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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 160
Adolescents' mental health and maladaptive behaviors before the Covid-19 pandemic and 1-year after: analysis of trajectories over time and associated factors

Laura Pedrini; Serena Meloni; Mariangela Lanfredi (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health

Adolescents have been deeply exposed to negative consequences of social distancing imposed by Covid-19. There is a lack of longitudinal studies regarding the impact on adolescents of this unfavorable condition, and their results are controversial. The aim of the present prospective study is to assess psychopathological symptoms in adolescent students over time and to evaluate what type of impact the Covid-19 pandemic had on adolescents. Moreover, the association between mental health indexes, potential risk and resilience factors is explored. Psychopathological symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression, stress, emotional dysregulation, maladaptive behaviours), and potential risk and resilience factors (i.e., childhood trauma, emotional regulation skills, family function, personality traits) were assessed among a sample of 153 students (72% female; mean age 16.1 ± 0.49), living in a medium-size city in the north of Italy, at two time points: before the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic (November 2019–January 2020) and 1 year later (April–May 2021).

Loss of continuity of care in pediatric neurology services during COVID-19 lockdown: an additional stressor for parents

Serena Cesario; Consuelo Basile; Matteo Trevisan (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Children

This study aimed to investigate the consequence of the COVID 19-related lockdown on the well-being of children with neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders and the repercussion on parental stress during the period 9 March 2020–3 May 2020. A web-based survey was shared via mail with the parents of children affected by chronic neurologic disorders and neurodevelopmental disorders in the continuity of care in two Italian tertiary centers, independently by the severity of the diseases and the required frequency of controls. For each patient, they were asked to identify a single main caregiver, among the two parents, to fill in the questionnaire. Parental stress was measured via the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Statistical analysis was performed with IBM SPSS Statistics version 25. The differences between the clinical groups were performed with one way ANOVA. The dimensional effect of the clinical variables on outcome was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis.

COVID-19 and youth psychopathological distress in Umbria, Central Italy: a 2-year observational study in a real-world setting

Giulia Menculini; Giorgio Pomili; Francesca Brufani (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

Adolescents and young adults represent a vulnerable population in the context of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The present retrospective study aims to investigate the pandemic’s psychological impact on adolescents and young adults by analyzing data from an outpatient mental health service dedicated to youths in Umbria, central Italy.  The clinical charts of subjects aged 14–24 who first accessed the service in the timeframe between March 1st, 2019, and February 28th, 2021, were reviewed. Subjects were divided into two subgroups according to the period of time when they accessed the service (pre-COVID-19 vs. during- COVID-19 outbreak). Bivariate analyses were performed using the Chi-square test and the Welch’s t-test. A secondary analysis was performed considering only subjects suffering from psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, data concerning individuals who were already followed by the service before the pandemic were analyzed by the McNemar’s test and the t-paired test to assess changes in treatment features.

Caregivers' intention to vaccinate their children under 12 years of age against COVID-19: a cross-sectional multi-center study in Milan, Italy

Maurizio Lecce; Gregorio Paolo Milani; Carlo Agostoni (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics
The impact of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the pediatric population is increasingly recognized. A widespread vaccination in childhood would provide benefits for children and might help ending the pandemic by enhancing community protection. Following recent approval by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) of Comirnaty (Pfizer-BioNTech) for children aged 5–11 years, this study aimed to investigate caregivers' intention to vaccinate their children <12 years of age against COVID-19. A structured questionnaire was administered to caregivers of children aged <12 years visiting the Emergency Department or the outpatient clinics in three major hospitals of Milan, Italy, from 20 September to 17 October 2021. A total of 612 caregivers were invited to participate and 604 accepted (response rate >98%). Three questionnaires were excluded due to compiling errors and 601 were included in the analysis.
Perception of changing habits among Italian children and adolescents during COVID-19 quarantine: an epidemiological study

Giulia Bassi; Elisa Mancinelli; Bianca Boldrini (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Children
This is an epidemiological study to explore the perception of change in several psychosocial dimensions during the COVID-19 quarantine. It focused on emotions, use of social network sites (SNSs), family life, important relationships, body functions, and school life. Using snowball recruitment, N = 1047 Italian children, pre-adolescents, and adolescents (M = 13.74 ± 3.59) were selected to complete ad hoc online questionnaires. A differential semantic inventory plot was prepared to analyze the emotional experience of children, pre-adolescents, and adolescents during quarantine compared to the pre-quarantine period. The Kruskal–Wallis test was run to assess gender and age differences in emotions experienced, habitual SNS use, and the experience of attending classes remotely. A post hoc Wilcoxon test was performed to compare such differences.
Depressive risk among Italian socioeconomically disadvantaged children and adolescents during COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional online survey.

Maria Serra; Anna Presicci; Luigi Quaranta (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Children and adolescents and low-income individuals are considered particularly vulnerable for mental health implications during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Depression is a frequent negative emotional response during an epidemic outbreak and is also prone importantly to environmental risk like stressors derived from income inequality. This study aimed to assess depressive symptomatology in a sample of Italian low-income minors during the COVID-19 outbreak. It hypothesized that the stronger were the negative effects of the pandemic on socioeconomic conditions, the higher would have been the risk for showing depressive symptoms.
The effects of COVID-19 pandemic on Italian school-aged children: sleep-related difficulties and trauma reactions.

Antonietta Curatola; Serena Ferretti; Antonio Gatto (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Child Neurology

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the mental and physical health of the world population. This study aims to investigate incidence of sleep-related difficulties and post-traumatic stress disorder in the school-aged children after 1 year of the pandemic. A sample of Italian children (6-12 years) was queried about their sleep behaviors after 1 year of the pandemic, answering the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). We also evaluated trauma symptoms with the Children's Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-8).

Pathways to resilience: the parallel change in children's emotional difficulties and family context during the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy.

Annalaura Nocentini; Benedetta Emanuela Palladino; Enrico Imbimbo

Published: May 2022   Journal: Psychological Trauma
The study analyses which pathways to adjustment emerged at the family level during the COVID-19 containment period in Italy, during which children were locked down with their families for 56 days from March 11 to May 6. Using a longitudinal design, with data pre- and postevent, a bivariate latent change score model analyzed the covariance of the change in family well-being (FW) and in emotional difficulties (ED), testing if the longitudinal change in ED is a function of the starting level of FW, and vice-versa. Children’s stress reactions to the pandemic and other related experiences were included as additional predictors.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Countries: Italy
Catch-up vaccination campaign in children between 6 and 8 years old during COVID-19 pandemic: the experience in a COVID hub in Milan, Italy

Matteo Mancarella; Federica Natarelli; Caterina Bertolini (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Vaccine

COVID-19 has led to disruption in routine immunization programs around the world. Effective strategies need to be developed to address the decline in vaccine coverage to avoid preventable disease outbreaks. Our study reports a 4-days campaign for the catching-up of missed vaccinations in children aged between 6 and 8 years, in Milan, Italy. The catch-up vaccination campaign (21st-24th of September 2021) involved children born in 2013, 2014 and 2015. These cohorts, if not already immunized, received the fourth dose of the Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis and Poliomyelitis vaccination (DTaPP4), the second dose of the Measles-Mumps and Rubella vaccination (MMR2) and Chickenpox, according to the Italian vaccine schedule.

Child protection social workers facing the Covid-19 challenge

Valentina Calcaterra; Camilla Landi

Published: May 2022   Journal: International Social Work
The Covid-19 pandemic forced social workers to rethink how they perform their functions. This process was particularly challenging for child protection social workers, who had to understand how to continue to support families and children despite social distancing rules and the suspension of some activities. Three online focus groups were conducted with 18 child protection social workers to explore the Italian child protection social workers’ functions during the Covid-19 pandemic. This study presents the reflections shared by these social workers on their experiences and the new awareness they acquired while performing their work in support of families during the pandemic.
Neuropsychiatric disorders in pediatric long COVID-19: a case series

Rosa Savino; Anna N. Polito; Giulia Arcidiacono (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Brain Science
Few data are available regarding the incidence and the evolution of neuropsychiatric manifestations in children with a history of COVID-19. This study herein reports five consequent cases of pediatric patients with psychiatric and neurological symptoms of long COVID-19. All patients, mainly males, reported asymptomatic-to-mild COVID-19 and underwent home self-isolation. Abnormal movements, anxiety, and emotional dysregulation were the most recurrent symptoms observed from a few weeks to months after the resolution of the acute infection. A later onset was observed in younger patients. Blood tests and brain imaging resulted in negative results in all subjects; pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy was set. A multifactorial etiology could be hypothesized in these cases, as a result of a complex interplay between systemic and brain inflammation and environmental stress in vulnerable individuals. Longer follow-up is required to observe the evolution of neuropsychiatric manifestation in the present cohort and other young patients with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Central precocious puberty during COVID-19 pandemic and sleep disturbance: an exploratory study.

Giuseppina R. Umano; Ivan Maddaluno; Simona Riccio (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics

Increased incidence of central precocious puberty (CPP) after coronavirus infectious disease-19 lockdown has been reported. Our study aims in investigating changes in CPP rates and in sleep patterns in CPP and healthy controls. CPP were retrospectively evaluated from April 2020 to April 2021. Parents of girls diagnosed with CPP during lockdown and of matched healthy controls filled out a questionnaire about sleep disturbances (SDSC questionnaire) and sleep schedules.

Caregivers' attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination in children and adolescents with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection

Danilo Buonsenso; Piero Valentini; Marina Macchi (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics

Limited data are available on the attitudes of caregivers toward COVID-19 vaccination in children and adolescents with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection or Long Covid symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the vaccine hesitancy among caregivers of children and adolescents with a documented history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and to explore the possible associations between COVID-19 manifestations and the acceptance of the vaccine. Caregivers of children or adolescents with a microbiologically confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection evaluated in two University Hospitals were interviewed.

Activating self-transcendence values to promote prosocial behaviors among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: the moderating role of positive orientation

Claudia Russo; Anna Dell’Era; Ioana Zagrean (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: The Journal of Genetic Psychology
The COVID-19 pandemic has severely affected people’s health, daily routine, and behaviors. Its effects have been most pronounced for the youngest and oldest generations. Their daily lives have completely changed throughout the pandemic. Self-transcendence values and positive orientation could facilitate optimal adjustment to this situation by promoting prosociality. The present study aimed to discover if applying a new, web-based intervention could activate self-transcendence values in a group of Italian adolescents, fostering COVID-19 prosocial behaviors while also considering the role of positive orientation. The study adopted a longitudinal, web-based, and quasi-experimental design.
Associations between social isolation and parenting stress during the first wave of COVID-19 in Italian children with special educational needs

Laura Zampini; Paola Zanchi; Paolo Riva (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: International Journal of Developmental Disabilities
The parents of 413 children with typical development (TD) or special educational needs (SEN) filled in an online survey to investigate the associations between the restrictions introduced to face COVID-19 and parenting stress and parental disciplinary practices. The parents of children with SEN showed a significantly higher stress level than TD children's parents. However, they showed a lower inclination to overreact. In both groups, the parents who feel less supported, feel their needs threatened, and report having a child with more difficulties were more likely to exhibit parenting stress. Data on the associations between COVID-19 restrictions and the stress perceived by parents could help to focus the attention of the public health system on their parents' needs, leading to practices aimed to prevent parenting stress and burnout.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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