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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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The psychological impact of COVID-19 admission on families: results from a nationwide sample in Greece

Despoina Gkentzi; Konstantinos Mhliordos; Ageliki Karatza (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Children
The aim of the present study was to assess the psychological impact of hospitalization during the COVID-19 pandemic on parents and their offspring. We performed a nationwide cross-sectional study in Greece based on an Internet questionnaire survey. A convenience sample of parents whose offspring had been hospitalized due to COVID-19 (including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, MIS-C), diagnosed with COVID-19 but not hospitalized, and hospitalized for another reason during the pandemic were enrolled. Parental stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Revised Impact of Event Scale (IES-R) tools, and childhood mental wellbeing with the Children’s Revised Impact of Event 13 (CRIES-13) scale.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 9 | Issue: 12 | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Health, Mental Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, hospitalization, infectious disease, mental stress, parents, psychological distress | Countries: Greece
Understanding disruptions to children's patterns of occupation and forms of occupational engagement during COVID-19 in Greece: an exploratory study

Sofia Zogogianni; Gail Whiteford; Panagiotis Siaperas

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Occupational Science

Occupational engagement and participation is considered essential for children’s health, development, and social connectedness. Due to the global COVID-19 pandemic and the ensuing government ordered restrictions in Greece, school aged children’s patterns of occupational engagement were altered. The purpose of this study was to explore the ways in which restrictions disrupted school aged children’s occupational patterns and the ways in which they engaged in chosen occupations in Greece during the first wave of COVID-19 in 2020. Two hundred and seventy-five children aged 6- to 12-years old completed the Children’s Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) online. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics to identify how the patterns of occupation and forms of occupational engagement changed during the COVID-19 related restrictions and whether age or gender could be correlated to any altered patterns identified.

Parental lifestyle changes and correlations with children's dietary changes during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Greece: the COV-EAT study

Georgios Saltaouras; Maria Perperidi; Christos Georgiou (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Children
The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the eating behaviour of parents during the first lockdown implemented in Greece due to COVID-19 and to explore possible associations with corresponding changes in the eating behaviour of their children. A quantitative cross-sectional study was performed using an online questionnaire. The study sample consisted of 397 parents with children aged 2–18 years, who were recruited from 63 municipalities in Greece.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 9 | Issue: 12 | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Nutrition | Tags: child health, child nutrition, COVID-19 response, lockdown, parent-child relationship, social distance | Countries: Greece
Giving birth in unpredictable conditions: association between parents' COVID-19 related concerns, family functioning, dyadic coping, perceived social support and depressive symptoms

Theano Kokkinaki; Katerina Koutra; Olga Michopoulou (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Healthcare
The way postpartum parents’ COVID-19-related concerns are associated with the family environment, support resources and depressive symptoms areunder-investigated. Two hundred and forty-three new parents (132 mothers, 111 fathers) completed self-report questionnaires within an 8-week period after birth. Parental concerns for COVID-19-related life changes were assessed with the COVID-19 Questionnaire, perceived social support with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, perceived family functioning with the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales IV Package, dyadic coping behaviors with the Dyadic Coping Inventory and maternal/paternal postnatal depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.
How parental internet use impacted parenting practices and children's behavior during the Covid-19 pandemic

Demetris Hadjicharalambous; Loucia Demetriou; Elena Michael–Hadjikyriakou

Published: December 2022   Journal: British Journal of Multidisciplinary and Advanced Studies

This survey aimed to investigate how online parental behavior affects their parenting practices and how such practices may affect their family relations, their children’s social competencies, school achievements, and self–esteem. It examined a sample of 357 Greek-speaking parents (77.3% mothers and 22.7% fathers). It applied Young's (1998) Internet Addiction Questionnaire, the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ), and Kontopoulou's (2008) questionnaire to assess children's school performance and social competencies, their self-esteem, and family relationships.

The consequences of the restrictive measures due to two strict Covid-19 lockdowns on self-reported physical activity in adolescents

Ermioni S. Katartzi; Maria G. Kontou; Ioannis Pappas (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science

Restrictions due to COVID-19 lockdowns reduced the possibilities of children and adolescents for being active, with negative consequences in adopting a healthy lifestyle. This study aims to compare Greek adolescents’ self-reported weekly participation in physical activity, during and before the two initial strict lockdowns, due to COVID-19. Secondary aims were to examine these differences with regard to gender, and associations between weekly physical activity participation with health status variables. Three hundred and sixty-three adolescents (Ν=363) from secondary schools, in the Greek territory (108 boys and 255 girls) filled in the Godin-Shephard Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire and the TNO-AZL Questionnaire for Children’s Health-Related Quality of Life Children’s Form, online. It was a cross-sectional study and data were collected during first and second strict lockdowns, from different adolescents who filled in the above online questionnaires once.

Attitudes and perceptions of mothers towards childhood vaccination in Greece: lessons to improve the childhood COVID-19 vaccination acceptance

Georgia Fakonti; Andria Hadjikou; Eleana Tzira (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics

Maternal attitudes and beliefs have been shown to influence childhood vaccination coverage, resulting in under-vaccination, non-vaccination, and vaccination delay. This study aimed to investigate the mothers' attitudes and perceptions about vaccination for their children in Greece. This was an online cross-sectional study, conducted from 4 April to 8 June 2020. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information about mothers' and their children's socio-demographic characteristics, previous vaccination behavior, and mothers' attitudes and perceptions about childhood vaccination. Participants included adult mothers with at least one minor child.

Quality of life and psychological burden of parents of children, adolescents, and young adults with type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional study during the lockdown period of COVID-19

Nikolaos Rikos; Andreas Mpalaskas; Maria Fragiadaki (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Nursing Reports
The current study aimed to investigate how parents of children, adolescents, and young adults with DM1 perceived quality of life and psychological burden during the lockdown period of COVID-19. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 110 parents in Greece in spring 2021. Perceived quality of life was measured using the Parent Diabetes Distress Scale, and psychological burden was measured using the Spielberger State/Trait Anxiety Inventory, and both were assessed with correlational analysis.
Children's social representations of this invisible and never previously known COVID-19 virus

Iraklis Grigoropoulos

Published: August 2022   Journal: Trends in Psychology
Children are the forgotten group as they have been excluded from examining how they understand information about COVID-19. This study examined how children in Greece represent the COVID-19 virus. The drawing method was used as a process of meaning construction combining subjective experiences with socio-cultural meanings. Thirty-four children aged 4 to 6 years old (M = 5.4) were asked to draw a picture of the COVID-19 virus and explain their drawings verbally. This study used participant-created drawings to assess how children represent the COVID-19 virus and reports that drawing is an effective method of examining children’s social representations. Methodologically, by using drawing, this study reveals layers of social representations that may be difficult to put into words. Three distinct themes, namely “scientific” knowledge of the virus, the COVID-19 virus as the enemy, and the confinement situation, were identified in the children’s visualizations and verbalizations constituting children’s social representations of COVID-19. This study’s results show that social representations give meaning to a novel reality and allow the participating children to direct themselves as regards this novel reality.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 19 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19 response, lockdown, social distance | Countries: Greece
Children's anxiety and parenting self-efficacy during the COVID-19-related home confinement

Paraskevi Tatsiopoulou; Vasiliki Holeva; Vasiliki- Aliki Nikopoulou (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Child: Care, Health and Development

The COVID-19 crisis influenced the lives of families and preschoolers, worldwide. School closures and restriction measures introduced distance learning for preschoolers and remote working for parents. Social distancing narrowed opportunities to meet with peers and enjoy leisure activities. Additionally, social and mental services closures limited young children's accessibility to mental, speech and occupational health services. The aim of the current study was to investigate how home confinement during the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic affected parenting self-efficacy and preschoolers' anxiety. An online survey based on a convenience sample took place on April 2021 to evaluate how home confinement to halt the third wave of COVID-19 pandemic influenced children's anxiety and parenting self-efficacy (PSE). Parents of 146 children (65 girls [44.5%] and 81 boys [55.5%]; aged 2–6 years old) were enrolled and completed a demographics form, the Preschool Anxiety Scale (PAS) and the Tool to Measure Parenting Self-efficacy (TOPSE).

Parental and pediatricians' attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination for children: results from nationwide samples in Greece

Evangelia Steletou; Theodoros Giannouchos; Ageliki Karatza (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Children
Although many studies have examined factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination and healthcare professionals’ attitudes towards vaccines, less is known about parents’ and pediatricians’ attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination for children. Using two cross-sectional surveys from November to December 2021 in Greece, this study aimed to assess parental intention to vaccinate their 5 to 17 years old children against COVID-19 and to evaluate pediatricians’ attitudes towards children’s vaccination against COVID-19. Overall, 439 parents and 135 pediatricians participated.
The first reactions of early childhood education schools during the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic in Greece

Maria Chalari; George Charonitis

Published: August 2022   Journal: Education 3-13
This paper reports the first findings of a study that sheds light upon the way early childhood education schools in Greece responded to the COVID-19 lockdown conditions. Specifically, it explores through content analysis and semi-structured interviews: (a) the way 16 early childhood education schools in Athens (8 public and 8 private) first contacted students and their families to inform them about the suspension (b) the way they adapted their programmes to continue to provide education during the first lockdown (Spring 2020) using different models of home-schooling and (c) teachers’ views on the teaching practices they followed at their schools and the challenges they faced.
Children's views of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 preventive practices: comparing verbal and visual empirical evidence

Vasilia Christidou; Fotini Bonoti; Pinelopi Papadopoulou (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Education
Despite the growing body of research on the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on children’s wellbeing, few studies so far have explored children’s points of view, while the majority were based on data collected during the first year of the pandemic. The present study attempted to capture children’s views 1 year after the beginning of the pandemic, and to this end, data were collected during Spring 2021 in Greece. Specifically, by combining verbal and visual data, the study attempted to explore children’s views of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 preventive practices. Participants involved 320 children, ranging in age from 4 to 12 years, who were asked to verbally describe and draw (a) Coronavirus and (b) the preventive measures adopted to mitigate the pandemic.
Changes in nutrition of children/adolescents and their parents during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Greece: the COV-EAT study

Niki Demertzi; Maria Perperidi; Christos Georgiou (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Public Health and Toxicology
The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the eating behaviour of children and adolescents during the first lockdown implemented in Greece due to COVID-19 and to explore possible correlations with corresponding changes in the eating behaviour of their parents. A quantitative cross-sectional study was performed using an online questionnaire. The research sample consisted of 397 parents with children aged 2-18 years, who were recruited from 63 municipalities in Greece.
Adolescents' reading habits during COVID-19 protracted lockdown: to what extent do they still contribute to the perpetuation of cultural reproduction?

Maria Chalari; Marios Vryonides

Published: June 2022   Journal: International Journal of Educational Research

This paper focuses on adolescents’ reading habits during the protracted lockdown (March 2020 - May 2021) due to COVID-19. Drawing on evidence from an online survey, several focus groups and semi-structured interviews with adolescents in Greece and Cyprus during the COVID-19 pandemic, this paper explores the extent to which reading books is still highly valued in adolescents’ lives and the degree to which this activity is related to adolescents’ advantageous familial and socio-economic background. Moreover, the paper examines whether reading should still be considered an activity that contributes to cultural reproduction in the digital era. This paper contributes to the examination of the often invisible mechanisms that originate from the family and produce socially stratified school underachievement that sustains social inequalities in contemporary Greek and Cypriot societies.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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