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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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The COVID-19 pandemic and sexual debut among South Korean adolescents

Hyun Sik Kim

Published: August 2022   Journal: International Journal of Sexual Health
This study assesses the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic on the first time Korean adolescents have sex. The study examines 2017–2021 data from an annual, cross-sectional survey.
Sleep and mental health among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Do Hee Kim; Bomgyeol Kim; Suk-Yong Jang (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Psychiatry Investigation
This study aimed to investigate the association of sleep with mental health among Korean adolescents during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic.Using data from the 16th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (2020) of 46,475 adolescents, we examined sleep duration and satisfaction and examined mental health for depressive symptoms, anxiety, and suicidal ideation. The data were analyzed using complex sample descriptive statistics and a multiple logistic regression model.
Multilevel factors associated with obesity among South Korean adolescents before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

Sou Hyun Jang; Hyesun Hwang

Published: August 2022   Journal: Childhood Obesity

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-necessitated lockdowns and school closures have limited social interactions among adolescents, which result in unhealthy behaviors. This study compared the multilevel factors associated with obesity among adolescents in South Korea before and during the pandemic. It applied the social-ecological model and analyzed the 2019 and 2020 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS), including middle and high school students. It considered factors at the individual, family, and community levels in the logistic regression. Age and gender-adjusted obesity (body mass index ≥ the 95th percentile) was the dependent variable.

Factors associated with depression and anxiety in Korean adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Honey Kim; Min Jhon; Ju-Wan Kim (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Psychiatry Investigation
This study was performed to identify factors associated with depression and anxiety among Korean adolescents during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. A cross-sectional study of 1,898 Korean adolescents (55.2% male, 44.8% female) ranging in age from 12 to 17 years (mean±standard deviaion age, 15.4±2.6 years) was conducted. Depression and anxiety were defined as a Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥10 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 score ≥10, respectively. Other questionnaires included sociodemographic data, psychosocial stresses, and experiences in association with COVID-19. Psychiatric scales included Gratitude Questionnaire-6, Perceived Stress Scale-10, and UCLA Loneliness Scale-3.
Prediction of adolescent suicidal ideation after the COVID-19 pandemic: a nationwide survey of a representative sample of Korea

Haewon Byeon

Published: July 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics

This study developed a model to predict groups vulnerable to suicidal ideation after the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic based on nomogram techniques targeting 54,948 adolescents who participated in a national survey in South Korea. This study developed a model to predict suicidal ideation by using logistic regression analysis. The model aimed to understand the relationship between predictors associated with the suicidal ideation of South Korean adolescents by using the top seven variables with the highest feature importance confirmed in XGBoost (extreme gradient boosting). The regression model was developed using a nomogram so that medical workers could easily interpret the probability of suicidal ideation and identify groups vulnerable to suicidal ideation.

Family satisfaction and self-efficacy among low-income adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: a comparative analysis of parents' educational attainment

Jaewon Lee; Jennifer Allen; Hyejung Lim (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

Given that the period from middle to high school is important to develop and cultivate self-efficacy, reduced support in low-income families might negatively influence the development of self-efficacy among low-income students since COVID-19. This study aims to investigate the association between family satisfaction and self-efficacy among low-income students since COVID-19 and the moderating effect of parents' educational attainment on the relationship. 255 low-income students in South-Korea were selected for the final sample. The PROCESS macro 3.4 for Statistical Product and Service Solutions was used to analyze the data.

A phenomenological study on the experience of high school senior students during the COVID-19 period

Jeong Soon Shin; Dong Won Kim

Published: July 2022
This study is a qualitative study using a phenomenological approach to understand what high school seniors experience through one-on-one in-depth interviews and the meaning structure of the experience to provide a comprehensive and holistic understanding for students who need to choose and decide a new career in the era of infectious diseases. Participants in this study were first graders in high school when COVID-19 swept the world in 2019 and students who took the entrance exam in 2022. In selecting study participants, purposeful sampling and snowball sampling were used to find participants who could provide the timelyness of the sample, various experiences, and deep insight. Participants in the study were 8 people who provided voluntary consent in advance, and data collection was conducted from January to March 2022.
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Korean adolescents' mental health and lifestyle factors

Jongha Lee; Young-Hoon Ko; Suhyuk Chi (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused changes in the daily lives of Korean adolescents and affected their emotional well-being. This study compared lifestyle factors and the mental health status of adolescents before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a secondary analysis using data from a national cross-sectional cohort (Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, KYRBS) collected in 2019 before the COVID-19 outbreak and in 2020 during the pandemic. This study included 57,303 students from the 2019 KYRBS and 54,948 from the 2020 KYRBS. Lifestyle factors such as dietary habits, physical activity levels, time spent studying, duration of Internet use, and mental health status, including perceived stress, experience of depressive mood, and suicidal ideation and attempts, were included in the analyses.
Safety monitoring of COVID-19 vaccination among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years old in the Republic of Korea

Seontae Kim; Insob Hwang; Mijeong Ko (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives

This study aimed to disseminate information on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine safety among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years in the Republic of Korea. Two databases were used to assess COVID-19 vaccine safety in adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who completed the primary Pfizer-BioNTech vaccination series. Adverse events reported to the web-based COVID-19 vaccination management system (CVMS) and collected in the text message-based system were analyzed.

Attitude and acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine in parents and adolescents: a nationwide survey

Hyunju Lee; Young June Choe; Shinkyeong Kim (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are currently authorized for emergency use in adolescents aged 12–17 years; however, there is concern and uncertainty regarding the safety and necessity of COVID-19 vaccination. A survey was carried out to assess the attitudes and acceptance towards vaccination in adolescents. A nationwide web-based survey was conducted among adolescents aged 12–17 years and their parents between June 29 and July 8, 2021 on a platform provided by the Ministry of Education.
Jeopardized mental health of children and adolescents in coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic

Bohyun Jin; Sohee Lee; Un Sun Chung

Published: June 2022   Journal: Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak became a worldwide pandemic in 2020. Social distancing measures, such as self-quarantine, lockdowns, and school closures, which have proven efficacy in various pandemic situations, remain in use in Korea. These measures prevented viral transmission to some extent; however, adverse effects have also resulted. First, the negative effect of social isolation on mental health is evident. This influences the psychiatric milieu of parents and children directly and indirectly. The most stressful factor among Korean youth was the restriction of outdoor activities. Increasing parenting burden result in increased screen time among youth, and social isolation created depressive mood with symptoms similar to those of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and anxiety. Second, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and somatization are prevalent among children and adolescents. The sense of threatened health and life during the pandemic, one symptom of PTSD, is a strong risk factor for somatization. Finally, the increased pattern of child abuse in pandemic indicates increased levels of emotional/psychological abuse and nonmedical neglect. Social isolation makes people less aware of these events. Because pediatricians evaluate pediatric patients and their families, they should regularly assess emotional/stress factors, especially when somatization is prominent during the pandemic, and cautiously recommend that families seek advice from mental health professionals when warranted. Primary physicians must understand the characteristics and aspects of child abuse in the COVID-19 pandemic, make efforts to identify signs of child abuse, and deliver accurate information and preventive strategies for child abuse to caregivers, thereby functioning as a professional guardian. To promote the mental health of parents and children during the COVID-19 pandemic, more research and cooperation among health professionals, families, governments, and schools are needed in the future.
Impact of COVID-19-related stress on preschool children's internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors: the indirect effect of mother's depression and parenting behavior

Young Sun Joo; Woon Kyung Lee

Published: June 2022   Journal: Child Indicators Research
The COVID-19 pandemic is affecting families and children worldwide. Experiencing the pandemic leads to stress in families resulting from fear of infection and social isolation derived from social distancing. For families raising preschoolers, the prolonged closure of childcare centers puts additional childcare burden on family members, especially mothers. Due to the limited research exploring the impact of COVID-19 on preschool children’s problem behaviors, this study examines the association between stress due to COVID-19 and preschool children’s internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors related to mother’s depression and parenting behavior. The study sample included data collected from 316 South Korean mothers raising preschool-aged children aged 3 to 5.
Associations between parental factors and children's screen time during the COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea

K. W. Kim; Y. K. Koh; J. H. Kim

Published: May 2022   Journal: Child Psychiatry & Human Development
This study investigated how parental depression, parental self-care, family conflict, and parental fear of COVID-19 are associated with children’s screen time during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected online among South Korean families, resulting in 246 parents (59% fathers) with children between 6 and 12 years of age. Path analysis and multi-group structural equation modelling of fathers and mothers were conducted. Parent’s fear of COVID-19 was positively associated with parental depression. Parent’s fear of COVID-19 and parental depression were negatively related to parental self-care, which was negatively linked to family conflict. Family conflict was positively associated with children’s screen time.
Development and evaluation of a blended learning mindfulness program for high school students during the COVID-19 pandemic

Mi-Jung Kang; Hyunsook Kim

Published: May 2022   Journal: The Journal of school nursing
Many adolescents worldwide suffer from stress or unhealthy emotional states such as depression. There is a trend toward limited physical contact via social distancing practices that developed during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. An experimental study aimed at investigating the effects of a mindfulness program on stress, concentration, self-esteem, and self-control in high school students. A 10-week mindfulness intervention was provided to the experimental group (n = 89) from September-November 2020, while the control group (n = 89) received general health education. Four weeks after the program, the experimental group showed reduced stress and improved concentration, self-esteem, and self-control compared to baseline.
High school students’ social jetlag, lifelong competency, and academic stress during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study

Soo Yeon Lee; Sun Joo Jang

Published: April 2022   Journal: The Journal of school nursing
With the prolongation of non-ordinary situations such as school closures due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, high school students have experienced irregular sleep-wake cycles and elevated academic stress resulting from reduced academic achievement and widened gaps in academic performance. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the associations among chronotype, social jetlag, lifelong learning competency, and academic stress in high school students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected through an online survey from May–June 2021.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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