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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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91 - 105 of 263
COVID-19: impact on pediatric palliative care

Hannah May Scott; Lucy Coombes; Debbie Braybrook (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Children and young people (CYP) with life-limiting or life-threatening conditions (LLLTC) and their families are potentially vulnerable during COVID-19 lockdowns due to pre-existing high clinical support needs and social participation limitations. This paper aims to explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdowns on this population. Sub-analysis of an emergent COVID-19 related theme from a larger semi-structured interview study investigating priority pediatric palliative care outcomes. 106 UK-wide purposively-sampled CYP with LLLTC, parent/carers, siblings, health professionals and commissioners.
COVID-19 mitigation measures in primary schools and association with infection and school staff wellbeing: an observational survey linked with routine data in Wales, UK

Emily Marchant; Lucy Griffiths; Tom Crick (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Plos One

School-based COVID-19 mitigation strategies have greatly impacted the primary school day (children aged 3–11) including: wearing face coverings, two metre distancing, no mixing of children, and no breakfast clubs or extra-curricular activities. This study examines these mitigation measures and association with COVID-19 infection, respiratory infection, and school staff wellbeing between October to December 2020 in Wales, UK. A school staff survey captured self-reported COVID-19 mitigation measures in the school, participant anxiety and depression, and open-text responses regarding experiences of teaching and implementing measures. These survey responses were linked to national-scale COVID-19 test results data to examine association of measures in the school and the likelihood of a positive (staff or pupil) COVID-19 case in the school (clustered by school, adjusted for school size and free school meals using logistic regression). Linkage was conducted through the SAIL (Secure Anonymised Information Linkage) Databank.

Adaptive school grounds design in response to COVID-19: Findings from six primary schools in South East England

Alison Quinn; Alessio Russo

Published: February 2022   Journal: Building and Environment
The purpose of this research is to look at how primary schools in England have adapted their outdoor spaces in the context of COVID-19 rules and guidelines to meet the needs of students returning from school closures and national lockdown of Spring/Summer 2020, how that impacted play and learning value of their grounds, and to consider how these findings might inform future school grounds design. Thus, this study used a mixed-method approach that included qualitative interviews with representatives from six primary schools (three in rural and three in urban areas), quantitative desk research, and in-person site surveys. It used literature-based scoring criteria to quantify changes in the playground before and after the implementation of COVID-19 measures.
‘You’re just there, alone in your room with your thoughts’: a qualitative study about the psychosocial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic among young people living in the UK

Alison R. McKinlay; Tom May; Jo Dawes (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: BMJ Open

Adolescents and young adults have been greatly affected by quarantine measures during the COVID-19 pandemic, but little is understood about how restrictions have affected their well-being, mental health, and social life. This study therefore aimed to learn more about how UK quarantine measures affected the social lives, mental health and well-being of adolescents and young adults. It is a qualitative interview study. The data were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis, with particular attention paid to contextual factors (such as age, gender, ethnicity and health status) when analysing each individual transcript. Data collection took place remotely across the UK via audio or video call, between June 2020 and January 2021.

Adolescent carers’ psychological symptoms and mental well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic: longitudinal study using data from the UK millennium cohort study

Miharu Nakanishi; Marcus Richards; Daniel Stanyon (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

During the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescent carers in the UK may have experienced psychological distress due to increased caring burden and loss of a break from their caring role. This study investigated longitudinal association between adolescents’ caring status and mental health outcomes from 2018/2019 to February–March 2021. The participants (n = 3,927) answered mental health questions in both the Millennium Cohort Study sweep 7 survey (age 17 years in 2018/2019) and at least one of three waves of the COVID-19 survey from May 2020 to February–March 2021. Caring status at the age of 17 years was assessed using a single question regarding whether the participant regularly looked after anyone who needed care, without being paid. Outcome measures were psychological symptoms, measured using the Kessler Distress Scale, and mental well-being, measured using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale.

Physical and mental health 3 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection (long COVID) among adolescents in England (CLoCk): a national matched cohort study

Terence Stephenson; Snehal M. Pinto Pereira; Roz Shafran (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health

This study describes post-COVID symptomatology in a non-hospitalised, national sample of adolescents aged 11–17 years with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with matched adolescents with negative PCR status. In this national cohort study, adolescents aged 11–17 years from the Public Health England database who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between January and March, 2021, were matched by month of test, age, sex, and geographical region to adolescents who tested negative. 3 months after testing, a subsample of adolescents were contacted to complete a detailed questionnaire, which collected data on demographics and their physical and mental health at the time of PCR testing (retrospectively) and at the time of completing the questionnaire (prospectively).

Ordinary magic in extraordinary circumstances: factors associated with positive mental health outcomes for early adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Emma Ashworth; David W. Putwain; Shane McLoughlin (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Adversity and Resilience Science
The COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictions have had a negative impact on the mental health and wellbeing of many people worldwide, but this may have been particularly challenging for adolescents. However, there is a paucity of research examining the factors associated with good mental health during this time. The aim of the current study was to identify the protective factors amongst early adolescents in the UK that were associated with better mental health outcomes (internalising and externalising difficulties, and wellbeing) during the first national COVID-19 lockdown. Between September and December 2020, 290 11–14 year olds across North West England completed an online survey consisting of several measures pertaining to experiences of lockdown, and mental health and wellbeing.
Sleep in the time of COVID-19: findings from 17000 school-aged children and adolescents in the UK during the first national lockdown

Gaby Illingworth; Karen L. Mansfield; Colin A. Espie (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: SLEEP Advances

Sleep is essential to young people’s wellbeing, yet may be constricted by the adolescent delayed sleep phase coupled with school start times. COVID-19 restrictions caused major disruptions to everyday routines, including partial school closures. This study set out to understand changes in students’ self-reported sleep quality, and associations with mental wellbeing and interpersonal functioning, during these restrictions. The OxWell school survey—a cross-sectional online survey—collected data from 18 642 children and adolescents (aged 8–19 years, 60% female, school year 4–13) from 230 schools in southern England, in June–July 2020. Participants completed self-report measures of the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on sleep quality, happiness, and social relationships. Sleep timing was compared with data collected from 4222 young people in 2019.

The mental health crisis of expectant women in the UK: effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on prenatal mental health, antenatal attachment and social support

Maria Laura Filippetti; Alasdair D. F. Clarke; Silvia Rigato (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

Pregnancy has been shown to be times in a woman’s life particularly prone to mental health issues, however a substantial percentage of mothers report subclinical perinatal mental health symptoms that go undetected. Experiences of prenatal trauma, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, may exacerbate vulnerability to negative health outcomes for pregnant women and their infants. We aimed to examine the role of: 1) anxiety, depression, and stress related to COVID-19 in predicting the quality of antenatal attachment; 2) perceived social support and COVID-19 appraisal in predicting maternal anxiety and depression. A sample of 150 UK expectant women were surveyed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Questions included demographics, pregnancy details, and COVID-19 appraisal. Validated measures were used to collect self-reported maternal antenatal attachment (MAAS), symptoms of anxiety (STAI), depression (BDI-II), and stress related to the psychological impact of COVID-19 (IES-r).

Experiences of siblings of children with congenital heart disease during Coronavirus disease 2019; a qualitative interview study

Elizabeth Bichard; Stephen McKeever; Suzanne Bench (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing

This study aimed to explore siblings' perceptions of having a brother or sister with congenital heart disease in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic. Siblings of children with congenital heart disease aged 8–17 years old were interviewed via video call technology between September 2020 and February 2021.  A reflexive thematic analysis of these interviews to generate themes was conducted.

“I don’t want my son to be part of a giant experiment”: public attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccines in children

Simon N. Williams

Published: January 2022   Journal: Public Health

This qualitative study explored public attitudes to COVID-19 vaccines in children, including reasons for support or opposition to them. Qualitative study using online focus groups and interviews. Group and individual online interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of 24 adults in the United Kingdom to explore their views on the issue of COVID-19 vaccination in children. Data were analysed using a framework approach.

Back to school after lockdown: The effect of COVID-19 restrictions on children's device-based physical activity metrics

Liezel Hurter; Melitta McNarry; Gareth Stratton (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Sport and Health Science

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and national lockdowns took away opportunities for children to be physically active. This study aimed to determine the effect of the COVID-19 lockdown on accelerometer-assessed physical activity (PA) in children in Wales. 800 participants (8–18 years old), stratified by sex, age, and socio-economic status, wore Axivity AX3 accelerometers for 7 days in February 2021, during the lockdown, and in May 2021, while in school. Raw accelerometer data were processed in R-package GGIR, and cut-point data, average acceleration (AvAcc), intensity gradient (IG), and MX metrics were extracted. Linear mixed models were used to assess the influence of time-point, sex, age, and SES on PA.

“Lessons from lockdown: could pandemic schooling help change education?”

Harriet D. A. Pattison

Published: January 2022   Journal: Pedagogy, Culture & Society
This paper uses qualitative data from a survey of Higher Education students, who are also parents, to reveal changing attitudes towards, and perceptions of, education during the pandemic school closures in England. Thematic analysis reveals the stresses of ‘homeschooling’ and how parents reacted and adapted to these, including adjusting ideas around education. This adaptation mirrors the changing attitudes of parents found in pre-pandemic home education. The paper suggests that post pandemic education could be enriched by taking forward some of these ideas, particularly greater flexibility, personalisation and child autonomy in education.
Student parents or parent students in lockdown pandemic? A third space approach

Z. Nikiforidou; Sarah E. Holmes

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Family Issues
The pandemic has affected families in many ways. Parents, who at the same time are studying, tend to be an under-represented cohort of adult learners, and in this study, their experiences and reflections, on how they navigated through their dual identities during lockdown, are explored. Through an online survey, 91 student parents from 20 different higher education institutions in the United Kingdom shared their views as to how they balanced their parenting and studying responsibilities during lockdown in early 2021. Findings indicate how student parents felt both their roles were impacted rather negatively, but also how the pandemic provided them opportunities for bridging and resisting binaries, through the emergence of a Third Space (Bhabha, H. K. (1994). The location of culture. New York, NY: Routledge; Soja, E. W. (1996). Third space: Journeys to Los Angeles and other real-and-imagined places. Malden, MA: Blackwell). The study shows how student parents re-positioned their identities, identified ways to manage disruptions caused by the lockdown and acknowledged family time and family relationships as very important. 
‘It's making his bad days into my bad days’: The impact of coronavirus social distancing measures on young carers and young adult carers in the United Kingdom

Andy McGowan; Kate Blake-Holmes

Published: January 2022   Journal: Child & Family Social Work
The lockdown measures put in place in March 2020 in England to counter the spread of the coronavirus have had significant implications for the lives and well-being of young carers and young adult carers. In such unprecedented times, little was known about the potential impact on this group and their specific experience of the Covid-19 lockdown restrictions. A rapid review was conducted, 28 young carers responded to a survey and an additional 20 participants were interviewed in January 2021; the survey was repeated with a further 149 responses.
91 - 105 of 263

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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