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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Association between smartphone overdependency and mental health in Korean adolescents during the COVID pandemic; age-and gender-matched study

Na-Hye Kim; Jae-Moo Lee; Seo-Hyung Yang (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

This study aimed to examine the relationship between smartphone dependency (SD) and mental health (MH) in adolescents in order to develop and implement plans pertaining to SD control. Raw data from the 16th Online Adolescent Health Behavior Survey in 2020 were analyzed. A total of 482 respondents were selected as study subjects based on their experience of smartphone overdependence (SO), specifically, 241 participants whose score for SO was 37 or higher (Group 2) and age- and gender-matched 241 participants whose score was lower than 10 (Group 1).

Association between changes in family life due to COVID-19 and depressive mood and stress perception

Min-Su Kim; Mi Ah Han; So Yeon Ryu (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new infectious disease that has had a significant impact on daily life. This study investigated the effect of changes in family life due to COVID-19 on depressive mood and stress perception. It used data from the “Survey on changes in family life due to COVID-19” in Korea. The final study population comprised 1500 adults with children aged ≤19 years. Of the total respondents, 59.3% responded that depressive mood and stress had increased due to COVID-19. However, among them, 46.6% did not attempt to resolve or could not find a way to resolve their depressive mood and stress.
Effects of the Omicron variant on perinatal outcomes in full-term neonates

Hyowon Choi; Eun Jung Lee; Yeon-Soon Ahn (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: BMC Pediatrics

Research of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) effects on newborns is ongoing. But the research of specific variant’s effects is none. This study analyzed the effects of the Omicron variant on the perinatal outcomes of full-term newborns during the Omicron wave period.  Between December 2021 and April 2022, this study was conducted on all newborns who visited a single center. We investigated due to the Omicron maternal infection maternal pregnancy complications, delivery methods, birth week, Apgar scores, neonatal resuscitation program requirement, whether respiratory support was required until 12 h after childbirth, suspicious infectious status, and mortality depending on maternal Omicron infection.

National distance learning programmes in response to the COVID-19 education disruption: case study of the Republic of Korea
Institution: UNESCO
Published: October 2022

This study aimed to collect information on national or government-led distance learning programmes that were established in response to the educational disruption caused by COVID-19. The key objective is to enable reflection on these policy responses and their effectiveness in minimizing the disruption and learning loss, and maintaining continuity, quality, inclusiveness and equity. This case study is on the Republic of Korea. It is based on information and relevant documents supplied by the Korean Government for scrutiny, and reflects a centralized model where the execution of policy is devolved to 17 metropolitan and provincial offices of education.Korea was well-prepared for pandemic-related school closures in terms of infrastructure with almost 100 per cent of its population having access to high-speed broadband and an excellent mobile network. Ownership of digital devices stands at 118 per cent, and all teachers have access to devices both at home and in school (Kemp, 2021). Collaboration among teachers was widely encouraged for the production of resources. Several important lessons were learnt, which have resulted in further plans to strengthen online learning.

The difference in the quality of life of Korean children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder between before and after COVID-19

Jung-Hoon Lee; Seri Maeng; Jeong-Seop Lee (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
This study aimed to compare the quality of life (QoL) of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) before and during coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and to examine how their QoL is affected by emotional and environmental factors during COVID-19.  Participants in the pre-COVID-19 (n=43) and COVID-19 (n=36) groups were recruited from the same university hospital. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 4.0 Child Self-report, the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS), the PedsQL 4.0 Parent Proxy Report, and the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) were employed. Independent t-tests, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were conducted.
Predicting South Korean adolescents vulnerable to obesity after the COVID-19 pandemic using categorical boosting and shapley additive explanation values: a population-based cross-sectional survey

Haewon Byeon

Published: September 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics

This study identified factors related to adolescent obesity during the COVID-19 pandemic by using machine learning techniques and developed a model for predicting high-risk obesity groups among South Korean adolescents based on the result. This study analyzed 50,858 subjects (male: 26,535 subjects, and female: 24,323 subjects) between 12 and 18 years old. Outcome variables were classified into two classes (normal or obesity) based on body mass index (BMI). The explanatory variables included demographic factors, mental health factors, life habit factors, exercise factors, and academic factors. This study developed a model for predicting adolescent obesity by using multiple logistic regressions that corrected all confounding factors to understand the relationship between predictors for South Korean adolescent obesity by inputting the seven variables with the highest Shapley values found in categorical boosting (CatBoost).

Changes in daily life, physical activity, GAD, depression, and personal hygiene of adolescents in South Korea due to the COVID-19

Eun-Yeob Kim; Chilhwan Oh; Hwa-Jung Sung (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Healthcare
This study used raw data obtained from the Adolescents’ Health Behavior Survey by government-affiliated agency open data. A total of 109,796 students were sampled. A comparative analysis was performed based on the year 2020 and when the COVID-19 pandemic occurred, in which we analyzed changes in adolescents’ depression and panic anxiety perception and dietary habits, physical factors, physical activity, and handwashing habits. There was no weight control in the second year compared to the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, and obesity also increased. The continuation of the non-contact situation caused by COVID-19 led to a worsening of subjective health awareness, and the experience of generalized anxiety disorder, depression, sadness and hopelessness, and suicidal thoughts and attempts increased. The frequency of washing hands with soap before meals and after using the toilet at school or at home was reduced.
The impact of household economic deterioration caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and socioeconomic status on suicidal behaviors in adolescents: a cross-sectional study using 2020 Korea youth risk behavior web-based survey data

Sanggu Kang; Yeri Jeong; Eun Hye Park (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
Economic hardship has a serious impact on adolescents’ mental health. The financial impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was more severe for low-income families, and this also impacted adolescents. This study aimed to examine the associations of economic deterioration (ED) caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and low socioeconomic status (SES) with adolescents’ suicidal behaviors. This study analyzed data from the 2020 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, which included 54 948 middle and high school students. Odds ratios (ORs) of suicidal ideation, suicidal planning, and suicide attempts related to ED and SES were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. We calculated relative excess risks due to interaction to assess additive interactions.
Change of obesity prevalence and lifestyle patterns before and during COVID-19 among Korean adolescents

Hong Kyu Park; Jung Sub Lim

Published: September 2022   Journal: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Lockdown measure for limiting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread cause an aggravation of the childhood obesity epidemic through lifestyle changes. The aim is to investigate how social restriction might have changed obesity prevalence and lifestyle patterns in Korean adolescents. We also evaluate the most fragile group and most influencing lifestyle parameters on obesity prevalence. To assess the change in weight status and lifestyle, we compared the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey data 2019 (pre-COVID-19, n=57,303) and 2020 (post-COVID-19, n=54,948). Participants from middle schools and high schools, aged 12 to 18 years, voluntarily reported their weight status and lifestyles.
The COVID-19 pandemic and sexual debut among South Korean adolescents

Hyun Sik Kim

Published: August 2022   Journal: International Journal of Sexual Health
This study assesses the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic on the first time Korean adolescents have sex. The study examines 2017–2021 data from an annual, cross-sectional survey.
Sleep and mental health among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Do Hee Kim; Bomgyeol Kim; Suk-Yong Jang (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Psychiatry Investigation
This study aimed to investigate the association of sleep with mental health among Korean adolescents during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic.Using data from the 16th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (2020) of 46,475 adolescents, we examined sleep duration and satisfaction and examined mental health for depressive symptoms, anxiety, and suicidal ideation. The data were analyzed using complex sample descriptive statistics and a multiple logistic regression model.
Multilevel factors associated with obesity among South Korean adolescents before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

Sou Hyun Jang; Hyesun Hwang

Published: August 2022   Journal: Childhood Obesity

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-necessitated lockdowns and school closures have limited social interactions among adolescents, which result in unhealthy behaviors. This study compared the multilevel factors associated with obesity among adolescents in South Korea before and during the pandemic. It applied the social-ecological model and analyzed the 2019 and 2020 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS), including middle and high school students. It considered factors at the individual, family, and community levels in the logistic regression. Age and gender-adjusted obesity (body mass index ≥ the 95th percentile) was the dependent variable.

Factors associated with depression and anxiety in Korean adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Honey Kim; Min Jhon; Ju-Wan Kim (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Psychiatry Investigation
This study was performed to identify factors associated with depression and anxiety among Korean adolescents during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. A cross-sectional study of 1,898 Korean adolescents (55.2% male, 44.8% female) ranging in age from 12 to 17 years (mean±standard deviaion age, 15.4±2.6 years) was conducted. Depression and anxiety were defined as a Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥10 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 score ≥10, respectively. Other questionnaires included sociodemographic data, psychosocial stresses, and experiences in association with COVID-19. Psychiatric scales included Gratitude Questionnaire-6, Perceived Stress Scale-10, and UCLA Loneliness Scale-3.
Prediction of adolescent suicidal ideation after the COVID-19 pandemic: a nationwide survey of a representative sample of Korea

Haewon Byeon

Published: July 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics

This study developed a model to predict groups vulnerable to suicidal ideation after the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic based on nomogram techniques targeting 54,948 adolescents who participated in a national survey in South Korea. This study developed a model to predict suicidal ideation by using logistic regression analysis. The model aimed to understand the relationship between predictors associated with the suicidal ideation of South Korean adolescents by using the top seven variables with the highest feature importance confirmed in XGBoost (extreme gradient boosting). The regression model was developed using a nomogram so that medical workers could easily interpret the probability of suicidal ideation and identify groups vulnerable to suicidal ideation.

Family satisfaction and self-efficacy among low-income adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: a comparative analysis of parents' educational attainment

Jaewon Lee; Jennifer Allen; Hyejung Lim (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

Given that the period from middle to high school is important to develop and cultivate self-efficacy, reduced support in low-income families might negatively influence the development of self-efficacy among low-income students since COVID-19. This study aims to investigate the association between family satisfaction and self-efficacy among low-income students since COVID-19 and the moderating effect of parents' educational attainment on the relationship. 255 low-income students in South-Korea were selected for the final sample. The PROCESS macro 3.4 for Statistical Product and Service Solutions was used to analyze the data.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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