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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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A critical review on integration of virtual labs to enhance access to stem education for girls during and post Covid-19

Amos Omamo; Sarah Wandili; Stephen Mutua (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: African Journal of Science, Technology and Social Sciences,
Practical activities are extremely important in teaching sciences as they aid the students in comprehending scientific concepts through participatory learning. However, most Kenyan public schools lack well equipped laboratories. Additionally, the diminishing resources resulting from post-COVID effects offer no beam of hope. Disruption from COVID also poses critical challenges of handling physical devices in times of such pandemics. To address this, the Integration of Virtual Labs to Enhance STEM Education for Girls (IVLESTEG) project was conceptualized to enhance girl’s access to Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematic (STEM) subjects in Kenyan secondary schools. The aim of this research study was to critically appraise the current technology models in relation  to girls’ access to STEM education with the overall objective of exploring the potential of e-learning in promoting participation of female students in STEM subjects in Kenya.
Management of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) in resource limited settings: the Kenyan experience

Angela Migowa; Pauline Samia; Sean del Rossi (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Pediatric Rheumatology

Since the onset of the recent COVID-19 pandemic, there have been growing concerns regarding multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). This study aims to describe the clinico-epidemiological profile and challenges in management of MIS-C in low-middle income countries by highlighting the Kenyan experience. A retrospective study at the Aga Khan University Hospital Nairobi, Avenue Hospital Kisumu and Kapsabet County Referral Hospital was undertaken to identify cases of MIS-C. A detailed chart review using the World Health Organization (WHO) data collection tool was adapted to incorporate information on socio-demographic details and treatment regimens.

Pregnancy trends and associated factors among Kenyan adolescent girls and young women pre- and post-COVID-19 lockdown

Ouma Congo; George Otieno; Imeldah Wakhungu (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Advances in Global Health
Globally, COVID-19 has had a negative impact on health systems and health outcomes, with evidence of differential gender impacts emerging. The COVID-19 timeline of events spanning from closures and restrictions to phased reopenings is well-documented in Kenya. This unique COVID-19 situation offered us the opportunity to study a natural experiment on pregnancy trends and outcomes in a cohort of Kenyan adolescent girls and young women (AGYW), enrolled in the KENya Single-dose HPV-vaccine Efficacy (KEN SHE) Study. The KEN SHE Study enrolled sexually active AGYW aged 15–20 years from central and western Kenya. Pregnancy testing was performed at enrollment and every 3 months. This study determined pregnancy incidence trends pre- and post-COVID-19 lockdown, pregnancy outcomes (delivery, spontaneous, or induced abortion), and postabortion and postpartum contraceptive uptake. Kaplan–Meier survival estimates of incidence rates were used to estimate the cumulative probability of pregnancy during the study period.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 1 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 9 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent pregnancy, COVID-19 response, lockdown, maternal and child health, pregnant women, social distance | Countries: Kenya
Youth participation in agricultural cooperatives, post Covid-19 strategies: a case of Machakos coffee co-operative societies, Kenya

Orucho Michael Ngala

Published: November 2022   Journal: Archives of Business Research,

Kenya is a country that is mainly dependent on the agriculture sector for livelihood. Smallholder farmers through Coffee Cooperative Societies play a central role in socio-economic development, particularly in agricultural production, processing, and marketing. The vibrant and dynamic cooperative movement enhances food security, wealth creation, and poverty eradication. FAO report indicates that youths in Kenya are a critical component of the productive population and their input can be harnessed to enhance economic development. However, Kenyan youth has not actively embraced agriculture, due to the involvement of manual labour and poor returns. This study sought to establish factors affecting youth participation in coffee cooperative societies in Machakos County, Kenya. Eighty (80) youth from the eight (8) coffee cooperative societies working under Sustainability Kenya Limited Networks -AGRIFI Project in Machakos County were involved in the study.

COVID-19 and schooling of disabled children and youth in Kenya: the locus of education in the disaster risk reduction process

Theodoto Ressa

Published: November 2022   Journal: Open Journal of Social Sciences
This study examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on primary and secondary school-age children with disabilities to assess Kenya’s disaster readiness and the current mitigating measures using the UNDRO/UNDP Disaster Management and Recovery Program framework. The vulnerability analysis of the education system in Kenya reveals gaps in implementing disaster risk reduction (DRR) programs for children and youth with disabilities. Mismanagement of insufficient resources and services (i.e., digital infrastructure and shortage of computer literate educators and government inaction and corruption) showed the extent to which COVID-19 pandemic has undermined the capacity of Kenya’s education system to prepare school-age children with special needs for citizenry responsibilities. Since DRR efforts can overlook or neglect the particular constraints of communities with disabilities within and beyond the education sector, the DRR programs should include education (i.e., physical and virtual learning) to contain the unpredictable and novel pandemics (e.g., COVID-19) and importantly, and include disabled persons and their families in the DRR committees at all administrative levels. This is vital in mitigating factors that predispose disadvantaged children to academic failure and push them to failed adult life on the periphery of society.
A socio-ecological exploration to identify factors influencing the COVID-19 vaccine decision-making process among pregnant and lactating women: findings from Kenya

Rupali J. Limaye; Alicia Paul; Rachel Gur-Arie (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Vaccine
The vaccine decision-making process of pregnant and lactating women is complex. Regarding COVID-19, pregnant women are at increased risk for severe disease and poor health outcomes. While pregnant and lactating women were excluded from COVID-19 vaccine trials, available evidence suggests that COVID-19 vaccines are safe and protective during pregnancy. This study used a socio-ecological approach to explore factors influencing the decision-making process for COVID-19 vaccines in pregnant and lactating women in Kenya, for the purpose of informing demand generation strategies.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 40 | Issue: 50 | No. of pages: 7 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, health policy, immunization, immunization programmes, pregnant women, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Kenya
Lack of clear national policy guidance on COVID-19 vaccines influences behaviors in pregnant and lactating women in Kenya

Eleonor Zavala; Berhaun Fesshaye; Clarice Lee (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy is associated with a greater risk of maternal and newborn morbidity and maternal death. In Kenya, pregnant and lactating women (PLW) were ineligible to receive COVID-19 vaccines until August 2021. How shifts in policy influence vaccine behaviors, such as health worker recommendations and vaccine uptake, is not well documented. We conducted qualitative interviews with PLW, health workers, and policymakers in Kenya to understand how different stakeholders’ perceptions of national policy regarding COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy shaped vaccine behaviors and decision-making. Policymakers and health workers described pervasive uncertainty and lack of communication about the national policy, cited vaccine safety as their primary concern for administering COVID-19 vaccines to PLW, and expressed that PLW were inadequately prioritized in the COVID-19 vaccine program.
The impact of prior knowledge on adolescents' sexual and reproductive health behavior amidst the COVID-19 pandemic: the case of Kakamega County, Kenya

S. Ooko; A. Okoth; F. Njeru (et al.)

Published: September 2022

Adolescents (aged between 10 and 19 years) go through significant physical, physiological, and psychosocial changes from childhood to adulthood during this period. There are indications that during the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents experienced a myriad of challenges as reported by various forms of media. These challenges included teenage pregnancies/ motherhood and early marriages amongst girls, drug and substance abuse, and other social deviancies that came with devastating consequences, notably a surge in school dropout, which shuttered their dreams for a better future. During the outreach activities by the African Women in Science and Engineering (AWSE), MMUST chapter, a gap for research in the realm of Sexual and Reproductive Health of adolescents was established, necessitating this study. The objective guided the study: To establish how prior Knowledge on Sexual and Reproductive Health (ASRH) shaped their behavior in the wake of the COVID-19 Pandemic. The study adopted a Mixed Methods Research (MMR) approach, drawing on the strengths of both quantitative and qualitative paradigms, with a sample of 340 adolescents.

Maintaining continuity of care for expectant mothers in Kenya during the COVID-19 pandemic: a study of MomCare

Teresa De Sanctis; Mary-Ann Etiebet; Wendy Janssens (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Global Health: Science and Practice
In Kenya, early coronavirus disease (COVID-19) modeling studies predicted that disruptions in antenatal care and hospital services could increase indirect maternal and neonatal deaths and stillbirths. As the Kenyan government enforced lockdowns and a curfew, many mothers-to-be were unable to safely reach hospital facilities, especially at night. Fear of contracting COVID-19, increasing costs of accessing care, stigma, and falling incomes forced many expectant mothers to give birth at home. MomCare, which primarily serves communities in remote areas and urban slums, links mothers-to-be with payers and health care providers, following a standardized pregnancy program based on World Health Organization guidelines at a predetermined cost and quality. Expectant mothers gain access to care through a mobile wallet on their feature phone (voice, text, and basic internet), and providers are paid after appropriate care is given. Within the first 3 weeks of the pandemic in Kenya, the following services were added to the MomCare bundle: emergency ambulance services during curfew hours, extended bed allowances to encourage early care, phone calls to check on mothers approaching their delivery dates and to promote the generation of a birth plan, SMS messages to inform mothers of open facilities and COVID-19 protocols, and training for clinic staff in managing COVID-19 patients and infection prevention. We compare data collected through the MomCare platform during the 6 months before the first confirmed COVID-19 case in Kenya (September 2019–February 2020) with data collected during the 6 months that followed. This study shows that care-seeking behaviors (enrollment, antenatal/postnatal care, skilled deliveries) increased for mothers-to-be enrolled in MomCare during the COVID-19 lockdowns, while quality of care and outcomes were maintained. Public health practitioners can promote interactive, patient-driven technology like MomCare to augment traditional responses, quickly linking payments with patients and providers in times of crisis.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 10 | Issue: 4 | No. of pages: 12 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19 response, lockdown, maternal and child health services, pregnancy, pregnant women, social distance | Countries: Kenya
The biopsychosocial impact and syndemic effect of COVID-19 on youth living with HIV in Kenya

Tiffany Chenneville; Kemesha Gabbidon; Bharat Bharat

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
COVID-19's rapid emergence as a biological and psychosocial threat has affected people globally. The purpose of this qualitative study, which was guided by syndemic theory and the biopsychosocial framework, was to examine the impact of COVID-19 on youth living with HIV (YLWH) in Kenya. Seven virtual focus groups and two in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 YLWH aged 18-24, 13 youth affected by HIV aged 18-24, and 12 HIV healthcare providers living in Nakuru and Eldoret, two of Kenya's largest cities. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, which was guided by a descriptive phenomenological approach.
Experiences with antenatal care, breastfeeding education, and employment during the COVID-19 pandemic: perspectives from mothers and healthcare workers in Kenya

Scott Ickes; Hellen Lemein; Kelly Arensen (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Current Developments in Nutrition

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on breastfeeding practices in low and middle-income countries is not well understood. Modifications in breastfeeding guidelines and delivery platforms for breastfeeding education are hypothesized to have affected breastfeeding practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to understand the experiences with perinatal care, breastfeeding education and practice among mothers who delivered infants during the COVID-19 pandemic. It conducted key informant interviews among 35 mothers with deliveries since March 2020 and 10 healthcare workers (HCW) from two public health facilities in Naivasha, Kenya.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 6 | Issue: Supplement 1 | No. of pages: 1 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: breastfeeding, COVID-19, infectious disease, maternal and child health, pandemic, pregnancy, pregnant women | Countries: Kenya
Remaining hopeful during the COVID-19 pandemic: the role of NGOs in filling the social support gap for vulnerable children

Sijeong Lim; Chungshik Moon; Youngwan Kim

Published: May 2022   Journal: Youth & Society
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative effect on children’s mental health worldwide. Existing studies suggest that children with greater levels of hope are more likely to be resilient in the face of disaster. While social support at the family and community level is proposed as an important factor in sustaining and fostering hope, the children of underprivileged households in developing countries tend to lack this support. This study investigates whether development projects run by international NGOs are able to fill this gap and help children to remain hopeful during the pandemic. Using original survey data from 834 children in adolescence (aged between 10 and 18) in Kenya and Zambia, it shows that children participating in Good Neighbors’ child sponsorship programs and community development projects exhibit higher scores on the Children’s Hope Scale than do non-participating children. These projects appear to foster hope by providing emotional and informational support.
The consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for children in Kenya

Emma Cameron; Antonia Delius; Amanda Devercelli (et al.)

Institution: The World Bank
Published: April 2022
Based on survey data for more than 5,000 Kenyan households, this study shows that, despite government efforts to introduce remote learning options, access to education declined markedly during a nine-month-long period of school closures. Remote learning was adopted by only a small minority of students, and disadvantaged children fell further behind. During the first semester of 2021, reports of alterations in children’s externalizing and internalizing behavior more than tripled, with one in five children being affected by June 2021. After schools reopened, children learning remotely or through alternative means were more likely to suffer from these disruptions in emotional well-being than those who returned to school. While the medium- and long-term effects on learning outcomes and human capital remain unknown, the findings suggest that girls and children from poorer and less educated households have been disproportionately affected.
Lessons from online learning during Covid-19 pandemic for building education resilience in secondary schools in Kenya: a case study

Florence Kisirkoi; Angela Kamanga

Published: March 2022   Journal: International Journal of Educational Policy Research and Review

Online learning was the preferred avenue to sustain learning during the COVID - 19 pandemic when all learning institutions closed globally. Lessons learnt could be used to build education resilience in times of education disruptions in Kenya. A case study of two public secondary schools was conducted anchored on connectivism theory and Technological Pedagogic Content Knowledge. The participants were 15 teachers and 154 form four candidates from two secondary schools, purposively selected as the candidate classes. The objectives were to find out: the technology devices used by teachers and students to learn; whether the teachers and the students had knowledge, skills and attitudes to engage in online learning; how teachers and students acquired knowledge and skills to use the technology devices and whether there were any interventions provided to support them. A questionnaire for teachers and another for students collected quantitative and qualitative data which was analysed and established that few students managed to engage in online learning without adequate support and other technology devices were used for learning.

‘We are not going anywhere’: a qualitative study of Kenyan healthcare worker perspectives on adolescent HIV care engagement during the COVID-19 pandemic

Leslie A. Enane; Edith Apondi; Claire Liepmann (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: BMJ Open

Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) may be vulnerable to widescale impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and to health system responses which impact HIV care. This study assessed healthcare worker (HCW) perspectives on impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent HIV care delivery and engagement in western Kenya. It performed in-depth qualitative interviews with HCW at 10 clinical sites in the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare in Kenya, from January to March, 2021. Semistructured interviews ascertained pandemic-related impacts on adolescent HIV care delivery and retention.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 12 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 12 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, COVID-19 response, health care, health services, HIV and AIDS, lockdown, social distance | Countries: Kenya
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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