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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Screen time and associated risks in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders during a discrete COVID-19 lockdown period

Mathilde Berard; Marianne Peries; Julie Loubersac (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

The COVID-19 pandemic may affect the screen time of children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study aimed to examine the screen time of children and adolescents with ASD during a discrete lockdown period in France and identify risk factors for excessive screen time. The study sample consisted of 249 ASD subjects, 3–17 years of age, enrolled in the ELENA cohort. Information about the screen time was collected using the COVID-19 questionnaire specially created for this study. The clinical, socio-demographic and familial characteristics were collected from the last ELENA follow-up visit.

Early years autism and bilingualism: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of parent perceptions during lockdown

Sarah Oudet; Katie Howard; Stephanie Durrleman

Published: November 2022   Journal: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments
This study explores how bilingual parents of autistic children made language decisions for their families, how the event of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and subsequent lockdown impacted the communication environment of their households, and whether these experiences affected their language habits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five bilingual parents of autistic children who lived through lockdown in France. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Demographic and background information was collected using an adapted version of the Questionnaire for Parents of Bilingual Children.
Injuries and child abuse increase during the pandemic over 12942 emergency admissions

Quentin Hennocq; Célia Adjed; Hélène Chappuy (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Injury
A strict lockdown was decided from 17/03/2020 to 11/05/2020 in France in order to tackle the first wave of the COVID19 pandemic. In the Great Paris region, several areas are severely affected by overcrowding, creating difficult conditions for children and their families during a period of nearly two months. The objective was to assess the effects of the 2020 spring lockdown on injuries, child abuse and neglect. The central medical data warehouse was screened for all pediatric admissions at emergency and critical care departments of 20 hospitals, in a cohort of 12942 children. Specific keywords were used to screen for both injuries and child abuse and neglect.
Children and adolescents psychological distress scale during COVID-19 pandemic: validation of a psychometric instrument (CONFEADO study)

Carla De Stefano; Isaura Laurent; Véronique-Carelle Kaindje-Fondjo (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

In March 2020, the WHO declared a pandemic (COVID-19) due to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In France, school closures and lockdowns were implemented. In this unprecedented context for French adolescents and children, the CONFEADO study surveyed children aged 9 to 18 years to assess their mental health, psychological distress, and resilience during and after the lockdown in relation to their living and housing conditions. To assess psychological distress, a psychometric tool (Children and Adolescent Psychological Distress Scale-CAPDS-10) was specifically designed for the research. This article presents the psychometric validity of the CAPDS-10. This cross-sectional study collected data from June 9 to September 14, 2020, from children and adolescents (9 to 18 years of age) via an online questionnaire after sending it to a large network of partners. Psychological distress, resilience, and trait anxiety were assessed using the CAPDS-10, the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC). The CAPDS-10 measured perceived psychological distress in the most recent 2 weeks (primary endpoint). The predictive power of the CAPDS-10 was determined by statistical analysis.

Mental health of children with aAttention deficit and hyperactivity disorder and their parents during the COVID-19 lockdown: a national cross-sectional study

E. Bobo; E. Fongaro; L. Lin (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a real disruption of children's lives. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders and their parents seem to be particularly vulnerable to adverse mental health effects due to lockdown policies. This study explores the psychological state of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and their parents during the first lockdown in France. A national prospective cross-sectional parent-reported study was conducted using an online survey disseminated through different social networks of French ADHD associations during the first lockdown. The survey consisted of open-ended, multiple-choice questions and standardized questionnaires such as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), the coping self-report questionnaire (Brief COPE) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2). A total of 538 parents completed the online survey between the 6th and the 15th of April 2020.
Prior home learning environment is associated with adaptation to homeschooling during COVID lockdown.

Cléa Girard; Jérôme Prado

Published: May 2022   Journal: Heliyon
The COVID-19 crisis in 2020 led to exceptional measures to contain the spread of the virus. In France as in many countries around the world, the government ordered a lockdown with school closure for several weeks. A growing number of studies suggest that family socio-economic status might be an important predictor of how families adapted to homeschooling during lockdown. However, socio-economic status is a distal factor that does not necessarily inform on the specific characteristics of the home learning environment that may more directly influence parental adaptation to homeschooling during lockdown. Here we aimed to examine how parental adaptation to homeschooling during lockdown was influenced by prior parental attitudes and expectations towards academic learning, as well as prior familiarity with literacy and numeracy activities at home. The present study involves 52 families who participated in a study about the home learning environment in 2018. At that time, parents completed an extensive questionnaire assessing their beliefs and attitudes towards academic learning and the frequency of literacy and numeracy activities are home. At the end of the first 2020 French lockdown, the same parents were asked to complete a questionnaire, this time assessing homeschooling conditions during lockdown as well as parental confidence towards academic domains.
Hyper inflammatory syndrome following COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in children: a national post-authorization pharmacovigilance study

Naïm Ouldali; Haleh Bagheri; Francesco Salvo (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Europe

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is the most severe clinical entity associated with pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection with a putative role of the spike protein into the immune system activation. Whether COVID-19 mRNA vaccine can induce this complication in children is unknown. This study aimed to assess the risk of hyper-inflammatory syndrome following COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in children. It conducted a post-authorization national population-based surveillance using the French enhanced pharmacovigilance surveillance system for COVID-19 vaccines. All cases of suspected hyper-inflammatory syndrome following COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in 12–17-year-old children between June 15th, 2021 and January 1st, 2022, were reported. Cases were reviewed according to WHO criteria for MIS-C. The reporting rate of this syndrome was compared to the MIS-C rate per 1,000,000 12–17-year-old children infected by SARS-CoV-2.

Lockdown in France: impact on families of young children with special needs

Stéphanie Pinel-Jacquemin; Amalia Martinez; Maud Martinasso (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology

Families with young children have faced serious challenges during the first lockdown as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to remote working, parents have had to monitor their children’s schoolwork and manage their daily lives. When one of the children also has neuro-developmental disorders, this results in an increased burden. We can therefore wonder how these families with one or more young children (under 6 years old) with special needs have experienced and dealt with this lockdown. In this context, the “COVJEUNENFANT” study focused more specifically on the subjective experience, as a parent, of those who cared for children with special needs (i.e., with developmental disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders, proven disabilities or chronic health conditions) compared to the general population. It aimed to see if the consequences of the health crisis were significantly different from those perceived by respondents in the general population (n = 490) and if the sociodemographic structure of these families differed from those of other respondents.

TV, computer, tablet and smartphone use and autism spectrum disorder risk in early childhood: a nationally-representative study

Maria Melchior; Katharine Barry; David Cohen (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health

Screen media use in early childhood has largely increased in recent years, even more so during the COVID-19 epidemic, and there is much discussion regarding its influence on neurodevelopment, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study examined the relationship between use of TV, computer, tablet and smartphone at age 2 years and risk of ASD assessed in telephone-based questionnaires among 12,950 children participating in the nationally representative ELFE (‘Etude Longitudinale Française sur les Enfants’) birth cohort study in France.

Children’s well-being and intra-household family relationships during the first COVID-19 lockdown in France

Ariane Pailhé; Lidia Panico; Anne Solaz

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Family Research

This article explores the consequences of the first COVID-19 lockdown in the spring of 2020 in France on intra-family relationships and 9-year-old children's socio-emotional well-being. On 17th March 2020, France began a strict lockdown to contain the COVID-19 pandemic, with school closures and limited outings permitted until early June. All family routines and work-life arrangements were impacted. A major concern relates to how these measures impacted family and child well-being.

Child development and distance learning in the age of COVID-19

Hugues Champeaux; Lucia Mangiavacchi; Francesca Marchetta (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Review of Economics of the Household
School closures, forcibly brought about by the COVID-19 crisis in many countries, have impacted children’s lives and their learning processes. The heterogeneous implementation of distance learning solutions is likely to bring a substantial increase in education inequality, with long term consequences. The present study uses data from a survey collected during Spring 2020 lockdown in France and Italy to analyze parents’ evaluations of their children’s home schooling process and emotional well-being at time of school closure, and the role played by different distance learning methods in shaping these perceptions.
The effects of living and learning conditions on the health-related quality of life of children and adolescents during the COVID-19 lockdown in the French Grand Est region

Stéphanie Bourion-Bédès; Hélène Rousseau; Martine Batt (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health

COVID-19 lockdown measures resulted in children and adolescents staying and learning at home. This study investigated health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and its associated factors among youth during the first lockdown. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 8- to 18-year-olds from the French Grand Est region. Sociodemographic data and information on living and learning conditions were collected using an online survey. HRQoL was assessed using the KIDSCREEN-27. Multiple regression analysis was performed to explore factors related to low HRQoL in each dimension.

Incidence of child abuse with subdural hemorrhage during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic: a nationwide study in France

Fiorella Caron; Pierre Tourneux; Hyppolite Tchidjou Kuekou (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: European Journal of Pediatrics
The global COVID-19 pandemic prompted governments to impose unprecedented sanitary measures, such as social distancing, curfews, and lockdowns. In France and other countries, the first COVID-19 lockdown raised concerns about an increased risk of child abuse. Abusive head trauma (AHT) is one of the most serious forms of child abuse in children aged 0–24 months and constitutes the leading cause of death in children under 2 years of age. Subdural hemorrhage (SDH) is present in 89% of cases of AHT and constitutes one of the most specific, objective clinical presentations in the diagnosis of child abuse. This French nationwide study sought to evaluate the potential impact of the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of hospital admissions for child abuse with SDH, relative to the two previous years. This study conducted a nationwide, retrospective study of data in the French national hospital discharge summary database by applying the International Classification of Diseases (10th Revision) codes for SDH and for child abuse.
Emotional and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms of preterm vs. full-term children during COVID-19 pandemic restrictions

Marion Bailhache; Maeva Monnier; Flore Moulin (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Pediatric Research

Preterm children are at higher risk of developing mental health problems than full-term children. Deterioration of children’s mental health was observed during COVID-19 pandemic restrictive measures. This study compared emotional and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms during school closure between preterm and full-term children. Data from two French birth cohorts—ELFE and EPIPAGE-2—were used. In 2011, infants born ≥22 weeks’ gestation were recruited. Parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire when the children were 9 years old and experiencing school closure. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression models were used.

The psychological effects of COVID-19-related containment in children: the E-COCCON French study

I. Claudet; C. Marchand-Tonel; M. Kelly-Irving (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Archives de Pédiatrie

The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of PTS symptoms within 6 weeks of the end of lockdown, in children. This was a French prospective cross-sectional study between May 15 and July 2, 2020 conducted via telephone survey. Parents of children aged between 8 and 15 years were eligible. The invitation to participate was proposed through social networks (Instagram and Facebook), various local and national media, and by e-mail to the staff of our University Hospital Center. The PTS symptoms were assessed using the CRIES-13. A score of 30 and over has been confirmed as the cut-off for screening cases.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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