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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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UNICEF Innocenti Publication
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1 - 15 of 31
What is the burnout of mothers with infants and toddlers during the COVID-19 pandemic? In relation to parenting stress, depression, and parenting efficacy

Jeong-Hyo Seo; Hee-Kyung Kim

Published: April 2022   Journal: International Journal of Environmrntal Research and Public Health
The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors influencing burnout of mothers with infants or toddlers in the COVID-19 pandemic. The subjects of this study were 105 mothers who sent their children to daycare centers or kindergartens located in S and G cities. They were women who have experienced caring for children entirely at home during the COVID-19 pandemic. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Man–Whitney U test, Pearson’s correlation coefficients, and a stepwise multiple regression using the SPSS Window 25.0 program.
The impact of parental monitoring on cyberbullying victimization in the COVID-19 era

Seung Yeop Paek; Julak Lee; Yeon-Jun Choi

Published: March 2022   Journal: Social Science Quarterly

The purpose of the current research was to examine the predictors of cyberbullying victimization among South Korean students during a period in which the coronavirus disease was spreading worldwide. This study assessed whether parental guardianship protected against victimization when most people worked from home and school instructions were shifted to online learning. It analyzed nationally representative data collected between October 6 and November 13, 2020. Binary logistic regression models were developed based on the Routine Activities Theory theoretical model to investigate the correlates of cyberbullying victimization among participants.

Association between the perceived household financial decline due to COVID-19 and smartphone dependency among Korean adolescents

Yun Hwa Jung; Soo Young Kim; Sung-In Jang (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
This cross-sectional study identified the association between COVID-19-related perceived household financial decline and smartphone dependency among adolescents in South Korea. Data from the 2020 Youth Risk Behavior Survey of Korea was used and 54,809 middle and high school students were included. COVID-19-related perceived household financial decline was categorized as no financial decline, mild, moderate, and severe. Smartphone dependency was calculated by 10 questions and was largely categorized as yes and no, and as normal, low, and high (prevalence rate: 25.0%). Binary and multinomial regression analyses were performed to analyze the association.
Sedentary time and fast-food Consumption Associated With Weight Gain During COVID-19 lockdown in children and adolescents with overweight or obesity

Sarah Woo; Heonil Yang; YoonMyung Kim (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Journal of Korean Medical Science

The coronavirus disease pandemic is predicted to have adverse health effects on children and adolescents who are overweight or obese due to restricted school activity and stay-at-home orders. The purpose of this observational study was to determine the factors associated with weight gain in children and adolescents with overweight and obesity during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown. Ninety-seven participants (sex- and age-specific body mass index (BMI) ≥ 85th percentile) were included. A baseline examination was conducted pre-COVID-19 (August 2019 to January 2020), and re-examination was performed post-lockdown (June to September 2020) and the results were compared. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to investigate the association among changes in cardiometabolic markers and lifestyle behaviors with changes in BMI z-score.

Association between perceived decline in family income due to COVID-19 and alcohol consumption among Korean adolescents

Yu Shin Park; Yun Hwa Jung; Eun-Cheol Park (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

This study examines the relationship between the perceived decline in family income due to COVID-19 and alcohol consumption among Korean adolescents. Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey 2020 data were used. The study included 42,922 participants (20,672 males; 22,250 females). Multiple logistic regression estimated the relationship between the decline in family income due to COVID-19 and drinking (yes or no) and alcohol-induced blackout (yes or no) status among Korean adolescents.

Impact of challenging behavior online modules on Korean parents of children with developmental disabilities: an RCT

James D. Lee; Hedda Meadan; Yan Xia (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions
Challenging behavior exhibited by young children with neurodevelopmental disabilities is known to negatively affect their optimal development and families’ quality of life. Although some support exists for English-speaking parents of children with autism who live in high-resource countries, it is scarce for others. Such disparity may also be heightened during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with various societal restrictions. To mitigate the treatment gap, this study developed and adapted a series of online training modules on behavioral principles and examined its effectiveness with 88 Korean parents using a randomized controlled trial. It found significant interaction effects on increasing parents’ knowledge of behavioral principles, increasing positive parenting practices, and decreasing parental stress. Qualitative social validity data also indicated that parents were highly satisfied with the goals, procedures, and outcomes and that the program positively affected their parenting styles.
Relationship between screen time among children and lower economic status during elementary school closures due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic

Sangha Lee; Sungju Kim; Sooyeon Suh (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health volume

This study aimed to examine whether the extended use of a variety of digital screen devices was associated with lower economic status and other environmental factors among Korean elementary school children and their caregivers during school closures precipitated by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A total of 217 caregivers of children 7–12 years of age from Suwon, Korea, were recruited and asked to respond to a self-administered questionnaire in June 2020. The questionnaire addressed demographic information and children’s use of digital media, in addition to their caregivers. The t-test was used for continuous variables, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used for variables measured on an interval scale. A multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the effects of significant correlative factors on screen time in children as predictors.

Development and evaluation of a child vaccination chatbot real-time consultation messenger service during the COVID-19 pandemic

Yeong-Joo Hong; Meihua Piao; Jeongeun Kim (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Applied Science
The decreased rate of children’s vaccination has resulted in outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, and vaccination hesitancy is being brought about by the uncertainty caused by the continuing COVID-19 pandemic. With this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy of a child vaccination chatbot based on changes in variables such as vaccination information, motivation, self-efficacy, and vaccination behavioral intention. From 30 January to 15 February 2020, 65 parents raising children ≤35 months old who were expected to be vaccinated within three months participated in the trial through online recruitment. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n = 34) or the control group (n = 31) and were followed up with over a period of 12 weeks. During this period, both groups of participants were provided with vaccination schedule reminders. The experimental group were additionally provided with vaccination-related information and motivation boosters by a chatbot (real-time consultation messenger service); the control group was provided the same information by brochure. Comparing both groups, the experimental group that used the chatbot scored higher on vaccination information, motivation, self-efficacy, and vaccination behavioral intention than the control group. This suggests that the chatbot provided useful and timely information to parents, increasing vaccination motivation, self-efficacy, and vaccination rates.
Effect of subjective economic status during the COVID-19 pandemic on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among South Korean adolescents

Jong Min Han; Hyunjong Song

Published: December 2021   Journal: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
This study identified the relationships between perceived household economic status and household economic downturn due to COVID-19 and adolescent depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Participants for this study were extracted from the 13th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, conducted from August to November 2020. The participants comprised 54,948 middle and high school students selected by stratified random cluster sampling.
Unemployment and child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Republic of Korea

Young Eun Kim

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Risk factors for child maltreatment have been exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially due to economic downfalls leading to parental job losses and poor mental health. This study aimed to examine the association between child maltreatment and unemployment rate in the Republic of Korea. Nationally representative data at the province level were used. The monthly excess number of hotline calls related to child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic was estimated for each province. Fixed effects regressions was used to examine the relationship between the excess number of hotline calls and unemployment rate.

Comparison of stress and suicide-related behaviors among Korean youths before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

So Young Kim; Hye-Rim Kim; Bumjung Park (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: JAMA Network Open

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial psychological effect on young people. A quantitative assessment of the association between the pandemic and stress and suicidality in youths is needed. This study aims to investigate the association of the COVID-19 pandemic with self-reported stress and suicide-related behaviors in youths. This cross-sectional study used data from the the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) conducted in 2019 and 2020 with youths aged 12 to 18 years. Statistical analysis was performed from January to February 2021.

Changes in alienation in physical education classes, school happiness, and expectations of a future healthy life after the COVID-19 pandemic in Korean adolescents

Seung-Man Lee; Jung-In Yoo; Hyun-Su Youn

Published: October 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
This study aims to investigate the changes in the structural relationship between alienation in physical education (PE) classes, school happiness, and future healthy life expectations in Korean adolescents after the COVID-19 pandemic. The data were collected from Korean adolescents using different scales. The collected data were analyzed using frequency analysis, reliability analysis, validity analysis, independent t test, and path analysis.
COVID-19 education situation analysis in East Asia
Institution: *UNICEF, UNESCO
Published: October 2021

This sub-regional situational analysis provides a snapshot of the educational responses and effects of COVID-19 across East Asia based on a comprehensive desk-review of qualitative and quantitative evidence, complemented by key informant interviews with relevant education officials, local authorities and teachers across three countries in the sub-region (China, Japan and Republic of Korea).

What did COVID-19 change? The impact of COVID-19 on Korean parents’ and children’s daily lives and stress

Joo-hyang Park; Ji-young Park; Kyong-sun Jin

Published: October 2021   Journal: Child Psychiatry & Human Development
The COVID-19 outbreak has not only posed a threat to physical health but has also changed our daily lives. This study explored how the COVID-19 pandemic affected Korean parents’ and children’s daily lives and stress levels. Parents’ childcare time, children’s screen time, the time spent for social interactions and learning, and parents’ and children’s stress levels before and after the pandemic were compared. The main caregivers’ childcare time increased significantly during the pandemic (4.00 h/day). For children, the time spent for screen time (1.76 h) and online interactions (0.95 h) increased significantly, whereas face-to-face interaction time (4.17 h) and time spent learning (2.16 h) decreased significantly.
Latent profile of internet and internet game usage among South Korean adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Dongil Kim; Junwon Lee; JeeEun Karin Nam

Published: September 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

Globally, more people are spending time on the Internet and gaming since the outbreak of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Consequently, concerns about developing behavioral addiction of adolescents have been raised. Such risk could be greater for adolescents in South Korea where the majority of adolescents have access to the Internet and own a smartphone. In fact, statistics indicate that Korean youths are spending significantly more time on the Internet and gaming during the COVID-19 pandemic. Previous studies on the patterns of time spent on the Internet and Internet gaming show inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to investigate the latent profiles of the Internet and Internet game usage among adolescents in South Korea. Data from a national survey on elementary and middle school students across South Korea were used. The sample consists of 3,149 respondents, and 2,984 responses were analyzed after removing missing responses. Latent profile analysis was performed to investigate the number of latent profiles for the Internet and Internet game usage time. To validate the profiles, differences in problematic gaming behavior, sex, and neuroticism were examined.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.