Logo UNICEF Innocenti
Office of Research-Innocenti
menu icon

Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

RESULTS:   215     SORT BY:


Select one or more filter options and click search below.

UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
Open Access
76 - 90 of 215
Neuropsychiatric disorders in pediatric long COVID-19: a case series

Rosa Savino; Anna N. Polito; Giulia Arcidiacono (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Brain Science
Few data are available regarding the incidence and the evolution of neuropsychiatric manifestations in children with a history of COVID-19. This study herein reports five consequent cases of pediatric patients with psychiatric and neurological symptoms of long COVID-19. All patients, mainly males, reported asymptomatic-to-mild COVID-19 and underwent home self-isolation. Abnormal movements, anxiety, and emotional dysregulation were the most recurrent symptoms observed from a few weeks to months after the resolution of the acute infection. A later onset was observed in younger patients. Blood tests and brain imaging resulted in negative results in all subjects; pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy was set. A multifactorial etiology could be hypothesized in these cases, as a result of a complex interplay between systemic and brain inflammation and environmental stress in vulnerable individuals. Longer follow-up is required to observe the evolution of neuropsychiatric manifestation in the present cohort and other young patients with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Central precocious puberty during COVID-19 pandemic and sleep disturbance: an exploratory study.

Giuseppina R. Umano; Ivan Maddaluno; Simona Riccio (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics

Increased incidence of central precocious puberty (CPP) after coronavirus infectious disease-19 lockdown has been reported. Our study aims in investigating changes in CPP rates and in sleep patterns in CPP and healthy controls. CPP were retrospectively evaluated from April 2020 to April 2021. Parents of girls diagnosed with CPP during lockdown and of matched healthy controls filled out a questionnaire about sleep disturbances (SDSC questionnaire) and sleep schedules.

Caregivers' attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination in children and adolescents with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection

Danilo Buonsenso; Piero Valentini; Marina Macchi (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics

Limited data are available on the attitudes of caregivers toward COVID-19 vaccination in children and adolescents with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection or Long Covid symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the vaccine hesitancy among caregivers of children and adolescents with a documented history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and to explore the possible associations between COVID-19 manifestations and the acceptance of the vaccine. Caregivers of children or adolescents with a microbiologically confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection evaluated in two University Hospitals were interviewed.

Activating self-transcendence values to promote prosocial behaviors among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: the moderating role of positive orientation

Claudia Russo; Anna Dell’Era; Ioana Zagrean (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: The Journal of Genetic Psychology
The COVID-19 pandemic has severely affected people’s health, daily routine, and behaviors. Its effects have been most pronounced for the youngest and oldest generations. Their daily lives have completely changed throughout the pandemic. Self-transcendence values and positive orientation could facilitate optimal adjustment to this situation by promoting prosociality. The present study aimed to discover if applying a new, web-based intervention could activate self-transcendence values in a group of Italian adolescents, fostering COVID-19 prosocial behaviors while also considering the role of positive orientation. The study adopted a longitudinal, web-based, and quasi-experimental design.
Associations between social isolation and parenting stress during the first wave of COVID-19 in Italian children with special educational needs

Laura Zampini; Paola Zanchi; Paolo Riva (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: International Journal of Developmental Disabilities
The parents of 413 children with typical development (TD) or special educational needs (SEN) filled in an online survey to investigate the associations between the restrictions introduced to face COVID-19 and parenting stress and parental disciplinary practices. The parents of children with SEN showed a significantly higher stress level than TD children's parents. However, they showed a lower inclination to overreact. In both groups, the parents who feel less supported, feel their needs threatened, and report having a child with more difficulties were more likely to exhibit parenting stress. Data on the associations between COVID-19 restrictions and the stress perceived by parents could help to focus the attention of the public health system on their parents' needs, leading to practices aimed to prevent parenting stress and burnout.
COVID-19-related fears, stress and depression in adolescents: the role of loneliness and relational closeness to online friends

Valentina Boursier; Francesca Gioia; Alessandro Musetti (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment
Research shows that the various waves of COVID-19 have generated increased fears, loneliness, and negative feelings in many adolescents. In this context, social media use may fulfill the pivotal function of connection, thereby supporting a sense of relational and emotional closeness to others via online interactions. However, there is no agreement as to the risks or buffering effects of social media usage among adolescents during the pandemic. The current study aims to explore the direct and indirect effects of COVID-19-related fears on adolescents’ perceived stress and depression, evaluating the mediating effect of their sense of loneliness and the moderating effect of relational closeness to online friends. A sample of 544 Italian adolescents participated in an online survey during the third wave of COVID-19 (71.9% females; mean age = 16.22 years).
Child development and distance learning in the age of COVID-19

Hugues Champeaux; Lucia Mangiavacchi; Francesca Marchetta (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Review of Economics of the Household
School closures, forcibly brought about by the COVID-19 crisis in many countries, have impacted children’s lives and their learning processes. The heterogeneous implementation of distance learning solutions is likely to bring a substantial increase in education inequality, with long term consequences. The present study uses data from a survey collected during Spring 2020 lockdown in France and Italy to analyze parents’ evaluations of their children’s home schooling process and emotional well-being at time of school closure, and the role played by different distance learning methods in shaping these perceptions.
Protective and risk activities for emotional and behavioural well-being of children and adolescents during the COVID-19 lockdown

Ilaria Nicolì; Maria Spinelli; Francesca Lionetti

Published: March 2022   Journal: Child

The lockdown imposed to contain the COVID-19 pandemic brought deep changes in the daily life of Italian children and adolescents, increasing the time spent at home. This study aims to explore how activities that children and adolescents carried out at home during the lockdown were related to their emotional and behavioural well-being. Parents completed an anonymous online survey on how much time their children and adolescents dedicated to social networks, solitary screen time, play time and to a series of parent–child dyadic activities. They also reported on their offspring's emotional difficulties and behavioural problems.

Physical education on the beach: an alternative way to improve primary school children’s skill- and health-related outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic

Maria Chiara Gallotta; Giovanna Zimatore; Ludovica Cardinali (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The COVID-19 restrictions could preclude children from participating in physical education (PE) interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a PE intervention conducted on the beach on children’s skill- and health-related outcomes, as a possible alternative PE intervention that could be also applied during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study involved 106 primary school children, randomly assigned to the traditional indoor (TI) intervention or to the experimental outdoor (EO) intervention. The intervention period lasted 4 months and consisted of two 1-h sessions per week. Intervention was conducted just before the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic.
I was not safe in his house: The COVID-19 pandemic and violence against refugee and migrant girls and women in Italy
Institution: *UNICEF, Washington University in St. Louis
Published: March 2022

This research explored the specific impacts of the pandemic on exposure to gender based violence risks among refugee and migrant girls and women in Italy. The research focused on refugee and migrant girls and women because of the intersectionality of vulnerabilities related to their gender and their migration status. It examined the availability and accessibility of gender based violence service provision over the course of the pandemic, and explored how services adapted in the face of this health emergency.

Parental mediation of COVID-19 news and children’s emotion regulation during lockdown

Mara Morelli; Federica Graziano; Antonio Chirumbolo (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Journal of Child and Family Studies
The COVID-19 outbreak resulted in a large amount of emotionally charged messaging that is believed to have a tremendous psychological impact, particularly on children and early adolescents. The present study examined the relationships between children’s exposure to COVID-19 news, children’s emotional responses to the news, parental styles of mediating COVID-19 news, and children’s emotional functioning during the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy in April 2020. An online survey was completed by 277 parents (Mage = 43.36; SDage = 4.76; mothers = 89.5%) with children aged 6 to 13 years.
Non-suicidal self-injury: a school-based peer education program for adolescents during COVID-19 pandemic

Annarosa Cipriano; Cristina Aprea; Ludovica Bellone (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) constitutes a major health concern among youth. However, less is known about the useful ways to prevent NSSI. As such, the NSSI- Peer Education Program (NSSI-PEP) aims to intervene on the vulnerability factors that predispose to NSSI by applying a peer education approach. The NSSI-PEP is grounded on the psychoanalytic tradition’s tenets, implementing modules targeting four crucial risk factors for NSSI: pubertal transformation, body image, self-esteem, and emotion regulation. Selected 8th grade students were trained to serve as peer educators and held a peer-education intervention for 6th and 7th grade students. Pre- and post-intervention assessments were conducted in order to evaluate the program’s effectiveness.

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on lifestyle behaviors in children and adolescents: an international overview

S. Scapaticci; C. R. Neri; G. L. Marseglia (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics

The adverse effects of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are not limited to the related infectious disease. In children and adolescents, serious risks due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are also related to its indirect effects. These include an unbalanced diet with an increased risk of weight excess or nutritional deficiencies, increased sedentary lifestyle, lack of schooling, social isolation, and impaired mental health.  Pediatricians should be aware of the side effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on children’s diet, physical mental health and advise the families according to their nutritional needs and financial resources. Moreover, the lack of a targeted therapy able to offer protection against the deleterious effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection should require a greater effort by scientific societies to find a more effective prevention strategy. In this context, much interest should be given to nutritional support, able to contrast malnutrition and to stimulate the immune system.

COVID-19: psychological symptoms and coping strategies in preschoolers, schoolchildren, and adolescents

Elisa Delvecchio; Mireia Orgilés; Alexandra Morales (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology
The present study aimed to compare psychological symptoms and coping strategies in 1480 preschoolers, schoolchildren, and adolescents during home confinement due to COVID-19. It enrolled parents from Italy, Portugal, and Spain who completed a survey between the second and fourth week of lockdown. The results showed that preschoolers displayed more sleeping difficulties, temper tantrums, and dependency while adolescents' reactions were more related to COVID-19 worries and uncertainty. Schoolchildren showed more difficulty in concentrating. Adolescent girls showed higher anxiety levels than schoolchildren boys.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on affect, fear, and personality of primary school children measured during the second wave of infections in 2020

Alessio Matiz; Franco Fabbro; Andrea Paschetto (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry
In relation to the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, a large body of research has identified a negative impact on individuals' affectivity, frequently documented by increased prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms. For children, this research was less extensive, was mainly based on caregivers' reports and neglected personality assessment. In order to measure the impact of the pandemic, and the fears it caused, on primary school children's affect and personality, 323 (180 boys and 143 girls) Italian third, fourth and fifth graders were assessed between October and November 2020, namely during the second wave of COVID-19 infections in Italy, with validated self-reports of affect (Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children, PANAS-C), fear of COVID-19 (Fear of COVID-19 Scale, FCV-19S) and personality (junior Temperament and Character Inventory, jTCI). In comparison with PANAS-C and jTCI normative scores collected prior to the pandemic, data obtained from children in 2020 showed unchanged affect scores in the overall sample, a decrease of Positive Affect in girls, and a decrease in the Harm Avoidance and an increase in the Self-Transcendence scales of personality.
76 - 90 of 215

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Subscribe to updates on new research about COVID-19 & children



facebook twitter linkedin google+ reddit print email
Article Article

Check our quarterly thematic digests on children and COVID-19

Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
Campaign Campaign

COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.