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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 94
The Impact of COVID-19 on Anxiety and Worries for Families of Individuals with Special Education Needs and Disabilities in the UK

AUTHOR(S)
V. Sideropoulos; D. Dukes; M. Hanley (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
COVID-19 has affected people across the world. The current study examined anxiety and worries during the first UK national lockdown in March 2020. Parents (n = 402) reported on their own anxiety and worries as well as that of their son/daughter with Special Education Needs and Disabilities (SEND) and typically developing (TD) child (n = 186) at three time points. Although both groups showed increased anxiety across the three time points, levels of anxiety in the SEND group, but not the TD siblings, were predicted by awareness about COVID-19. In addition, worries differed between the groups showing that COVID-19 impacts the wellbeing of those with SEND differently to that of their TD siblings.
Experiences of the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic from the perspectives of young people: Rapid qualitative study

AUTHOR(S)
Harriet Fisher; Helen Lambert; Matthew Hickman (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Public Health in Practice
Young people are considered at lower risk from coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). However, measures to limit the population health impact of the current COVID-19 pandemic have caused significant disruptions to their lives. The objective of this study was to explore the experiences of young people predominantly living in the south-west of England during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Maternal thoughts of self-harm and their association with future offspring mental health problems

AUTHOR(S)
Elise Paul; Alex Kwong; Paul Moran (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

Depression and self-harm are leading causes of disability in young people, but prospective data on how maternal depression and self-harm thoughts contribute to these outcomes, and how they may interact is lacking. The study sample consisted of 8,425 mothers and offspring from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, an ongoing birth cohort study. Exposures were maternal self-harm ideation and depression measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, collected at eleven time points over the period 18 weeks’ gestation to 18 years post-partum. Outcomes were offspring past-year major depressive disorder and lifetime self-harm assessed at age 24.

Corporate parenting in a pandemic: considering the delivery and receipt of support to care leavers in Wales during Covid-19

AUTHOR(S)
Louise Roberts; Alyson Rees; Dawn Mannay (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review

This paper considers the support available to care leavers during the Covid-19 pandemic from their corporate parents. The paper contributes to a developing evidence base concerned with social work efforts to adapt and maintain support provision during the unprecedented circumstances, and provides insight into how such support was perceived and experienced. Funded by Voices from Care Cymru and Cardiff University, a qualitative, mixed method study was conducted which included a survey of Welsh Local Authority professionals (n = 22) and interviews with Welsh care-experienced young people aged 17–24 (n = 17).

The association between disability and risk of exposure to peer cyber victimisation is moderated by gender: cross-sectional survey

AUTHOR(S)
Eric Emerson; Zoe Aitken; Tania King (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Disability and Health Journal

Little is known about the exposure of youth with disability to cyber victimisation. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of peer cyber and non-cyber victimisation in a nationally representative sample of 14-year-old adolescents with and without disability and to determine whether gender moderates the relationship between disability and exposure to victimisation. Secondary analysis of data collected in Wave 6 of the UK's Millennium Cohort Survey on 11,726 14-year-old adolescents living in the UK.

I didn't know I have the capacity to be creative: children's experiences of how creativity promoted their sense of well-being: a pilot randomised controlled study in school arts therapies

AUTHOR(S)
Z. Moula

Published: July 2021   Journal: Public Health

Creativity has been found to be one of the key therapeutic elements in arts therapies. Arts therapies are psychotherapeutic approaches that aim to facilitate psychological change and personal growth through arts media, such as music, drama, dance, movement and virtual arts. This article presents the findings from children's experiences of participating in arts therapies, particularly those related to creativity. This study followed a pilot randomised controlled design with embedded qualitative and arts-based methods. Sixty-two children with mild emotional and behavioural difficulties were recruited across four primary schools in North West England.

Neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalised children and adolescents in the UK: a prospective national cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Stephen T. J. Ray; Omar Abdel-Mannan; Mario Sa (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
The spectrum of neurological and psychiatric complications associated with paediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection is poorly understood. This study aimed to analyse the range and prevalence of these complications in hospitalised children and adolescents. It did a prospective national cohort study in the UK using an online network of secure rapid-response notification portals established by the CoroNerve study group. Paediatric neurologists were invited to notify any children and adolescents (age <18 years) admitted to hospital with neurological or psychiatric disorders in whom they considered SARS-CoV-2 infection to be relevant to the presentation. Patients were excluded if they did not have a neurological consultation or neurological investigations or both, or did not meet the definition for confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (a positive PCR of respiratory or spinal fluid samples, serology for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, or both), or the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health criteria for paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS). Individuals were classified as having either a primary neurological disorder associated with COVID-19 (COVID-19 neurology group) or PIMS-TS with neurological features (PIMS-TS neurology group). The denominator of all hospitalised children and adolescents with COVID-19 was collated from National Health Service England data.
Anxious and traumatised: users’ experiences of maternity care in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Julia Sanders; Rebecca Blaylock

Published: July 2021   Journal: Midwifery
The COVID-19 pandemic saw universal, radical, and ultra-rapid changes to UK National Health Services (NHS) maternity care. At the onset of the pandemic, NHS maternity services were stripped of many of the features which support woman and family centred care. In anticipation of unknown numbers of pregnant women and maternity staff potentially sick with COVID-19, services were pared back to the minimum level considered to be required to keep women and their babies safe. The aim of this survey was to understand the impact of COVID-19 public health messaging and pandemic-related service changes on users of maternity care in the UK during the pandemic.
COVID-19 and Adolescent Mental Health in the United Kingdom

AUTHOR(S)
Yang Hu; Yue Qian

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

This study examines the mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents in the United Kingdom as well as social, demographic, and economic variations in the impact. Nationally representative longitudinal panel data from the Understanding Society COVID-19 survey were analyzed. The analytical sample comprises 886 adolescents aged 10–16 years surveyed both before and during the pandemic. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to measure adolescents' mental health.

Parent-reported social-communication changes in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK

AUTHOR(S)
Phoebe O. Morris; Edward Hope; Tom Foulsham (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: International Journal of Developmental Disabilities
The coronavirus pandemic has swept across the United Kingdom (UK). Given the ever-evolving situation, little is known about the repercussions of coronavirus and the subsequent lockdowns for children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Therefore, this study explores the social-communicative impact of the first lockdown (March 2020 – July 2020) in the UK and the return to school period (September 2020 – October 2020), following prolonged disruption to routine, in children diagnosed with ASD. Parents of autistic children completed 2 separate online surveys following the first lockdown in the UK (n = 176) and also when children returned to school following the summer break (n = 54).
Governing education in times of crisis: State interventions and school accountabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Alison L. Milner; Paola Mattei; Christian Ydesen

Published: June 2021   Journal: European Educational Research Journal
Strategic government interventions in public education have shifted and blurred the boundaries between state, market and civil society modes of governance. Within this matrix of interdependent relations, schools operate under increasingly hybrid accountability arrangements in which public accountability can both complement and compete with market and social regimes and their associated institutional logics, goals, values and mechanisms. During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, however, national governments implemented a wide range of emergency measures which had consequences for the mixes and layers of school accountabilities. This article examines the principal policy changes in Denmark, England and Italy. Drawing on state theories and the concept of ‘hybrid accountability’, semi-structured interviews with national and local policymakers and school practitioners were analysed thematically. While cultural nuances exist between the cases, our findings reveal that state interventions reinforce a public–professional accountability hybrid and hierarchies of control and command within and outside networks. Concomitantly, state non-interventions and the distinct underlying institutional logics associated with national large-scale assessments suggest policy inertia with implications for professional accountability and institutionalised change
Is this the ‘new normal’? A mixed method investigation of young person, parent and clinician experience of online eating disorder treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Catherine Stewart; Anna Konstantellou; Fatema Kassamali (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Eating Disorders

Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, research in virtual care for young people with eating disorders was preliminary and implementation rare. This study explored the experience of young people, parents and clinicians when therapy was transitioned to virtual provision as a result of the UK lockdown in March 2020. A mixed-method approach was used in this study. Online questionnaires that included a mixture of rating (Likert scale) and free-text response questions were completed by 53 young people with any eating disorder, 75 parents and 23 clinicians. Questions focused on the experience of online treatment as well as the impact on engagement, perceived treatment efficacy and preferences around treatment mode in the future. Likert scale questions were analysed using a summary approach. Free-text responses were analysed qualitatively using reflexive thematic analysis.

SARS-CoV-2 infection, antibody positivity and seroconversion rates in staff and students following full reopening of secondary schools in England: a prospective cohort study, September–December 2020

AUTHOR(S)
Shamez N. Ladhani; Georgina Ireland; Frances Baawuah (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: EClinicalMedicine
Older children have higher SARS-CoV-2 infection rates than younger children. This study investigated SARS-CoV-2 infection, seroprevalence and seroconversion rates in staff and students following the full reopening of all secondary schools in England. Public Health England (PHE) invited secondary schools in six regions (East and West London, Hertfordshire, Derbyshire, Manchester and Birmingham) to participate in SARS-CoV-2 surveillance during the 2020/21 academic year. Participants had nasal swabs for RT-PCR and blood samples for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at the beginning (September 2020) and end (December 2020) of the autumn term. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess independent risk factors for seropositivity and seroconversion.
Maternal vaccines during the Covid-19 pandemic: a qualitative interview study with UK pregnant women

AUTHOR(S)
Amberly Brigden; Anna Davies; Emily Shepherd (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Midwifery

There is suboptimal uptake of recommended maternal vaccines (pertussis and influenza) during pregnancy in the UK. The Covid-19 pandemic has impacted healthcare services, and potentially vaccine coverage, and brought the need for new vaccines to be tested and rolled out. This study aims to explore: i) the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on pregnant women's access to, and attitudes towards, routine maternal vaccines and; ii) women's attitudes towards testing Covid-19 vaccines on pregnant women and their personal willingness to take part in such a trial.

Mainstream teachers’ concerns about inclusive education for children with special educational needs and disability in England under pre-pandemic conditions

AUTHOR(S)
Eleanor Warnes; Elizabeth J. Done; Helen Knowler

Published: June 2021   Journal: Jorsen
A survey-based investigation of teachers’ concerns was conducted the following adaptation of Sharma and Desai’s ‘Concerns about Integrated Education (CIE) Scale’ two decades ago. The terminology was adjusted and ‘integrated’ became ‘inclusive’, and ‘Special Educational Needs and / or Disability (SEND)’ replaced ‘disability’ in a novel ‘Concerns about Inclusive Education Scale’. A purposive sample included the public and private education sectors. An online questionnaire was completed in April 2020 (n = 93) by teachers (66: state mainstream, 18: independent, 5: UK-based international schools, 3: SEND specialists, 1: alternative provision). Statistical analysis of closed questions aimed to identify teachers’ concerns about IE for children with SEND and was complemented by qualitative analysis of data generated through open-ended questions. Varied understandings of what IE means and longstanding concerns were identified. The highest level of concern was evidenced around resources, specifically, funding for specialist and support staff, resources, and appropriate infrastructure.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.