnant women attending antenatal care, and the associated factors, at public health facilities of the East Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia. A multi-center cross-sectional study was conducted, from December 1–30, 2020. A total of 847 pregnant women were included in the study using a simple random sampling technique. To collect the data, we used an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Bi-variable and multi-variable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with pregnancy-related anxiety. A p-value of < 0.05 with a 95% confidence level was used to declare statistical significance.

COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among pregnant women attending antenatal care in public hospitals in eastern Ethiopia: a multi‐center facility‐based cross‐sectional study

Tamirat Getachew; Bikila Balisa; Addis Eyeberu (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Public Health in Practice

The Ethiopian government had planned to vaccinate the total population and started to deliver the COVID-19 vaccine but, there is limited evidence about vaccine acceptance among pregnant women. Thus, this study aimed to assess COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and associated factors among pregnant women attending an antenatal care unit clinic in Eastern Ethiopia. A facility-based cross-sectional study. A study was conducted from June 01 to 30/2021 among systematically selected pregnant women. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire, which was adapted from previous studies, through a face-to-face interview. Predictors were assessed using a multivariable logistic regression model and reported using an adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI. Statistical significance was declared at p-value less than 0.05.

COVID-19 preventive practices and associated factors among high school and preparatory school students in Dessie City, Ethiopia

Alelgne Feleke; Mesfin Gebrehiwot; Helmut Kloos (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to ravage the world, the most pretentious sector besides the economy is the education system. Ethiopia is not equipped with the infrastructure and facilities to provide online classes for students at all levels. Hence, all institutions were re-opened with mandatory infection prevention and control (IPC) protocols such as the use of face masks, physical distancing, shifts in classes, and routine hand washing practices with soap and water to restrict the spread of the virus. Nevertheless, there has been no monitoring and follow- up and there is no data on IPC compliance among school children in the country. The purpose of this study was to examine the COVID-19 preventive practices and their associated factors among high and preparatory school students in Dessie City, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was carried out by using a pre-tested face-to-face applied structured questionnaire and direct observations from March 8 to March 20, 2021, in five high and preparatory schools in Dessie City. The sample size was proportionally allocated in each school based on the students' total number registered in the first academic semester, then stratified by grade level, and proportionally allocated to each grade and section. Finally, a simple random sampling method was used to select study participants. Variables with p-values < 0.25 in the bivariate logistic regression analysis were entered into the multivariate logistic regression model.

Assessment of factors affecting practice towards HIV/AIDS among in-school youth in the West Guji Zone, South Ethiopia, 2021

Shiferaw Gelchu Adola

Published: September 2022   Journal: Journal of Chemistry: Education, Research and Practice

Human immune deficiency virus was a worldwide pandemic, yet there is no proven medicine and vaccine to cure or prevent it. Prevention is only the mainstay to control the spread of the virus. Thus, continuously assessing factors affecting prevention practice towards HIV among young populations is relevant. This cross sectional study design was conducted from December 01/2020 To January 01/2021. The multistage sampling technique was used and a total of 615 participants were enrolled. Epi-Data version for data entry and SPSS Version 25 for analysis was used in this study. Descriptive statistics; frequency, percent and inferential statistics were needed. Statically significance cut point settled at p < 0.05 with 95% confidence intervals.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 6 | Issue: 2 | No. of pages: 240-260 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, COVID-19 response, health services, HIV and AIDS, lockdown, reproductive health, social distance | Countries: Ethiopia
Sexual and reproductive health and rights in the era of COVID-19: a qualitative study of the experiences of vulnerable urban youth in Ethiopia

Nicola Jones; Kate Pincock; Workneh Yadete (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Sexual Health

Youth who have migrated from rural to urban areas in Ethiopia are often precariously employed, lack access to sexual and reproductive health services, and are at heightened risk of sexual violence. However, little is known about the sexual and reproductive health consequences of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and associated lockdowns and service disruptions for urban-dwelling socially disadvantaged youth. This paper draws on qualitative virtual research with 154 urban youths aged 15–24 years who were past and present beneficiaries of United Nations Population Fund-funded programs, and 19 key informants from the city bureaus and non-governmental organisations in June 2020. Semistructured interviews by phone explored the impact of COVID-19 on young people’s sexual and reproductive health and rights.

COVID-19 and social policy in contexts of existing inequality: experiences of youth with disabilities in Ethiopia and Jordan

Kate Pincock; Nicola Jonesa; Kifah Baniodeh (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Disability & Society
This article explores the social policy implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for adolescents and young people with disabilities in Ethiopia and Jordan. The article draws on qualitative research interviews carried out in person between November and December 2019 and by phone between April and June 2020 with 65 young people with hearing, visual and physical impairments in urban settings in both countries, complemented by interviews with key informants in government and civil society organisations working with young people. Whilst in Jordan social policy on disability is more developed, and in Ethiopia, systems are still embryonic, the COVID-19 pandemic has increased the marginalisation of adolescents and young people with disabilities in both contexts as health, education and social protection systems have been slow to mobilise targeted support and address social exclusion. This article identifies social policy gaps in Ethiopia and Jordan that must be addressed in order to support young people with disabilities during crises.
Impact of the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic on coverage of reproductive, maternal, and newborn health interventions in Ethiopia: a natural experiment

Emily D. Carter; Linnea Zimmerman; Jiage Qian (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

The COVID-19 pandemic and response have the potential to disrupt access and use of reproductive, maternal, and newborn health (RMNH) services. Numerous initiatives aim to gauge the indirect impact of COVID-19 on RMNH. This study assessed the impact of COVID-19 on RMNH coverage in the early stages of the pandemic using panel survey data from PMA-Ethiopia. Enrolled pregnant women were surveyed 6-weeks post-birth. It compared the odds of service receipt, coverage of RMNCH service indicators, and health outcomes within the cohort of women who gave birth prior to the pandemic and the COVID-19 affected cohort. We calculated impacts nationally and by urbanicity.

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on intimate partner violence during pregnancy: evidence from a multimethods study of recently pregnant women in Ethiopia

Shannon N. Wood; Robel Yirgu; Abigiya Wondimagegnehu (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: BMJ Open

This multimethods study aimed to: (1) compare the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy pre-COVID-19 and during the COVID-19 pandemic using quantitative data and (2) contextualise pregnant women’s IPV experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic through supplemental interviews. Quantitative analyses use data from Performance Monitoring for Action-Ethiopia, a cohort of 2868 pregnant women that collects data at pregnancy, 6 weeks, 6 months and 1-year postpartum. Following 6-week postpartum survey, in-depth semistructured interviews contextualised experiences of IPV during pregnancy with a subset of participants (n=24).

Determinants of poor sleep quality during the COVID-19 pandemic among women attending antenatal care services at the health facilities of Debre Berhan Town, Ethiopia: an institutional-based cross-sectional study

Nakachew Sewnet Amare; Basazinew Chekol; Agazhe Aemro (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

Women’s ability to get sleep can be affected by pregnancy-related hormonal changes or other external stressful situations like the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of poor sleep quality during the COVID-19 pandemic and its determinants among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) services. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 women attending ANC services at the health facilities in Debre Berhan Town, Ethiopia, from May to June 2020. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select the required samples. The tool consisted of questions that assessed (1) socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric and health care service-related characteristics; and media exposure to get information regarding COVID-19 infection; (2) To assess sleep quality; the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was applied. And a global score of >5 indicates poor sleep quality, and a global score of ≤5 indicates good sleep quality.

Adolescent lives in Ethiopia: what are we learning from longitudinal evidence? Lessons from longitudinal research with adolescents
Institution: Gender and Adolescence Global Evidence
Published: March 2022

Ethiopia has made remarkable progress over the last two decades. The poverty rate has halved (from 46% to 24%), the primary completion rate has more than doubled (from 18% to 50%) and the odds of marriage for girls under the age of 15 have fallen to less than 1 in 10. However, alongside the covid-19 pandemic, the last two years have seen increasing ethnic and religious tension and violence, as Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed has struggled to deliver on promised political transformations. In Ethiopia GAGE has collected baseline and midline data with approximately 8,000 rural and urban adolescents in Afar, Amhara and Oromia regions as well as Dire Dawa City Administration; fielded two rounds of covid-19 phone surveys; and is running ongoing participatory research groups with older girls and boys (15–19 years). Nested within the Ethiopian study, GAGE is also carrying out an impact evaluation of the adolescent empowerment programme ‘Act With Her’ (AWH). This brief highlights headline emerging findings from this unique dataset, as well as providing links to more comprehensive publications and an annex with key quantitative indicators.

Assessment of maternal and child health care services performance in the context of COVID-19 pandemic in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: evidence from routine service data

Senedu Bekele Gebreegziabher; Solomon Sisay Marrye; Tsegaye Hailu Kumssa (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Reproductive Health volume

In many settings, health care service provision has been modified to managing COVID-19 cases, and this has been affecting the provision of maternal and child health services. The aim of this study was to assess trends in selected maternal and child health services performance in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional data review was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from April to May 2021. Routine health management information system database was reviewed from Addis Ababa Health Bureau for the period from July 2019 to March 2021 across all quarters. Proportion and mean with standard deviation were computed. T-test was used to assess statistically significant differences in services mean performance.

Knowledge, attitude, prevention practice, and associated factors toward COVID-19 among preparatory school students in Southwest Ethiopia, 2021

Mohammed Yesuf; Mehd Abdu

Published: January 2022   Journal: Plos One

As of February 2021 COVID-19 report in 57 African countries, there were 3,761,512 confirmed cases and 98,088 deaths. Ethiopia reported the highest number of cases in East Africa with a total of 147,092 cases and 2,194 deaths. Over 1.5 billion students from 195 countries across the world separated from school as a consequence of the closure of schools related to the pandemic. This study aimed to determine the level of knowledge, attitude, prevention practices, and determinant factors regarding COVID-19 among preparatory school students in southwest Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study design was used for 422 samples. Each respondent was selected using simple random sampling. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The collected data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for social science software version 25.0. Multivariable binary logistic regression was used to identify factors that were significantly associated with the practice of COVID-19 prevention.

Health care providers’ awareness of breastfeeding practice recommendations during COVID-19 pandemic and associated factors in Northwest Ethiopia, 2021: a multicenter study

Azmeraw Ambachew Kebede; Birhan Tsegaw Taye; Kindu Yinges Wondie (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Plos One

Prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission to newborns is one of the basic components of perinatal care in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic. As such, scientific evidence is compulsory for evidence-based practices. However, there was a scarcity of evidence on health care providers’ awareness of breastfeeding practice recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ethiopia, particularly in the study setting. The study aimed at assessing healthcare providers’ awareness of breastfeeding practice recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic and associated factors among healthcare providers in northwest Ethiopia, 2021.

1 - 15 of 37

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Subscribe to updates on new research about COVID-19 & children



facebook twitter linkedin google+ reddit print email
Article Article

Check our quarterly thematic digests on children and COVID-19

Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
Campaign Campaign

COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.