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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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An assessment of the impact of distance learning on pupils' performance

Vaidas Gaidelys; Ruta Ciutien; Gintautas Cibulskas

Published: December 2022   Journal: Education Sciences
Distance education has influenced the organization of education at the level of systems and schools, the change in the specificity of teachers’ activities, the change in pupils’ learning, and, undoubtedly, the attainment of learning outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine what factors have affected pupils’ learning outcomes in the course of distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic, from the perspective of pupils, pupils’ parents, and teachers. A quantitative study was conducted in order to reveal the impact of distance learning. The positive and negative aspects of distance education became clear. As regards the negative consequences of distance teaching/learning, the results of the study showed that in the teachers’ opinion, the pupils’ learning outcomes generally deteriorated. The positive factors of distance learning influencing the learning process and thus learning outcomes were a comfortable environment, the possibility to use a variety of learning aids available at home, and the possibility to view the lesson records at a time convenient for pupils.
Lithuanian adolescents' identity during the COVID-19 pandemic: the correlation between physical and mental health

Liudmila Arcimavičienė; Jūratė Armonienė

Published: April 2022   Journal: Health Sciences

The aim of this study was to identify and ana­lyse self-identity of Lithuanian youth during the CO­VID-19 pandemic, and how it is impacted by their in­volvement into physical activity and general state of mental health. To achieve the above, 140 responses were col­lected from young Lithuanian adults in the period of three months from September to November of 2021 to 12 closed questions, and 138 responses to 3 open-ended questions. The data was analysed for general statistical trends, with more focus on the content analysis carried out by procedurally applying NVivo 12.0.

The predictors of psychological well-being in Lithuanian adolescents after the second prolonged lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic

Roma Jusiene; Rima Breidokiene; Stanislav Sabaliauskas (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Recent research highlights the impact of prolonged pandemics and lockdown on the mental health of youngsters. The second wave of COVID-19 brought an increase in mental health problems among young people. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the main factors arising from intra-individual, inter-individual, and environmental contexts that predict good psychological well-being in a group of adolescents after a second prolonged period of social restrictions and distance education. The study included 1483 school students from 11 to 19 years old. The survey assessed self-reported students’ psychological well-being (WHO-5 index), physical activity, sedentary behavior, school social capital, communication with peers and relationships with parents, existing emotional and behavioral problems.
Evidence on resilient initial response to COVID-19 pandemic among youth: findings from the prospective study of mental health in two European countries

Inga Truskauskaite-Kuneviciene; Julia Brailovskaia; Jürgen Margraf (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Emerging Adulthood
The current two-wave longitudinal study aimed to investigate changes in stress, anxiety, depression, and positive mental health (PMH) during the first COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in the sample of emerging adults. Data were collected before the COVID-19 and within the first month of the outbreak. The study sample consisted of 775 university students from Lithuania (n = 450, M age(SD age) = 19.45 (0.93), 79.3% female) and Germany (n = 325, M age(SD age) = 23.08 (2.94), 78.2% female). The results of multivariate Latent Change Analysis revealed that Lithuanian and German emerging adults demonstrated a decrease in stress and anxiety at the COVID-19 outbreak. Lithuanians also showed a decrease in depressive symptoms and an increase in PMH. Three groups with different change patterns were identified: resilient (82%) demonstrating positive changes, high-symptom (8%) with stable high rates of stress and depression and stable low rates of PMH, and vulnerable (10%) with an increase in depressive symptoms as well as a decrease in PMH over time.
Adolescents amid the COVID-19 pandemic: a prospective study of psychological functioning

Ieva Daniunaite; Inga Truskauskaite-Kuneviciene; Siri Thoresen (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health

The spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the accompanying countermeasures can significantly impact the wellbeing of adolescents. There is a lack of longitudinal studies that can shed light on potential social, emotional, and behavioral development in adolescents. This study aimed to identify potential changes in adolescent psychosocial functioning from pre-pandemic to peri-pandemic assessment, and secondly, to identify specific patterns of change. This longitudinal study was based on a Lithuanian community sample of 331 adolescents aged 12–16 at T1 (M  =  13.87, SD  =  1.59). T1 data collected before the pandemic (March–June, 2019) was compared with T2 data collected during the COVID-19 outbreak (October 2020). Psychosocial functioning was assessed by The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multivariate latent change modeling and latent class change approaches were used to identify patterns of change.

Sedentary behavior among 6–14-year-old children during the COVID-19 lockdown and its relation to physical and mental health

Rima Breidokiene; Roma Jusiene; Vaidotas Urbonas

Published: June 2021   Journal: Healthcare
As a result of the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 and consequent restrictions in spring 2020, children in many countries might be engaged in more sedentary behavior and have limited possibilities to access the necessary level of physical activity to maintain their physical and mental health. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between child sedentary behavior, physical activity, mental and physical health, and parental distress in a sample of Lithuanian children aged 6–14 years during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in March–June 2020. Parents of 306 children (52.9% female) completed an online survey in May–June 2020 and reported on their children’s screen time for educational and recreational (leisure) purposes, the level of physical activity and time outdoors, somatic symptoms, and emotional well-being and behavior. Parents also reported on stressful life events in the family and personal distress.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.