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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 113
Is this the ‘new normal’? A mixed method investigation of young person, parent and clinician experience of online eating disorder treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic

Catherine Stewart; Anna Konstantellou; Fatema Kassamali (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Eating Disorders

Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, research in virtual care for young people with eating disorders was preliminary and implementation rare. This study explored the experience of young people, parents and clinicians when therapy was transitioned to virtual provision as a result of the UK lockdown in March 2020. A mixed-method approach was used in this study. Online questionnaires that included a mixture of rating (Likert scale) and free-text response questions were completed by 53 young people with any eating disorder, 75 parents and 23 clinicians. Questions focused on the experience of online treatment as well as the impact on engagement, perceived treatment efficacy and preferences around treatment mode in the future. Likert scale questions were analysed using a summary approach. Free-text responses were analysed qualitatively using reflexive thematic analysis.

SARS-CoV-2 infection, antibody positivity and seroconversion rates in staff and students following full reopening of secondary schools in England: a prospective cohort study, September–December 2020

Shamez N. Ladhani; Georgina Ireland; Frances Baawuah (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: EClinicalMedicine
Older children have higher SARS-CoV-2 infection rates than younger children. This study investigated SARS-CoV-2 infection, seroprevalence and seroconversion rates in staff and students following the full reopening of all secondary schools in England. Public Health England (PHE) invited secondary schools in six regions (East and West London, Hertfordshire, Derbyshire, Manchester and Birmingham) to participate in SARS-CoV-2 surveillance during the 2020/21 academic year. Participants had nasal swabs for RT-PCR and blood samples for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at the beginning (September 2020) and end (December 2020) of the autumn term. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess independent risk factors for seropositivity and seroconversion.
Maternal vaccines during the Covid-19 pandemic: a qualitative interview study with UK pregnant women

Amberly Brigden; Anna Davies; Emily Shepherd (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Midwifery

There is suboptimal uptake of recommended maternal vaccines (pertussis and influenza) during pregnancy in the UK. The Covid-19 pandemic has impacted healthcare services, and potentially vaccine coverage, and brought the need for new vaccines to be tested and rolled out. This study aims to explore: i) the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on pregnant women's access to, and attitudes towards, routine maternal vaccines and; ii) women's attitudes towards testing Covid-19 vaccines on pregnant women and their personal willingness to take part in such a trial.

Mainstream teachers’ concerns about inclusive education for children with special educational needs and disability in England under pre-pandemic conditions

Eleanor Warnes; Elizabeth J. Done; Helen Knowler

Published: June 2021   Journal: Jorsen
A survey-based investigation of teachers’ concerns was conducted the following adaptation of Sharma and Desai’s ‘Concerns about Integrated Education (CIE) Scale’ two decades ago. The terminology was adjusted and ‘integrated’ became ‘inclusive’, and ‘Special Educational Needs and / or Disability (SEND)’ replaced ‘disability’ in a novel ‘Concerns about Inclusive Education Scale’. A purposive sample included the public and private education sectors. An online questionnaire was completed in April 2020 (n = 93) by teachers (66: state mainstream, 18: independent, 5: UK-based international schools, 3: SEND specialists, 1: alternative provision). Statistical analysis of closed questions aimed to identify teachers’ concerns about IE for children with SEND and was complemented by qualitative analysis of data generated through open-ended questions. Varied understandings of what IE means and longstanding concerns were identified. The highest level of concern was evidenced around resources, specifically, funding for specialist and support staff, resources, and appropriate infrastructure.
Decommissioning normal: COVID-19 as a disruptor of school norms for young people with learning disabilities

Mhairi C. Beaton; Geraldene N. Codina; Julie C. Wharton

Published: June 2021   Journal: British Journal of Learning Disabilities
To slow the spread of COVID-19, on 20 March 2020, nurseries, schools and colleges across England were closed to all learners, apart from those who were children of key workers or were considered “vulnerable.” As young people with learning disabilities, families, professionals and schools become acquainted with the Erfahrung of the new horizon brought about by COVID-19, the negativity of altered social inclusion is becoming the “new normal.” Capturing this transitory moment in time, this paper reflexively analyses the curiously productive variables of altered ecological pathways to social inclusion for people with learning disabilities.
Barriers and facilitators to mood and confidence in pregnancy and early parenthood during COVID-19 in the UK: mixed-methods synthesis survey

Alejandra Perez; Elena Panagiotopoulou; Peter Curtis (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: BJPsych Open
Parental well-being during pregnancy and early parenthood is critical for child development. Environmental stressors can significantly challenge parental well-being. This study aims to investigate how COVID-19 and associated restrictions influence mood and parenting confidence of expectant parents and those in early parenthood, identifying barriers and facilitators.
An analysis of school absences in England during the COVID-19 pandemic

Emma Southall; Alex Holmes; Edward M. Hill (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: BMC Medicine
The introduction of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 infection, in the UK in early 2020, resulted in the introduction of several control policies to reduce disease spread. As part of these restrictions, schools were closed to all pupils in March (except for vulnerable and key worker children), before re-opening to certain year groups in June. Finally, all school children returned to the classroom in September. This study analyses data on school absences in late 2020 as a result of COVID-19 infection and how that varied through time as other measures in the community were introduced. It utilises data from the Department for Education Educational Settings database and examines how pupil and teacher absences change in both primary and secondary schools
Interplay between long-term vulnerability and new risk: young adolescent and maternal mental health immediately before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

Nicola Wright; Jonathan Hill; Helen Sharp (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: JCPP Advances

This study examines whether there has been an increase in young adolescent and maternal mental health problems from pre- to post-onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Children aged 11–12 years and their mothers participating in a UK population-based birth cohort (Wirral Child Health and Development Study) provided mental health data between December 2019 and March 2020, and again 3 months after lockdown, 89% (N = 202) of 226 assessed pre-COVID-19. Emotional and behavioural problems were assessed by self- and maternal reports, and long-term vulnerability by maternal report of prior child adjustment, and maternal prenatal depression.

Early childhood education and care (ECEC) during COVID-19 boosts growth in language and executive function

Catherine Davies; Alexandra Hendry; Shannon P. Gibson (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Infant and Child Development
High-quality, centre-based education and care during the early years benefit cognitive development, especially in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. During the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated lockdowns, access to early childhood education and care (ECEC) was disrupted. This study investigates how this period affected the developmental advantages typically offered by ECEC.
SARS-CoV-2 vaccination during pregnancy: a complex decision

Elizabeth Wenqian Wang; Jacqueline G. Parchem; Robert L. Atmar (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
As the first severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines passed UK and US regulatory milestones in late 2020 and early 2021, multiple professional societies offered recommendations to assist pregnant and breastfeeding people as they choose whether to undergo vaccination. Despite such guidance, the lack of data describing vaccine safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy in pregnant and breastfeeding people has made this decision challenging for many. However, even considering the paucity of data, the known risks of coronavirus disease 2019 during pregnancy likely outweigh the not yet fully elucidated risks of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, which have reassuring safety and efficacy profiles among nonpregnant people.
The Janus-faced effects of COVID-19 perceptions on family healthy eating behavior: parent’s negative experience as a mediator and gender as a moderator

Ali B. Mahmoud; Dieu Hack-Polay; Leonora Fuxman (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
This research examines the effects of COVID-19 perceptions and negative experiences during the pandemic time on parental healthy eating behavior and whether these relationships interact with a parent’s gender. It ran a survey of parents who had at least one child aged 3 to 17 years old living in the United Kingdom.
Maternal and perinatal outcomes of pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection at the time of birth in England: national cohort study

Ipek Gurol-Urganci; Jennifer E. Jardine; Fran Carroll (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

The aim of this study was to determine the association between SARS-CoV-2 infection at the time of birth and maternal and perinatal outcomes. This is a population-based cohort study in England. The inclusion criteria were women with a recorded singleton birth between 29th May 2020 and 31st January 2021 in a national database of hospital admissions. Maternal and perinatal outcomes were compared between pregnant women with a laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection recorded in the birth episode and those without.

Prevalence and changes in food-related hardships by socioeconomic and demographic groups during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK: A longitudinal panel study

Jonathan Koltaia; Veronica Toffolutti; Martin McKee (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Europe
Food insecurity concerns have featured prominently in the UK response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study assessed changes in the prevalence of food-related hardships in the UK population from April to July 2020. It analysed longitudinal data on food-related hardships for 11,104 respondents from the April-July 2020 waves of the Understanding Society COVID-19 web survey with linked data from the 2017-9 wave of the annual Understanding Society survey. Outcome variables were reports of being hungry but not eating and of being unable to eat healthy and nutritious food in the last week, which were adapted from the Food Insecurity Experience Scale. The study used unadjusted estimates to examine changes in population prevalence and logistic regression to assess the association between employment transitions and both outcomes at the individual level.
COVID-19 outbreaks following full reopening of primary and secondary schools in England: Cross-sectional national surveillance, November 2020

Felicity Aiano; Anna A. Mensah; Kelsey McOwat (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Europe
The full reopening of schools in September 2020 was associated with an increase in COVID-19 cases and outbreaks in educational settings across England. Primary and secondary schools reporting an outbreak (≥2 laboratory-confirmed cases within 14 days) to Public Health England (PHE) between 31 August and 18 October 2020 were contacted in November 2020 to complete an online questionnaire.
Widening the divide: the impact of school closures on primary science learning

Cherry Canovan; Naomi Fallon

Published: May 2021   Journal: SN Social Sciences volume
Prolonged Covid-19-related school closures in the UK raised concerns that science teaching and learning at primary level would be negatively impacted. This paper reports the findings of phase 1 of a study that the authors are conducting with teachers and parents to explore this issue. We found that a significant proportion of teachers were providing less science during lockdown than in the normal school week. Teachers, particularly those working in more deprived areas, reported that translating the science curriculum for home learning had been difficult, with concerns around resources, internet access and parental ability to help. Some areas of the curriculum posed particular difficulties, leading to a narrowing of topics being taught. Both teachers and parents felt that schools prioritised English and maths above science. Meanwhile some parents reported that their children had engaged in sophisticated extracurricular activities, bolstered by resources available at home and knowledgeable adult help, but others said that their children had done no science at all.
31 - 45 of 113

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.