UNICEF Innocenti
Office of Research-Innocenti
search menu

Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

RESULTS:   126     SORT BY:


Select one or more filter options and click search below.

UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
Open Access
1 - 15 of 126
Video-based screening for children with suspected autism spectrum disorders - experience during the COVID-19 pandemic in India

Archana Kadam; Isha Godiwal Soni; Sandeep Kadam (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders

Assessments for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) must adapt to the current COVID-19 pandemic through innovation in screening and assessment strategies using technology. To our knowledge there are no such studies reported from India. This study aimed to study the predictive ability of video-based screening tool with definitive diagnosis in children with ASD. Thirty-nine children were screened independently by two examiners with a video-based screening tool to start intervention followed by an in-person evaluation by clinical DSM-5 diagnosis three months later.

The digital divide, gender and education: challenges for tribal youth in rural Jharkhand during Covid-19

Kumari Vibhuti Nayak; Shamsher Alam

Published: August 2022   Journal: Decision
When analysing the Covid-19 pandemic potential consequences on education, it is evident that it had adverse effects on the existing educational inequalities worldwide. However, little is known about how the digital divide have worsened the conventional educational system and reinforced pre-existing gender inequalities among the historically marginalised communities. This research paper explores how the pandemic, along with digital divide, deteriorated the educational system among the socially deprived groups (i.e. tribals also known as indigenous or Adivasis) and place them in a disadvantageous position. The paper reflects on how the Covid-19 pandemic re-configured the pre-existing issues of educational inequalities and how the digital dived have been manifested in a way that has particularly affected the young tribal girls. For this study, semi-structured interviews with tribal students, their parents and teachers residing in a remote area of Jharkhand, India, were conducted to understand their experiences of shifting to online education mode. Other than accessibility and infrastructure issue, the findings reveal that the elements of cultural and social issues (related to perceived benefits of education for girls and mindset or beliefs parents and teachers towards effectiveness of digital mode of education delivery) create and reinforce the digital divide for the tribal girls in the hinterlands.
COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy for children in parents: a cross sectional survey among health care professionals in India

Himanshi ; Kranti S. Kadam; Parul U. Uttarwar

Published: August 2022   Journal: Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
There is evidence of morbidity and mortality in children due to COVID-19 infection. “Vaccine Hesitant Parents (VHPs)” may act as barriers to vaccination of children and their knowledge, attitude, beliefs, and perceptions come into play. Health-care providers are cited as the most important source for vaccine information by VHPs, and provider recommendation for vaccination is crucial for improving vaccine uptake. Hence, this study aims to determine among Indian health-care professionals having children <18 years of age, the prevalence of parental hesitancy for pediatric COVID-19 vaccine and to assess their knowledge, attitude, beliefs, and perceptions about pediatric COVID-19 vaccine.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 15 | Issue: 8 | No. of pages: 5 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, immunization, immunization programmes, pandemic, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: India
Digital learning and the lopsidedness of the education in government and private primary schools during the COVID-19 pandemic in West Bengal, India

Bappa Sarkar; Nazrul Islam; Ranjan Roy (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: E-Learning and Digital Media
Since March 2020, all academic institutions have been closed due to the COVID-19 pandemic and have been encouraged online mode of education to the students in West Bengal, India. The most profound negative effect of the school closure has been noticed on primary education. This research examines how school closures in both government and private primary schools in West Bengal result in uneven teaching-learning opportunities in formal and non-formal education during the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study was conducted based on an online survey in West Bengal using a structured questionnaire. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, Shapiro-Wilk Test, Pearson Chi-squared (χ2) test, and logistic regression were used to check the relationships among the variables. Based on 473 responses to an online survey administered to the parents and educated family members of 3–10 years aged children from both government and private primary schools in West Bengal.
Impact of closure of educational institutions due to COVID-19 lockdown on overall subjective wellbeing of adolescents and youth: cross-sectional survey, India

Tina Rawal; Vijay Kumar Mishra; Shefali Godura Sharda (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology

Students were confined to their homes due to the national closure of educational institutions during the COVID 19 pandemic, thus presenting an unprecedented risk to children’s education, protection, and wellbeing. This study aimed to understand the determinants of subjective wellbeing of adolescents and youth (aged 11–21 years) during the COVID-19 pandemic in India.  A cross-sectional web-based survey was adapted, pre-tested, and finalized to obtain the participant’s responses from schools and colleges. Participants aged 11–17 years were engaged through schools. Consent procedures were followed. The survey link was disseminated through social media for the participants aged 18–21 years. The survey was made available in English and Hindi. The data was collected from March-June, 2021.

Emotion, cognition, and COVID-19: a study exploring the association between fear of COVID-19 intolerance of uncertainty and decision-making in Indian adolescentse

Divesha Goyal; Usha Sharma

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of Indian Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health

Fear and uncertainty are the 2 ingredients of psychological challenges brought about by coronavirus (COVID-19). Fear and intolerance of uncertainty can affect decision-making. Because of the pandemic and owing to their phase of cognitive development, adolescents are more susceptible to such influence. This study aims to explore and understand the effects of COVID-19 on emotion and cognition by investigating the association between fear of COVID-19, intolerance for uncertainty, and decision-making in Indian adolescents.

Posttraumatic stress disorder among adolescent girls infected with COVID-19: a cross-sectional study

Anandu Suresh; Sindhu Shankar Shivanna; Pradeep Tarikere Satyanarayana (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of Indian Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health

Pandemics are known to cause an increase in the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current COVID-19 pandemic has led to a surge in the same along with other problems such as anxiety and depression. This study aimed to find out the prevalence of PTSD and other mental health abnormalities among adolescent girls who have contracted COVID-19 infection and the factors associated with it. This was a cross-sectional study carried out for 6 months at RL Jalappa Hospital and Research Center, Kolar. Adolescent girls infected with COVID-19 were included. A total of 100 girls took part in the study after matching inclusion and exclusion criteria. To assess for PTSD, the Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview-KID (MINI-KID) and CPSS-5 Interviewer Version (CPSS 5-I) questionnaire were used. Data entered in Microsoft office excel were analyzed using SPSS v 22 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). To check for the association between factors, chi-square test was applied.

Adolescent well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic in India

Amita N. Vyas; Nitasha C. Nagaraj; Shikha Chandarana (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health

It is without question that gender attitudes/norms, voice and agency, self-efficacy, and locus of control are important determinants of health and well-being, particularly for adolescent girls and boys in low to middle income countries. And, while prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, there were trends suggesting social inequities would be on the decline, these trends have since reversed due to abrupt long-term school closures as a result of the pandemic. This study examines adolescents’ perceptions of gender norms/attributes, voice/agency, self-efficacy, locus of control, and gender-based violence norms pre-COVID and one year later during the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdown in India, a country with one of the largest adolescent populations worldwide. The data for this study were derived from a larger study via two cross-sectional self-reported survey of adolescents ages 10-15 years old in public schools located in Delhi, India (urban), and Uttar Pradesh, India (rural) pre-COVID and one year later. The adolescent participants were part of local existing after-school programs and interventions implemented by non-profit community organizations, and a convenience sample (n=547) was recruited.

Hesitancy versus acceptability: An observational study for acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine among parents and guardians of children under 17 years age in South East Rajasthan

Ashutosh Sharma; Vinita Gupta; Anita Sharma (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Asian Journal of Medical Sciences

Vaccination against COVID-19 is necessary to reach herd immunity and essential for mitigating the spread. To establish herd immunity, the immunity generated by natural infection or vaccination must prevent onward transmission, not just clinical disease. However, several studies have shown that achieving herd immunity through natural infection might be difficult. The aim of the study is to enquire about parental acceptability for COVID-19 vaccination for their children, factors affecting acceptability, perceptions for pediatric COVID-19 vaccines.

The Covid-19 pandemic and gendered division of paid work, domestic chores and leisure: evidence from India’s first wave

Ashwini Deshpande

Published: July 2022   Journal: Economia Politica
Examining high frequency national-level panel data from Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) on paid work (employment) and unpaid work (time spent on domestic work), this paper examines the effects of the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic on the gender gaps in paid and unpaid work until December 2020, using difference-in-differences (D-I-D) for estimating the before (the pandemic) and after (the pandemic set in) effects, and event study estimates around the strict national lockdown in April 2020. The DID estimates reveal a lowering of the gender gap in employment probabilities which occurs due to the lower probability of male employment, rather than an increase in female employment.
How COVID-19 lockdown has impacted the sanitary pads distribution among adolescent girls and women in India

Karan Babbar; Niharika Rustagi; Pritha Dev

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Social Issues
This paper empirically explores the impact of COVID-19 pandemic and its accompanying lockdown on adolescent girls’ and women's access to sanitary pads in India. It used the National Health Mission's Health Management Information System (NHM-HMIS) data for the study, which provides data on pads' distribution on a district level. The empirical strategy used in the study exploits the variation of districts into red, orange, and green zones as announced by the Indian Government. To understand how lockdown severity impacts access to sanitary pads, we used a difference-in-difference (DID) empirical strategy to study sanitary pads' access in red and orange zones compared to green zones.
Virtual class and children food patterns during pandemic: a review

Sandeep ; Sudha Rathore; O. M. Prakash (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Educational and Social Research,
The new normal due to COVID-19 has changed the dynamics of every aspect of on life, be it household, professional life, finances, education or the food patterns. There has been lack of a fixed routine in the lives of children because of closure of schools, therefore the routine of wake up, sleep, time food timings have gone haywire. Children are indirectly affected by the pandemic, through poor diet, mental health effects, social isolation, screen addiction, unhealthy and irregular food habits. This paper is aimed at discussing the potential effect of pandemic on nutritional status of children; especially when children are indulged in continue classes for long hours, sitting one place. Data from various research papers have been discussed in this review paper, highlighting the impact of the new normal health of covid-19 on the nutritional health of children this situation requires effective and practical measures which can be adopted at the home setting to enhance the nutritional status and overall wellbeing of the children.
There should always be a free lunch: the impact of COVID-19 lockdown suspension of the mid-day meal on nutriture of primary school children in Karnataka, India

Prashanth Thankachan; Sumithra Selvam; Agnita R. Narendra (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health

The COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in 2020 resulted in school closures with eventual suspension of the mid-day meal programme, biannual deworming and iron–folic acid supplements. One year into the lockdown, we evaluated the impact of the withdrawal of these programmes on the nutritional status of rural primary-school children, aged 6–12 years, in Karnataka, India.  Anthropometry, haemoglobin, serum ferritin and C reactive protein were measured in 290 children at two time points, 1 year apart, starting from just before the lockdown (February 2020 to February 2021).

Outcomes in neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 during the second wave in India

Sushma Malik; Dipty Jain; Chandrakant M. Bokade (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: European Journal of Pediatric
COVID-19 pandemic has affected all age groups globally including pregnant women and their neonates. The aim of the study was to understand outcomes in neonates of mothers with COVID-19 during the first and second waves of COVID-19 pandemic. A retrospective analysis of 2524 neonates born to SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers was conducted during the first wave (n = 1782) and second wave (n = 742) of the COVID-19 pandemic at five study sites of the PregCovid registry in Maharashtra, India. A significant difference was noted in preterm birth, which was higher in the second wave (15.0%, 111/742) compared to the first wave (7.8%, 139/1782) (P < 0.001). The proportion of neonates requiring NICU admission was significantly higher in the second wave (19.0%, 141/742) as compared to that in the first wave (14.8%, 264/1782) (P < 0.05). On comparing regional differences, significantly higher neonatal complications were reported from Mumbai metropolitan region (P < 0.05). During the second wave of COVID-19, birth asphyxia and prematurity were 3.8- and 2.1-fold higher respectively (P < 0.001). Neonatal resuscitation at birth was significantly higher in second wave (3.4%, 25/742 vs 1.8%, 32/1782) (P < 0.05). The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates was comparable (4.2% vs 4.6%) with no significant difference between the two waves.
The impact of screen time and mobile dependency on cognition, socialization and behaviour among early childhood students during the Covid pandemic- perception of the parents

Joseph Genimon Vadakkemulanjanal; Thomas M. Agnes; Elizabeth Sneha (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Digital Education
Digital technology systems are adopted rapidly throughout the globe for the virtual learning process especially with the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic. Digital screen-based gadgets are integrated to provide a seamless interactive medium of learning even before the initiation of formal education. Studies on the technology use of younger children are critical as uncontrolled gadget use affects their developmental stages yet these studies are still in the infancy stage. This study analyses the psychoeducational impact of extended use of digital gadgets and mobile dependency on early childhood manifested through their cognition, socialization and behaviour. This descriptive study is based on the random responses of 511 parents about their young children of 3-6 years distributed at five civil districts of Kerala State.
1 - 15 of 126

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Subscribe to updates on new research about COVID-19 & children



facebook twitter linkedin google+ reddit print email
Article Article

Check our quarterly thematic digests on children and COVID-19

Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
Campaign Campaign

COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.