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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 233
Observational study of the impact of COVID-19 on sleep in children with and without special educational needs

AUTHOR(S)
Heather Elphick; Philippa Howsley; Nathaniel Mills (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Aims and Scope > About > Aims and Scope Journal of Sleep Medicine
Children and young people (CYP) with special educational needs (SEN) are more likely to experience disturbed sleep and poor mental wellbeing. This study explored the differential impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the sleep and mental wellbeing of CYP with and without SEN. The National Institute of Health Research Children and Young People MedTech Cooperative, Sheffield Children’s National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust, and The Sleep Charity carried out an online survey between June 23, 2020, and August 17, 2020. The 77-item survey was shared on social media platforms.
Home schooling during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom: the experience of families of children with neurodevelopmental conditions

AUTHOR(S)
Athanasia Kouroupa; Amanda Allard; Kylie M. Gray (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Education
The COVID-19 outbreak, and associated school restrictions affected the learning experience of students worldwide. The current study focused on the learning experiences of United Kingdom children with neurodevelopmental conditions, including autism and/or intellectual disability. Specifically, the aim was to examine families’ experience with school support for home schooling, families’ resources, and level of satisfaction with schools among families whose children engaged with home schooling, hybrid learning, and school-based learning during the pandemic. An online survey took place in 2021, approximately 1 year since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom. Participants were recruited mostly through social media with support via several charities across the United Kingdom. Participants were 809 parents/carers of children with autism and/or intellectual disability aged 5 – 15 years. Of these, 59% were learning from home daily during home schooling, 19% spent some days in school (hybrid learning), and 22% were going to school daily during school restrictions. Parents/carers reported on the support received from schools, the resources accessed, and the resources needed but not accessed to facilitate learning. They also reported on their level of satisfaction with school support and school management of COVID-19 risks.
An exploration into the implications of the Covid‐19 restrictions on the transition from Early Years Education to Key Stage 1 for children with special educational needs and disability: a comparative study

AUTHOR(S)
Jessica Wythe

Published: August 2022   Journal: British Journal of Special Education
This small-scale comparative study explores how the coronavirus pandemic has impacted on the transition from Early Years Education to Key Stage 1 (KS1) for children with special educational needs and disability (SEND) in a SEND specialist school in the UK. Two focus group interviews were conducted with nine professionals who work across three KS1 classes for pupils with moderate learning difficulties at a SEND specialist provision setting. This study aimed to compare their experiences and observations of how the children responded to this significant transition in September 2020, in the context of the coronavirus restrictions, and how their practice, provision and transitional support were adapted to meet the needs of the children and to adhere to the changing Covid-19 guidance.
Examining harmful impacts of the COVID‐19 pandemic and school closures on parents and carers in the United Kingdom: a rapid review

AUTHOR(S)
Hope Christie; Lucy V. Hiscox; Sarah L. Halligan (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: JCPP Advances

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, school closures meant that for many households, home and school environments became intertwined. Parents and carers found themselves taking on the role as de-facto educators, as well as balancing working from home and caring for additional members of the household. Understanding the full extent of the effects incurred by parents and carers during school closures is vital to identifying and supporting vulnerable families. This rapid review aimed to appraise the available evidence on the potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on UK parents and carers. Searches for academic literature were conducted using Proquest Central, Scopus, and Google Scholar between 21st and 28th April 2021 using search terms describing “parents and carers”, “COVID-19” and the “UK”. Additional literature was identified on relevant parents and carers' organisations websites including charity reports.

COVID-19-related school closures and patterns of hospital admissions with stress-related presentations in secondary school-aged adolescents: weekly time series

AUTHOR(S)
Ruth M. Blackburn; Jacquie Phillips Owen; Johnny Downs (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: The British Journal of Psychiatry
This study examines health service indicators of stress-related presentations (relating to pain, mental illness, psychosomatic symptoms and self-harm) in adolescents of secondary school age, using Hospital Episode Statistics data for England. It examined weekly time series data for three academic years spanning the time before (2018–2019) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (2019–2020 and 2020–2021), including the first lockdown when schools were closed to the majority of pupils. For all secondary school children, weekly stress presentations dropped following school closures. However, patterns of elevated stress during school terms re-established after reopening, with girls aged 11–15 showing an overall increase compared with pre-pandemic rates.
Parents perceptions of online physical activity and leisure with early years children during Covid-19 and beyond

AUTHOR(S)
Georgia Allen; Philippa Velija

Published: August 2022   Journal: Leisure Studies
Prior to Covid-19, businesses offering enrichment activities for pre-school aged children were saturating the early years (0–5 years) market. However, the pandemic caused sudden changes to family routines with regular leisure activities cancelled. Using Lareau’s theory of concerted cultivation as a framework, this study explored how physical activity (PA) was managed by parents of pre-school children and how routines changed during the pandemic. A UK national online survey was completed by 925 parents. Sixteen tailored, follow-up semi-structured interviews were undertaken with parents.
Vaccine effectiveness of two-dose BNT162b2 against symptomatic and severe COVID-19 among adolescents in Brazil and Scotland over time: a test-negative case-control study

AUTHOR(S)
Pilar T. V. Florentino; Tristan Millington; Thiago Cerqueira-Silva (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Little is known about vaccine effectiveness over time among adolescents, especially against the SARS-CoV-2 omicron (B.1.1.529) variant. This study assessed the associations between time since two-dose vaccination with BNT162b2 and the occurrence of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 among adolescents in Brazil and Scotland. It did test-negative, case-control studies in adolescents aged 12–17 years with COVID-19-related symptoms in Brazil and Scotland. It linked records of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and antigen tests to national vaccination and clinical records. It excluded tests from individuals who did not have symptoms, were vaccinated before the start of the national vaccination programme, received vaccines other than BNT162b2 or a SARS-CoV-2 booster dose of any kind, or had an interval between their first and second dose of fewer than 21 days. Additionally, it excluded negative SARS-CoV-2 tests recorded within 14 days of a previous negative test, negative tests recorded within 7 days after a positive test, any test done within 90 days after a positive test, and tests with missing sex and location information. Cases (SARS-CoV-2 test-positive adolescents) and controls (test-negative adolescents) were drawn from a sample of individuals in whom tests were collected within 10 days of symptom onset. It estimated the adjusted odds ratio and vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic COVID-19 for both countries and against severe COVID-19 (hospitalisation or death) for Brazil across fortnightly periods.
Silver linings of the Covid-19 pandemic… for some! Comparing Experiences and Social demographic characteristics of autistic and non-autistic children with SEND in England

AUTHOR(S)
Susana Castro-Kemp; Arif Mahmud

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Several studies on the impact of Covid-19 on children’s wellbeing have been published, including for those with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities. However, limited evidence is available on who these children may be, their socioeconomic background, age, gender or type of school attended. This study examines the role of socio-demographic characteristics on the experiences of Autistic Children, compared to non-Autistic children, to assess the detrimental impact of the pandemic, but also potential silver linings. Primary-school aged Autistic children were more likely to mention a silver lining (for mental health), as well as younger non-Autistic children from more affluent backgrounds. Similar effects were observed for older non-Autistic boys with special needs attending mainstream settings (regarding physical health).
The experiences of new mothers accessing feeding support for infants with down syndrome during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
L. Hielscher; E. Mengoni; A. Ludlow (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: International Journal of Developmental Disabilities
Infants with Down syndrome are more likely to experience feeding problems and mothers are likely to require more feeding support than mothers of typically developing infants. During the COVID-19 pandemic, many feeding support services changed from face-to-face to online, which impacted some maternal feeding experiences negatively, but no studies to date have explored the impact for mothers of infants with Down syndrome. Thematic analysis was conducted on semi-structured interviews from thirteen new mothers of infants (aged 8–17 months) with Down syndrome in the UK. Three superordinate themes were generated: (1) Every baby with Down syndrome has a unique journey, (2) There’s no point asking, they won’t know, (3) Lack of in-person support.
The frequency of infant-feeding presentations at English emergency departments during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: a nation-wide electronic health records study

AUTHOR(S)
Steven Wyatt; Patrick Aldridge; Samantha Ross (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Medical Journeys

This study aims to examine the frequency and distribution of infant feeding-related presentations at emergency departments (EDs) before and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Attendances at 48 major EDs in England in two 50-week periods before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: period 1, April 2, 2019 to March 10, 2020 and period 2, April 1, 2020 to March 10, 2021.

'Tipping the balance' - an evaluation of COVID-19 parenting resources developed and adapted for child protection during global emergency responses

AUTHOR(S)
Lorraine Sherr; Helen Mebrahtu; Kasonde Mwaba (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine

Parenting was severely affected by lockdown, school closure, illness, movement restrictions and the many sudden changes wrought by the global emergence of COVID-19. Responding to the need for a rapid emergency response to support parents and caregivers, a consortium of providers developed a suite of COVID-19 parenting resources based on evidence-based parenting interventions. Launched in March 2020, these were adapted for online use, with versions in over 100 languages, and the possibility for downloading, radio, and oral provision. A rapid qualitative evaluation initiative was conducted from September 2020 to February 2021 to inform the procedure, understand the impact and to drive future provision. The evaluation collected openended responses surveys (n = 495 participants) and in-depth interviews with parents, providers, and adolescent children (n = 22) from 14 countries and one global source. Data were gathered on parenting challenges during COVID-19 and the utility of the COVID-19 parenting resources.

Perceptions of adolescents on the COVID-19 pandemic and returning to school: qualitative questionnaire survey, September 2020, England

AUTHOR(S)
Annabel A. Powell; Georgina Ireland; Felicity Aiano (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: BMC Pediatrics

Little is known about the views of adolescents returning to secondary school during the current COVID-19 pandemic. In September 2020, the UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA), formerly known as Public Health England (PHE),recruited staff and students in secondary schools to provide nasal swabs, oral fluid and blood samples for SARS-CoV-2 infection and antibody testing. Students aged 11–18 years in five London schools completed a short questionnaire about their perception of the pandemic, returning to school, risk to themselves and to others and infection control measures, and participating in school testing.

A "curriculum of hope": designing and evaluating a remote mentoring program for pupils in a pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Richard Pountney

Published: July 2022   Journal: ECNU Review of Education

This paper reports the evaluation of an ongoing intervention, the GROW Programme, aimed at meeting the needs of 15–18-year-old pupils who were unable to attend school in England for periods during 2020–2021. The aim of the paper is to theorize the underlying basis of practice in such a lockdown context to inform future responses. Thematic analysis of a mixed-method evaluation, using surveys and interviews of teachers and mentors, and pupil focus groups, of the remote mentoring of pupils and their learning during lockdown, is further analyzed by means of Bernstein's knowledge codes, and his concept of open schools, to identify the form of knowledge inherent in online mentoring.

Socio-economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on new mothers and associations with psychosocial wellbeing: Findings from the UK COVID-19 New Mum online observational study (May 2020-June 2021)

AUTHOR(S)
Emeline Rougeaux; Sarah Dib; Adriana Vázquez-Vázquez (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: PLOS Global Public Health
Studies have reported unequal socio-economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictions in the UK, despite support packages. It is unclear how women with young children, a vulnerable group economically and psychosocially, havebeen impacted by income and employment pandemic changes, and how this is associated with psychosocial wellbeing. Using the UK COVID-19 New Mum online survey of women with children <12 months (28th May 2020-26th June 2021; N = 3430), which asked about pandemic impact on their i.ability to pay for rent, food, and essentials expenses separately, ii. employment (and/or partner’s), and iii.past week mood, feelings and activities, we explored associations of i. & maternal age, household structure and income, i. & ii., and i. & iii. using logistic (odd ratios), multivariate (relative risk ratios/RRR), and linear (coefficients) regression respectively, and associated p-values.
The utility of administrative data in understanding the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on child maltreatment: learning from the Scotland experience

AUTHOR(S)
Alexander McTier; Joanna Soraghan

Published: June 2022   Journal: Child Maltreatment
The COVID-19 pandemic and associated public health ‘stay at home’ restrictions have intensified familial risk factors. Children would appear to be at increased risk of harm and abuse, yet administrative data from the early months of the pandemic showed falling cases of child maltreatment. Using weekly administrative data from Scotland, UK that span the first 17 months of the pandemic, this article found that child maltreatment activity levels fluctuated as ‘stay at home’ restrictions changed. During lockdown periods, the number of children subject to Inter-agency Referral Discussion fell but a higher number of children were placed on the Child Protection Register. When restrictions were eased, the number of Inter-agency Referral Discussions increased but the number of children placed on the Child Protection Register fell. To explain the fluctuations, the article asserts that the pandemic’s impact on services’ ability to engage directly with children and families has been critical, but the limitations of administrative data in providing an accurate measure of child maltreatment levels also need to be recognised.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.