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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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The onset of a pandemic: impact assessments and policy responses in Malaysia during the early months of COVID-19
Institution: United Nations Development Programme
Published: February 2023
This report is a call to action, to prepare for future crises, and the ones that we are experiencing today to tackle the multi-faceted social and economic dimensions of crises. It is, above all, a call to focus on people – women, youth, low-wage workers, small and medium enterprises, the informal sector and on vulnerable groups who are already at risk. Rapid assessments during the first months of the pandemic were critical to pinpoint the social, economic and political impacts of the crisis, and discover ways to mitigate them with sustainable, resilient and rights-based solutions forged through both the public and private sector.
Mobile game addiction and social interaction anxiety of Malaysian youth

Mohamad Noorman Masrek; Waqas Ahmed; Abdurrahman Jalil (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal

With individuals of all ages confined to their homes for extended periods of time, the pandemic laid the groundwork for an upsurge in online mobile gaming addiction and risky internet usage. According to research, those who are hooked to online gaming are more likely to experience social interaction anxiety. This research is an additional attempt to confirm prior findings in the context of Malaysian youth. The data was acquired via an online questionnaire as part of the survey research procedure. The respondents were reached through convenient sampling, and the 377 replies provided more evidence on the association between gaming addiction and social interaction anxiety.

Household income and its correlation with child hunger during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study

Sharmilla Rengarajoo; Seok Tyug Tan

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition
This study investigates the prevalence of household food insecurity and child hunger during the COVID-19 pandemic, alongside the relationships between household income and the occurrence of child hunger. Socio-demographic characteristics, including monthly household income, gender, and age of the surveyed child were parent-reported. The validated 10-item Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity Instrument was adopted to assess household food insecurity, parental food insecurity, and child hunger during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Knowledge, attitude and practice of hand hygiene among parents: a post COVID-19 pandemic survey

Shalinawati Ramli; Anis Hafizah Azmi; Nurul Azmawati Mohamed (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities
Hand hygiene is one of the effective measures to prevent infectious diseases such as hand, foot and mouth disease and COVID-19. Parents involvement as the child's first educator in establishing the child's sanitary behavior are crucial in nurturing good hand hygiene habit. This study aimed to assess parents' knowledge, attitudes, and practice on hand hygiene in relation to childcare during the endemic phase of COVID-19. This cross-sectional study involved parents of pre-school children from the Sepang district of Selangor, Malaysia. The parents were given a set of pre-tested, self-administered questionnaires about their knowledge, attitude, and practice of personal hand hygiene, hand hygiene practice while caring for children, and diseases caused by inadequate hand hygiene.
Experiences of parents and teachers with virtual classrooms during the COVID-19 restrictions: a study focusing on inclusive education in Malaysia

Chu Yun Phua; Kah Heng Chua; Way Kiat Bong

Published: December 2022   Journal: Education Sciences
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in emergency remote teaching in many countries. In Malaysia, not all households were prepared for remote teaching. This has caused some groups of students to be left out. Therefore, in this study we aim to investigate the experiences of parents and teachers concerning inclusiveness of the education delivered via virtual classrooms during the pandemic time in Malaysia. Questionnaires were distributed online to gather feedback from parents, teachers and anyone having both roles. 379 respondents completed the questionnaire.
Relationship between internet addiction, personality factors, and emotional distress among adolescents in Malaysia

Soh Chou Fu; Nicholas Tze Ping Pang; Walton Wider

Published: December 2022   Journal: Children
COVID-19 has significantly affected the mental health of adolescents, thus increasing the emotional distress among them. Studies have reported that heavy Internet use during COVID-19 was linked with poor mental health among adolescents. Additionally, it was found that personality factors are linked with mental health in general. Although past literature has reported the effect of personality factors on mental health, there are limited studies examining the underlying mechanisms among Malaysian adolescents. Therefore, the current study offers an understanding of the intervening role of personality factors in the relationship between Internet addiction and emotional distress among adolescents in Malaysia. This study also aimed to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction and emotional distress (depression, stress, and anxiety) among adolescents in Malaysia. There are a total of 500 participants from 7 secondary schools who range from 13 to 19 years of age. This was a cross-sectional study, and 3 valid questionnaires were used: The Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21), and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI). Partial least square structure equation modelling (SmartPLS) was used to analyse the mediation models.
Mental health of students during the Covid-19 pandemic: the effects of different parental practices

Shin Ling Wu; Pei Jun Woo; Chin Choo Yap (et al.)

Published: November 2022
Mental health issues are a serious problem globally and have worsened since the Covid-19 pandemic. School students are experiencing high levels of stress due to the closure of schools. Students have to quickly adapt to online learning with minimal guidance during the early stage of the pandemic. Subsequently, students are allowed to go to school on a rotation basis. Therefore, a conducive home environment with support from parents plays an important role in helping students to cope with the uncertainties during the pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study where 761 high school students, aged between 13 to 18 years old were recruited in Malaysia. There was 468 female and 293 male students who participated in this study. Students’ mental health was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) while parental practices were measured using the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire. Parental practices were measured separately for father and mother in terms of positive parenting, involvement, poor monitoring and corporal punishment.
Self-esteem, quality of life and financial well-being: a review on psychological health factors of single mothers

Ilyani Azer; Siti Aishah Mohamad; Hasnizawati Hashim (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities
The growth in single-parent households is a significant issue, especially because these mothers are in charge of raising and socialising future generations of a country. Recently, it is stated that they have inadequate income and have been reported to have a high level of psychological distress due to a lack of additional support in dealing with household issues. This situation has been getting worst since the pandemic Covid-19 from 2020 to 2021. Many single mothers, have lost their income, health, and economic stability as a result of the virus. This group is facing everyday inconveniences, social isolation, and financial hardship. As a consequence, they are more sensitive to emotional discomfort and disruptions in parenting. On that account, this research been organized by identifying psychological health factors that affect single mothers namely self-esteem, quality of life and financial well-being by conducting a systematic literature review which will be used to propose directions for future research.
An investigation on the online learning engagement of Malaysian secondary school students from different school types

Nurjanah Mohd Jaafar; Lay Shi Ng; Najihah Mahmud (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: International Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching
This study explored the perceptions of students from different types of schools in Malaysia towards their online learning engagement during COVID-19's movement control order using Fredricks et al.'s framework of behavioural, cognitive, and emotional engagement. In addition to these variables, external support provided to the students was also considered. To this end, a questionnaire that examined the students' general online practices and online learning engagement was administered. Seven hundred sixty-eight students from four different types of secondary schools (national, Chinese, international, and high performing schools) responded to the questionnaire. The findings from the ANOVA analysis indicated that generally the respondents demonstrated positive online learning practices. However, the amount of time spent interacting with teachers online should be much improved.
Exploring home-based learning by using mobile for children with autism during Covid-19 pandemic

Muhamad Fairus Kamaruzaman; Faizah Abdul Majid; Nurshamshida Md Shamsudin (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal

Educating children with autism is a big responsibility for special education teachers and parents. Since the Covid-19 pandemic hit Malaysia, the learning approach has been shifted to virtual learning. The use of education technology has gained state-of-the-art research interest in children with autism, especially in the context of mobile learning. This study will examine how mobile learning could assist children with autism in coping with their daily routine study during the pandemic era. Instructors, teachers, and parents of children with autism may find the findings useful as one of their references in determining their teaching aids and strategies.

Breastfeeding knowledge, attitude, and practices and its association with food insecurity during COVID-19

Syahrul Bariah Abdul Hamid; Syasya Nurazmiena Haris; Hui Jun Chih

Published: September 2022   Journal: Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal

Child hunger commonly occurs in families with household food insecurity when mothers fail to continue breastfeeding due to stress and inability to produce sufficient breastmilk. This study aimed to investigate the association of breastfeeding KAP with food insecurity during the pandemic of COVID-19. An online self-administered questionnaire related to the study was used to obtain data from 444 Malaysian 

The factor structure among primary school children of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire of Parents (SDQ-PR) in Malaysia during COVID-19

Hon Kai Yee; Chua Bee Seok; Crystal Ling

Published: September 2022   Journal: Cogent Social Sciences
The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is one of the most widely used questionnaires to measure psychosocial adjustment in children. SDQ has been translated into more than 60 languages. However, a published review of 48 studies from 17 different cultural settings reported that the mean and cut-off scores of the SDQ have shown some variation across cultural settings. The discrepancies found in the existing literatures for the factor structure require further investigation. Thus, the aim of the current study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of parent rating SDQ in the Malaysian context, especially during the pandemic. A total of 315 Malaysian parents of children in the age range of 9 to 11 years old who responded to the online survey participated in this study.
Using digital storytelling to improve pupils' speaking skills in the age of COVID 19

Viknesh Nair; Melor Md Yunus

Published: July 2022   Journal: Sustainability
Speaking in English is one of the most important skills that students must learn in school, and it is a pertinent tool for communicating in the real world. However, pupils in rural schools often faced difficulty in conversing in the English language, as they did not have adequate opportunities or an engaging environment to practice the language, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. It was observed though School-Based Assessment (SBA) that pupils had limited levels of fluency, accuracy, and pronunciation. Hence, this quasi-experimental study aims to investigate the use of Toontastic 3D, a digital storytelling app, to improve pupils’ speaking skills. In this study, a pre- and post-test and a questionnaire were used as methods for data collection.
Parents' perception towards the national COVID-19 immunisation programme for children (PICKids): a cross-sectional, internet-based survey

Ishak Mas’ud; Surina Mohamad Shafi; Mohd Zulkifli Awang (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: International Journal of Human and Health Sciences
The Ministry of Health Malaysia’s (MOH) National COVID-19 Immunisation Programme for Children (PICKids) is a public health initiative aimed at achieving herd immunity and prevent illness among Malaysian children. The COVID-19 outbreak and the efficacy of the COVID-19 immunisation programme for children are facing tremendous stress among parents. The purpose of this study was to see how parents in Klang Valley, Malaysia viewed and accepted the COVID-19 vaccination for their children. Parents were distributed a set of questionnaires over social media via Qualtrics XM. A simple random sampling technique was used to choose the participants. The total number of participants in the study was 88, with 30 males (34.09%) and 58 females (65.91%). The findings show a statistically significant correlation between parents’ knowledge of COVID-19 and their willingness to vaccinate their children.
The willingness of parents to vaccinate their children younger than 12 years against COVID-19: a cross-sectional study in Malaysia

Diana-Leh-Ching Ng; Gin-Gin Gan; Chee-Shee Chai (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health volume

The initiation of a new drug, for instance, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine in children could be a source of major concern for parents. This study aims to determine the willingness of parents in Malaysia to vaccinate their children younger than 12 years against COVID-19. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted nationwide in Malaysia from August 29, 2021, to October 17, 2021. Parents with children younger than 12 years were enrolled via the snowball sampling method.

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