search advanced search
UNICEF Innocenti
Office of Research-Innocenti
search menu

Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

RESULTS:   35     SORT BY:


Select one or more filter options and click search below.

UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
Open Access
1 - 15 of 35
The outbreak of COVID-19: Resilience and its predictors among parents of schoolchildren carrying out online learning in Indonesia

Abd Nasir; Susilo Harianto; Cucuk Rahmadi Purwanto (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health
Online learning during the COVID-19 outbreak, puts mental stress on parents and their children so that this requires extraordinary resilience when parents get additional tasks to accompany children in online learning that is done at home. The current study seeks to evaluate the resilience of parents accompanying schoolchildren in online learning. Besides, this study also examines independent socio-demographic predictors of parental resilience. This descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study was conducted on 392 parents of children participating in online learning at home. Data were collected through an online questionnaire survey in the provinces of Java and Bali. Demographic questionnaires and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) were used to collect data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis with p < 0.05.
Adolescents’ mental health status and influential factors amid the Coronavirus disease pandemic

Stella Angelina; Andree Kurniawan; Fransisca Handy Agung (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: CEGH Home
The preventive measure of Coronavirus Disease pandemic, such as nationwide lockdown, might lead to stress, depression, and anxiety, prominently in adolescents. Many factors were indicated to influence its severity. This study aimed to investigate the magnitude of COVID-19-related mental health problems in adolescents and the associated factors. This cross-sectional study gathered 2018 adolescents throughout Indonesia from April 22nd-28th 2020. The questionnaire was spread through social media and included Kessler-10 Psychological Distress scale and closed-ended questions about the risk and protective factors. The results were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Logistic Regression.
Socio-emotional struggles of young children during COVID-19 pandemic: social isolation and increased use of technologies

Raden Pasifikus Christa Wijaya; Beatriks Novianti Bunga; Indra Yohanes Kiling (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Early Childhood Research
COVID-19 pandemic has caused young children to be isolated from their neighborhood only interacting with people living under the same roof as them, to avoid spreading the virus. Limited social interaction might have affected young children’s social and emotional development. This study aimed to explore the socio-emotional struggles of young children during the pandemic. Participants in the study were 12 mothers of young children living in West Timor, Indonesia. Data were obtained using the photovoice method. Thematic analysis resulted in four main themes, which are increased use of technologies, lack of social interaction, parents’ concerns, and boredom and increased need for stimuli.
Insights into adolescents' substance use in a low–middle-income country during the COVID-19 pandemic

Lee Thung Sen; Kristiana Siste; Enjeline Hanaf (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

The COVID-19 pandemic and its lockdown have been a significant life event for many individuals, particularly adolescents. The immense psychological pressure could drive risky behavior, e.g., substance use, while lockdown might lead to decreased use. This study aimed to observe the change in substance use among adolescents in Indonesia and the moderating variables to consumption during the COVID-19 lockdown period. This study utilized an online survey from April 28, 2020 to June 30, 2020. The hyperlink was disseminated to school administrators and parenting groups through social media and direct messages. A total of 2,932 adolescents (17.4 ± 2.24 and 78.7% females) submitted valid responses. The survey was comprised of a sociodemographic section, substance use details, and psychometric sections, including the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Cigarette Dependence Scale 12 (CDS-12), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ).

Adolescents’ physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Indonesia during the COVID-19 pandemic: a qualitative study of mothers’ perspectives

Fitria Dwi Andriyani; Stuart J. H. Biddle; Katrien De Cocker

Published: October 2021   Journal: BMC Public Health

Socio-behavioural adaptations during the COVID-19 pandemic may have significantly affected adolescents’ lifestyle. This study aimed to explore possible reasons affecting changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Indonesian adolescents during the pandemic based on mothers’ perspectives. This research recruited parents (n = 20) from the Yogyakarta region of Indonesia (July–August 2020) using purposive and snowball sampling. Individual interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and anonymised. Data were imported into NVivo software for a reflexive thematic analysis.

Teachers voices on school reopening in Indonesia during COVID-19 pandemic

Avianto Amri; Yusra Tebe; Ayu Siantoro (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Social Sciences & Humanities Open
The COVID-19 situation and school closure has brought intense impact to millions of students and teachers. However, there is a growing pressure from parents, teachers, and children for schools to reopen and the national government has developed guidelines if schools going to reopen. This study is conducted to assess the perspective of teachers and other education personnel regarding the current situation and the outlook when schools reopen in the future. A combination of survey, focus group discussions, and interviews were conducted among school personnel (i.e. teachers, school administrator, and school principals), local education office officials, and representatives from teacher's professional associations in Indonesia.
To involve or not to involve: youth participation in Indonesia's pandemic campaign

Nico Gamalliel; Reynardi Larope Sutanto; Adiba Nabila Hana Wardhani

Published: October 2021   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific
The COVID-19 pandemic has unleashed unprecedented repercussions towards humanity, and in light of all the disruptions, developing countries are particularly hit with a bigger blow. Efforts outside the constraints of bureaucracy are thus needed more than ever in this trying time, and the youth may represent vast yet overlooked potency. Reports and studies continue to tout how the youth of Indonesia are willing to be involved as volunteers during the pandemic. Moreover, our experiences have shown how an organized massive force of youth can help in COVID-19 handling.
Studying at home: experience of parents and their young children in an underdeveloped area of Indonesia

Beatriks Novianti Bunga; R. Pasifikus Christa Wijaya; Indra Yohanes Kiling (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Research in Childhood Education
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused school closures around the world, requiring home-based learning for millions of students. The transition into home-based learning might decrease young children’s access to quality education, especially in underdeveloped areas like East Nusa Tenggara in Indonesia. This study aimed to explore how mothers and young children experience studying at home in an underdeveloped area. Data were gathered using the photovoice method. The participants of the study were 12 mothers of children younger than 8 years old. For seven days, participants used their phone cameras to take photos related to their experience of studying at home. Thematic analysis identified two main themes: the learning media for studying at home and challenges of studying at home. The first theme focuses several learning media, including digital and non-digital media, used by participants and their young children during the pandemic. The second theme focuses on issues faced by participants in studying at home, including time-management, disruption in routines, and lack of social interaction. Home-based learning can be improved using the findings of this study.
‘We are going into battle without appropriate armour’: a qualitative study of Indonesian midwives' experiences in providing maternity care during the COVID-19 pandemic

Alya Hazfiarinia; Shahinoor Akter; Caroline S. E. Homer (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Women and Birth

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the provision of maternity care worldwide. The continuation of maternity services during the pandemic is vital, but midwives have reported feeling overwhelmed in providing these services at this time. However, there are limited studies in Indonesia that have explored the experiences of midwives in providing care during the pandemic. This study aims to explore Indonesian midwives’ experiences in providing maternity care during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Financial and work burden, psychosocial functioning, and family interactions during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia: effects on child outcomes

Yulina Eva Riany; Alina Morawska

Published: September 2021   Journal: Child Psychiatry & Human Development
The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected all aspects of family life worldwide. This study aimed to examine the effects of several family factors on child outcomes during the pandemic in Indonesia, a country with approximately 260 million people. A range of child maladjustment and child competency variables were examined, along with a set of associated variables, including family income, psychosocial functioning, and family interactions, which were modelled via Structural Equation Modelling to understand the interrelationships between variables associated with child adjustment. Using an online survey, a total of 354 parents with at least one typically developing child between the age of 2 and 10 years participated in this study.
COVID-19 education situation analysis in Southeast Asia
Institution: *UNICEF, UNESCO
Published: August 2021

This sub-regional situational analysis provides a snapshot of the educational responses and effects of COVID-19 across East Asia based on a comprehensive desk-review of qualitative and quantitative evidence, complemented by key informant interviews with relevant education officials, local authorities and teachers across three countries in the sub-region (Indonesia, Lao PDR and Viet Nam).

Factors affecting breastfeeding practices under lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic in Thailand: a cross-sectional survey

Chanodom Piankusol; Wachiranun Sirikul; Krongporn Ongprasert (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
A COVID-19 lockdown and restrictive order has had a large impact on the lives of people. This cross-sectional study was conducted to identify factors affecting breastfeeding among mothers living in Thailand during the lockdown. Data were collected from 903 mothers with infants ages 0–12 months from 17 July 2020 to 17 October 2020 after the first nationwide COVID-19 lockdown period by an online platform and interview questionnaire survey. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between the effect of lockdown and breastfeeding practices with potential confounder adjustment including maternal age, ethnicity, newborn age <6 months, family income below $16,130 per annum, education below undergraduate level, and working status.
Electronic media use and sleep disorders among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Fandi Argiansya; Rismarini Soedjadhi; Raden Muhammad Indra (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Sleep Disorders

One of the negative impacts of electronic media use is the occurrence of sleep disturbances. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of electronic media in families, including in adolescents, has been increasing. This study was aimed at describing the association between electronic media use and sleep disturbances in adolescents in Palembang. A cross-sectional study was conducted in January to February 2021. Participants were 14-17-year-old high school students who completed a questionnaire to assess electronic media use and a Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) questionnaire to assess sleep disturbances.

Anti-COVID-19 medications, supplements, and mental health status in Indonesian mothers with school-age children

Annette d' Arqom; Brihastami Sawitri; Zamal Nasution (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: International Journal of Women's Health
The COVID-19 pandemic affects all aspects of life and might cause stress for vulnerable groups such as mothers with school-age children, both housewives and working mothers. With the uncontrolled circulating information about medications, supplements, and herbs that are believed to treat COVID-19, self-medication and misused might escalate. Therefore, this study aims to determine the consumption of “anti-COVID” agents and the mental health of mothers with school-age children in Indonesia. Online questionnaires regarding medications/supplements for COVID-19 prevention and treatment of “anti-COVID” consumption behavior and mental health using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21) were distributed among Indonesian mothers with school-age children.
COVID-19 and the surge of child marriages: a phenomenon in Nusa Tenggara Barat, Indonesia

Maila D. H. Rahiem

Published: July 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Worldwide, there has been a massive increase in child marriages following the COVID-19 crisis. In Indonesia, too, this figure has risen with Indonesia ranked amongst ten countries with the highest rates of child marriage in the world. One of the Indonesian provinces with a high incidence of child marriage cases is in Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB). This study aims to examine what is causing the rate of child marriages to increase since the outbreak of COVID-19 in NTB.

1 - 15 of 35

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Read the latest quarterly digest on violence against children and women during COVID-19.

The first digest covers children and youth mental health under COVID-19.

Subscribe to updates on new research about COVID-19 & children



facebook twitter linkedin google+ reddit print email
Campaign Campaign

COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.