search advanced search
UNICEF Innocenti
Office of Research-Innocenti
search menu

Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

RESULTS:   14     SORT BY:
Prev 1 Next


Select one or more filter options and click search below.

UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
Open Access
1 - 14 of 14
First Prev 1 Next Last
Health-related quality of life, Mediterranean diet, physical activity and socioeconomic factors of Greek adolescents during COVID-19: a cross sectional study

Stamatina Papadaki; Vilelmine Carayanni

Published: April 2022   Journal: Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism,

Health related quality of life of the adolescents during quarantine and social isolation potentially decreases, with significant alteration on physical activities and nutrition behaviour. The present study investigates the relationship between Greek adolescents’ health related quality of life and socioeconomic factors, lifestyle and dietary characteristics, along with their adherence to the Mediterranean Diet immediately after the lockdown period in Greece. A total sample of 459 students aged 12–16 years old were recruited from secondary schools in the area of Athens. The KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire for children and adolescents, the KIDMED test, the Godin and Shephard Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Family Affluence Scale III, were used for the statistical analysis. T-tests, Kruskal Wallis, Chi-square, Anova tests and multiple regression analyses were employed.

Mental health of children and adolescents with pre-existing psychiatric and developmental disorders during the first pandemic-related lockdown: a cross-sectional study in Greece

K. Magklara; I. Giannopoulou; K. Kotsis (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Psychiatry Research Communications
Since the onset of COVID-19 pandemic, concerns have been raised about the effects of the pandemic on youth with pre-existing mental health disorders. The present study aimed to explore change in emotional and behavioral symptoms (mood states) and daily behaviors during the lockdown in a clinical sample of children and adolescents in Greece. A cross-sectional survey, using the CoRonavIrus Health Impact Survey (CRISIS) Questionnaire, was completed by 738 parents of children and adolescents aged 2–18 years attending 12 outpatient child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) across four geographical regions in Greece.
Mental health of adolescents amidst preparation for university entrance exams during the second pandemic-related lockdown in Greece

Ioanna Giannopoulou; Vasiliki Efstathiou; Panagiota Korkoliakou (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders Reports
High school students are particularly susceptible to psychological distress as a result of accelerated developmental changes and increased academic demands that affect their psychosocial well-being (Pascoe et al., 2020). A systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 cross-sectional and two longitudinal studies highlighted the high pooled prevalence of depression (29%; 95%CI: 17%, 40%), anxiety (26%; 95%CI: 16%, 35%), sleep disorders (44%; 95%CI: 21%, 68%), and posttraumatic stress symptoms (48%; 95%CI: −0.25, 1.21) among children and adolescents during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in females and adolescents (Ma et al., 2021).
An explainable machine learning approach for COVID-19’s impact on mood states of children and adolescents during the first lockdown in Greece

Charis Ntakolia; Dimitrios Priftis; Mariana Charakopoulou-Travlou (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Healthcare
The global spread of COVID-19 led the World Health Organization to declare a pandemic on 11 March 2020. To decelerate this spread, countries have taken strict measures that have affected the lifestyles and economies. Various studies have focused on the identification of COVID-19’s impact on the mental health of children and adolescents via traditional statistical approaches. However, a machine learning methodology must be developed to explain the main factors that contribute to the changes in the mood state of children and adolescents during the first lockdown. Therefore, in this study an explainable machine learning pipeline is presented focusing on children and adolescents in Greece, where a strict lockdown was imposed. The target group consists of children and adolescents, recruited from children and adolescent mental health services, who present mental health problems diagnosed before the pandemic. The proposed methodology imposes: (i) data collection via questionnaires; (ii) a clustering process to identify the groups of subjects with amelioration, deterioration and stability to their mood state; (iii) a feature selection process to identify the most informative features that contribute to mood state prediction; (iv) a decision-making process based on an experimental evaluation among classifiers; (v) calibration of the best-performing model; and (vi) a post hoc interpretation of the features’ impact on the best-performing model.
The impact of COVID-19 pandemic containment measures on families and children with moderate and high-functioning ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder)

Margarita Saliverou; Maria Georgiadi; Dimitra Maria Tomprou (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Education Sciences
The present study focuses on the impact of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) transmission prevention measures and, in particular, home confinement of families with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Greece. It is assumed that the implemented new measures during the pandemic constitute a profound change for children on the spectrum, considering that the core ASD symptoms include the persistence and adherence to routine and stability, a condition that also directly affects the children’s parents. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted. Participants were 10 caregivers with a child diagnosed with ASD of medium or high functioning in Greece. The ages of the children range from 6.5 to 15 years old.
‘We'd never had to set up a virtual school before’: opportunities and challenges for primary and secondary teachers during emergency remote education

Anastasia Gouseti

Published: November 2021   Journal: Review of Education
The Covid-19 pandemic has brought about the largest disruption to formal education in recent history and has resulted in school closures and the move to online teaching and learning across the globe. Using data from interviews with 25 teachers and head teachers in England and Greece, this paper aims to capture educators’ experiences during emergency remote education (ERE) in spring–summer 2020 and contribute to current and future conversations about the post-pandemic school. Through a qualitative approach, the paper reports on the often improvised and compromised nature of online schooling during the first pandemic lockdown and presents the opportunities and challenges teachers experienced with the move to emergency remote education. It discusses how didactic modes of teaching prevailed, highlights the importance of parental involvement during ERE and argues that the move to online teaching and learning has accentuated digital inequalities.
Daily behaviors, worries and emotions in children and adolescents with ADHD and learning difficulties during the COVID-19 pandemic

Terpsichori Korpa; Theodora Pappa; Giorgos Chouliaras (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Children
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the coronavirus crisis on behavioral and emotional parameters in children and adolescents with ADHD and Learning Difficulties. A total of 101 children, 5–18 years old, were included in the study, 63 (44 boys) of which were diagnosed with ADHD and learning difficulties (ADHD/LD) and 38 were healthy children (19 boys). The CRISIS questionnaire for parents/caregivers was used. The questionnaire was completed during the first national lockdown in Greece and the data referred to two time-points: 3 months before, and the past 2 weeks. A significant deterioration in the “Emotion/Worries (EW)” symptoms was observed during the pandemic in the control group (2.62 ± 0.16 vs. 2.83 ± 0.18, p < 0.001). No such differences were noted in the ADHD group: 3.08 ± 0.25 vs. 3.12 ± 0.29, p = 0.12.
Children’s conceptions of coronavirus

Fotini Bonoti; Vasilia Christidou; Penelope Papadopoulou

Published: October 2021   Journal: Public Understanding of Science
The present study aimed to examine children’s conceptions of coronavirus as denoted in their verbal descriptions and drawings and whether these vary as a function of children’s age and the mode of expression. Data were collected in Greece during spring 2020 and 344 children aged 4 to 10 years were first asked to verbally describe coronavirus and then to produce a drawing of it. Content analysis of data revealed the following main themes: (a) Coronavirus, (b) Medical, (c) Psychological, and (d) Social. Results showed that children from an early age present a remarkable level of understanding of coronavirus and the COVID-19 disease as a multidimensional construct, which can be designated not only through characteristics of the Sars-Cov-2 but also through its medical, social, and psychological consequences on people’s lives. Moreover, children were found to emphasize different aspects of this construct depending on their age and the mode of expression.
Parental involvement in homework of children with learning disabilities during distance learning: relations with fear of COVID-19 and resilience

Thanos Touloupis

Published: September 2021   Journal: Psychology in the Schools
The present study investigated parental involvement in the homework of children with learning disabilities, during distance learning due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Also, the role of parents' fear of COVID-19 and resilience in their involvement in homework was examined. The study involved 271 parents (140 mothers and 131 fathers) of children with learning disabilities, who studied in the fifth and sixth grade from4 schools of Thessaloniki (Greece). Parents completed a set of self-reported questionnaires, which included a scale on parental involvement in homework, a scale on fear of COVID-19, and a scale on resilience.
Unaccompanied children at the gates of Europe: voices from Samos

Emma Musty

Institution: Save the Children, Refugee Rights Europe
Published: June 2021

This report investigates the situation facing unaccompanied minors during Covid-19 in Samos. Drawing from desk research, interviews with unaccompanied minors and staff working with them, the report findings underline the further deterioration of an already acute and protracted situation. The children are trapped in dismal reception conditions without appropriate and adequate services. The access to medical care and psychological rehabilitation is grossly insufficient and unaccompanied children face acute safety risks due to being treated as adults, in clear contravention of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. In consequence, these conditions and the lack of protection has bred a mental health crisis on the island.

Physical activity, sedentariness, eating behaviour and well-being during a COVID-19 lockdown period in Greek adolescents

Ioannis D. Morres; Evangelos Galanis; Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Nutrients
Adolescents’ daily life has dramatically changed during the COVID-19 era due to the social restrictions that have been imposed, including closures of schools, leisure centers and sport facilities. The purpose of this study was to examine levels of well-being and mood and their relations with physical (in)activity and eating behaviors in adolescents during a lockdown period in Greece. A total of 950 adolescents (Mean Age = 14.41 years ± 1.63) participated in a web-based survey while education was conducted online and organized sport activities were interrupted.
Lifestyle changes and determinants of children’s and adolescents’ body weight increase during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Greece: the COV-EAT study

Odysseas Androutsos; Maria Perperidi; Christos Georgiou (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Nutrients
Previous studies showed that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown imposed changes in adults’ lifestyle behaviors; however, there is limited information regarding the effects on youth. The COV-EAT study aimed to report changes in children’s and adolescents’ lifestyle habits during the first COVID-19 lockdown and explore potential associations between changes of participants’ lifestyle behaviors and body weight. An online survey among 397 children/adolescents and their parents across 63 municipalities in Greece was conducted in April–May 2020. Parents self-reported changes of their children’s lifestyle habits and body weight, as well as sociodemographic data of their family.
Unlocking Learning: The co-creation and effectiveness of a digital language learning course for refugees and migrants in Greece

Despina Karamperidou; Nikoletta Theodorou; Thomas Dreesen; Mathieu Brossard; Akito Kamei; Javier Santiago Ortiz Correa

Cite this research | No. of pages: 42 | Language: English | Topics: Education | Tags: computer programmes, education, migrants, refugees | Countries: Greece | Publisher: UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti
The right to health: a case study of unaccompanied children and the challenges of minimum access to healthcare in Greece

Jennifer Bitter

Published: September 2020
COVID-19 as well as age assessment procedures can expose unaccompanied minors to a higher risk of an insufficient protection and access to healthcare. This paper examines he situation of unaccompanied children in detention in Greece in order to elaborate current circumstances and challenges regarding access to medical healthcare for those detained on the Greek islands as well as homeless children on the mainland. The work of Non-Governmental-Organizations (NGOs) as a parallel healthcare system to the national and local healthcare system is also examined as well as the practical challenges and barriers within the country. 
1 - 14 of 14
First Prev 1 Next Last

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Read the latest quarterly digest on children and disabilities.

The second digest discussed children and violence during the pandemic.

The first digest covers children and youth mental health under COVID-19.

Subscribe to updates on new research about COVID-19 & children



facebook twitter linkedin google+ reddit print email
Campaign Campaign

COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.