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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Children with SARS-CoV-2 infection during the novel coronaviral disease (COVID-19) outbreak in Iran: an alarming concern for severity and mortality of the disease

Setareh Mamishi; Babak Pourakbari; Mehrzad Mehdizadeh (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: BMC Infectious Diseases

The rapid worldwide spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections led to public health crises globally and the number of pediatric patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still rising. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and imaging features of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 at an Iranian referral pediatrics hospital and to compare these parameters between hospitalized patients with and without severe disease, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and children with acute COVID-19, as well as deceased and discharged cases. This study included hospitalized children and adolescents (≤ 18 years) with suspected COVID-19 who had positive results for SARS-CoV-2.

Effectiveness of resilience training on social self-efficacy of the elementary school girls during COVID-19

Shima Gadari; Jamileh Farokhzadian; Parvin Mangolian Shahrbabaki

Published: December 2021   Journal: Clinical child psychology and psychiatry
Children, especially girls, are more vulnerable during crises, who need to acquire skills such as social self-efficacy to meet the challenges of the environment. Given that, much progress has been made in e-learning; its capabilities can be used to promote children's health. This study aimed to determine the effect of virtual resilience training on the social self-efficacy of elementary school girls. This experimental study was performed on primary school girls aged 9-10 years in southeastern Iran.
Children’s indoor and outdoor play as potential correlates of mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran: a brief report on national survey

Mohse Rajabi; G. Ali Afrooz; Gulfisha Qureshi (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: International Journal of Play
Over the past 16 months, Iranian children have had their schools closed. Prolonged COVID-19-related restrictions and limited play activities can have significant mental health consequences in children. Using a cross-sectional design, a sample of Iranian parents (n = 1182) of children aged between 5 and 11 years completed an online survey including: Children's Play Scale (CPS), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule Short Form (I-PANAS-SF), and the Strength and Difficulties Questionaries (SDQ). Parents reported that their child spent significantly longer time playing outside at home and inside at home than anywhere else. Children were also reported to spend the minimum number of hours at indoor play centres, near water, green spaces, and playgrounds. Compared to the pre-COVID-19 context, significant declines in outdoor play activities during the pandemic were reported for 83% of children.
Coronavirus stress and adolescents’ internalizing problems: exploring the effect of optimism and pessimism

Faramarz Asanjarani; Gokmen Arslan; Humoud F. Alqashan (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies
Coronavirus and its stress can have a significant impact on an individual’s psychological and physical well-being. Studies show that children and adolescents are among the most vulnerable groups as they lack adaptive coping strategies. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the mediating effect of optimism and pessimism on the association between coronavirus stress and youth internalizing problems among Iranian adolescents. The sample of this study included 408 students (42.4% female) recruited through cluster sampling. Participants were administered Corona Stress Measure (CSM), Optimism-Pessimism Measure (OPM), and Youth Internalizing Behavior Screener (YIBS).
Associations between physical activity and mental health in Iranian adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: an accelerometer-based study

Saeed Ghorbani; Mostafa Afshari; Melanie Eckelt (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Children
Using self-reported questionnaires, several studies found that social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly changed the level of physical activity (PA) in children and adolescents. Since the objectivity of self-reported PA is limited in several ways, this study used modern accelerometers in this study to assess the PA levels of male and female adolescents during the pandemic-related lockdown. Moreover, the association of PA with mental health of the adolescents were analyzed. A total of 136 students (76 girls, mean age of 16.28 ± 0.97 years) from various schools in Iran wore the accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X-BT) for seven consecutive days. Mental health was measured through the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-21 of Lovibond and Lovibond (1995). Descriptive statistics and independent t-tests were used to analyze the PA levels of male and female students, and linear regressions were computed to examine whether PA predicts mental health status.
Experiences of health care providers on pregnancy and childbirth care during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran: a phenomenological study

Sedigheh Hantoushzadeh; Maryam Bagheri; Marjan Akhavan Amjadi (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

Coronavirus currently cause a lot of pressure on the health system. Accordingly, many changes occurred in the way of providing health care, including pregnancy and childbirth care. To our knowledge, no studies on experiences of maternity care providers during the COVID-19 pandemic have been published in Iran. This study aimed to discover their experiences on pregnancy and childbirth care during the current COVID-19 pandemic. This study was a qualitative research performed with a descriptive phenomenological approach. The used sampling method was purposive sampling by taking the maximum variation possible into account, which continued until data saturation. Accordingly, in-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted by including 12 participants, as 4 gynecologists, 6 midwives working in the hospitals and private offices, and 2 midwives working in the health centers.

Physical activity and sedentary behaviors (screen time and homework) among overweight or obese adolescents: a cross-sectional observational study in Yazd, Iran

Ali Mohammad Hadianfard; Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi; Majid Karandish (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: BMC Pediatrics

The growing number of adolescents who are overweight or obese (OW / OB) is a public concern. The present study was aimed to evaluate physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) (screen time (ST) and homework time (HT)) among Yazd OW/OB adolescents. This cross-sectional study was performed among 510 students aged 12-16 in Yazd, Iran. The general information, PA, and SB (ST and HT) were collected by interview based on the WHO standard questionnaire. Anthropometric data were assessed by precise instruments. Daily energy intake (Energy) was obtained from a 7-day food record. Nutritionist 4 software (version I) was run to estimate the energy.

Long COVID in children and adolescents

Ali A. Asadi-Pooya; Hamid Nemati; Mina Shahisavandi (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: World Journal of Pediatrics

This study aimed to identify the prevalence and also the full spectrum of symptoms/complaints of children and adolescents who are suffering from long COVID. Furthermore, it investigated the risk factors of long COVID in children and adolescents. All consecutive children and adolescents who were referred to the hospitals anywhere in Fars province, Iran, from 19 February 2020 until 20 November 2020 were included. All patients had a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. In a phone call to patients/parents, at least 3 months after their discharge from the hospital, we obtained their current status and information if their parents agreed to participate.

Relationship between coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy and maternal and fetal outcomes: Retrospective analytical cohort study

Zahra Alipoura; Parisa Samadib; Narges Eskandari (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Midwifery

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused many deaths and complications worldwide. However, limited data are available about COVID-19 during pregnancy. This study aimed to assess the epidemiological and clinical features of COVID-19, and the adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. This retrospective analytical cohort study was conducted on all pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19 at Nekouei-Hedayati-Forghani Hospital in Qom, Iran from 15 March 2020 to 15 November 2020. For the same period, 165 pregnant women who did not have COVID-19 were selected at random and included in this study. All epidemiological and clinical features were collected from the medical records of the participants. A logistic regression model was used to determine associations between COVID-19 in pregnancy and maternal and fetal outcomes.

Changes in pregnancy outcomes during the COVID-19 lockdown in Iran

Fahimeh Ranjbar; Leila Allahqoli; Soheila Ahmadi (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

The Covid-19 pandemic response is influencing maternal and neonatal health care services especially in developing countries. However, the indirect effects of Covid-19 on pregnancy outcomes remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare pregnancy outcomes before and after the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic in Iran. We performed a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 2,503 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies, admitted to the maternity department of a women’s hospital in Tehran, Iran, during the pre-Covid-19 pandemic (February 19 to April 19, 2019) and the intra-Covid- 19 pandemic (February 19 to April 19, 2020) period.

Parent training intervention for autism symptoms, functional emotional development, and parental stress in children with autism disorder: a randomized clinical trial

Afsaneh Akhani; Mahmood Dehghani; Banafsheh Gharraee (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Asian Journal of Psychiatry

Today, early interventions to treat autistic children through parent training interventions is of outmost importance. Interventions are focused on developmental or behavioral approaches and are mostly individual or group ones. In the present study, both proposed approaches in the form of structured individual and group parent training sessions among Iranian families are investigated. This study was a randomized clinical trial which was performed in 2019–2020 in Tehran.

Obstetric, maternal, and neonatal outcomes in COVID-19 compared to healthy pregnant women in Iran: a retrospective, case-control study

Seyed-Abdolvahab Taghavi; Solmaz Heidar; Shayesteh Jahanfar (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Middle East Fertility Society Journal

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate obstetric, maternal, and neonatal outcomes in COVID-19 compared to healthy pregnant women in Iran. A case-control study was conducted on 55 COVID-19 as the case and 55 matched control pregnant women in Hormozgan, Iran. Patients were considered to be cases if they had a positive COVID-19 test plus a positive chest X-ray result.

Relationship of fear of COVID-19 and pregnancy-related quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic

Somayyeh Naghizadeh; Mojgan Mirghafourvand

Published: June 2021   Journal: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and quality of life in Iranian pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 250 Iranian pregnant women. Data was collected through questionnaires including demographic and obstetric characteristics, fear of COVID-19 and quality of life. An adjusted general linear model was used to determine the relationship between variables.

Relationships between anxiety induced by COVID-19 and perceived social support among Iranian pregnant women

Vahideh Behmard; Narjes Bahri; Fatemeh Mohammadzadeh (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology

The rapid spread of COVID-19 and the time needed to develop a vaccine or definitive treatment for the disease have caused great anxiety in communities, especially in pregnant women whose high levels of distress may have short and/or long-term maternal and fetal consequence. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between anxiety induced by COVID-19 and perceived social support in Iranian pregnant women. This online cross-sectional study was conducted on 801 pregnant women from all over Iran in 2020. The data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, the multidimensional scale of perceived social support, and the coronavirus disease anxiety scale. A standard multiple linear regression model was used to identify the association between perceived social support and anxiety, controlling for possible confounding variables. Partial r was used as an estimate of effect size.

The severity of COVID-19 among pregnant women and the risk of adverse maternal outcomes

Parisa Samadi; Zahra Alipour; Maryam Ghaedrahmati (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics

This study aims to evaluate the relationship between the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) during pregnancy and the risk of adverse maternal outcomes. A descriptive‐analytical cross‐sectional study conducted on 258 pregnant women who were hospitalized due to confirmed COVID‐19 from March 2020 to January 2021 at the Forghani Hospital in Qom, Iran. Demographic and obstetric characteristics, laboratory findings, and adverse maternal outcomes were recorded from the patients’ medical records. The Fisher exact test, one‐way analysis of variance, and regression logistics were used to assess the relationship between variables.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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