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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Looking back on Nigeria’s COVID-19 school closures: effects of parental investments on learning outcomes and avoidance of hysteresis in education

AUTHOR(S)
Moses Ogenyi

Institution: Research on Improving Systems of Education
Published: March 2022

This insight note explores how COVID-19 and related school closures impacted Nigerian schools, parents, and students. National data collected by the National Bureau of Statistics in 2020 through a monthly phone survey show that children had extremely limited contact with the education system during this time, and that families preferred low-cost alternatives such as in-home tutoring and increased parental involvement in education to e-learning tools. Additional data collected by the RISE Nigeria Team in a survey of 73 low-cost private schools in Abuja suggest that some schools did maintain contact with students during mandated school closures, that students experienced absolute learning losses equivalent to about 5-6 months of school missed in other contexts (Cooper et al, 1996), despite participation in alternative learning activities, and that the pandemic led to severe financial hardships for schools and teachers.

Socio-demographic determinants of children home learning experiences during COVID 19 school closure

AUTHOR(S)
Esther Ariyo; Micheal Amurtiya; Olaleye Yemisi Lydia (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: International Journal of Educational Research Open
There were concerns about the inclusivity of learning for children living in countries with limited technology facilities during the COVID 19 school closure. This study investigates the socio-demographic determinant of engagement in home learning and the type of activity engagement for school children across Nigeria during the COVID 19 school closure. Regression and descriptive analysis of 1121 respondents revealed that household size, school communication and perceived socioeconomic status of parents were related to engagement in home learning while household wealth was associated to all types of activity engagement.
Gender-responsive education in emergency in Nigeria: safeguarding girls' presents and futures

AUTHOR(S)
Edem Dorothy Ossai

Published: November 2021

This policy brief highlights ways that a gender-responsive perspective can be fully incorporated into planning, policy design, and implementation models for education in emergencies (EiE) in Nigeria, so that governments and education stakeholders can ensure that girls, like boys, can continue learning in times of crisis. Girls’ education is historically vulnerable to crises, which has led to concerns that the school closures caused by the COVID-19 pandemic might reverse decades of advances in their schooling. The data discussed here were collected through qualitative research involving the Oyo State Ministry of Education, private-sector education partners of the government, broadcast stations, female and male upper secondary students, and members of community-based school governing boards and school management committees, as well as analysis of program content.

Time to teach: teacher attendance and time on task in primary schools in Nigeria

AUTHOR(S)
Spogmai Akseer; Ximena Jativa

Institution: *UNICEF
Published: October 2021

Prior to COVID-19 lockdowns, the Federal Republic of Nigeria had taken measures to improve the quality of education and of teachers’ working conditions such as by improving school infrastructure and accelerating teacher training programs, and providing incentive schemes for teachers. While education is free and compulsory, Nigeria reports the highest number of out-of-school children in the world. Economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, the impact of school closures, and the shift towards remote learning are anticipated to pose further constraints and push even more vulnerable children out of the education system. Teacher absenteeism and the poor use of instructional time are also significant problems for the Nigerian education system, negatively affect students’ academic performance and learning. This Time to Teach study seeks to support both federal and state governments by providing a comprehensive understanding of teacher attendance in the country’s primary schools. It also aims to provide insights into how attendance challenges may be similar or different across the types of schools (public/Quranic/private) and settings (urban/rural) and more importantly, how these can inform teacher policy design and implementation. Though data were collected prior to COVID-19 school closures, this study also aims to provide insights on how the pandemic may further exacerbate existing challenges. 

Maternal level of awareness and predictors of willingness to vaccinate children against COVID 19; a multi-center study

AUTHOR(S)
Awoere T. Chinawa; Josephat M. Chinawa; Edmund N. Ossai (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

Several controversies surround mothers’ willingness to vaccinate against the COVID-19 pandemic especially when mortality is not frequently reported in children. This study aimed to ascertain the willingness of mothers of children attending two institutions in Southeast Nigeria to accept the COVID-19 vaccine and factors that may be associated with their choices.This was a cross-sectional study carried out among 577 mothers who presented with their children in two tertiary health institutions in southeast Nigeria.

COVID-19 and children’s school resilience : evidence from Nigeria

AUTHOR(S)
Sylvain Dessy; Horace Gninafon; Luca Tiberti (et al.)

Institution: The World Bank
Published: July 2021
This paper analyzes the impact of COVID-19 lockdown measures on children's school resilience. Using an individual fixed-effect linear probability model on Nigeria data, it exploits the quasi-randomness of these measures to estimate their effect on school attendance after the lockdown was lifted. The results show that COVID-19 lockdown measures reduced children's probability of attending school after the school system reopened. This negative impact increased with children's age, reaching a peak among those whose education was no longer compulsory. For schoolchildren in that age group, the negative effect of COVID-19 lockdown measures is likely to be permanent, which, if not reversed, will undermine the quality of the economy-wide future labor force. The paper also finds evidence that in the child marriage-prone North-West part of Nigeria that these measures increased gender inequality in education among children aged 12 to 18. This result suggests that COVID-19 lockdown measures may exacerbate harmful traditional practices such as child marriage.
Early marriage and teenage pregnancy: the unspoken consequences of COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria

AUTHOR(S)
Shuaibu Saidu Musa; Goodness Ogeyi Odey; Muhammad Kabir Musa (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Public Health in Practice
Early marriage and its sad consequences to the girl child and socio-economic development of the nation has been an age-long issue being advocated against in many parts of Nigeria. At the onset of COVID-19, the teeming efforts to curb this issue almost got jeopardized with harsh economic situations in many households due to the lockdown and the willingness to marry off their girls to reduce this burden. Closure of schools and cases of sexual gender based violence also impacted the prevalence of early marriage during the pandemic in Nigeria.
A pre-COVID-19 assessment of aspects of the school health programme in some selected Nigerian primary schools: implications for school re-opening during the COVID-19 pandemic in developing country contexts

AUTHOR(S)
Usman A. Sanni; Uduak M. Offiong; Emmanuel A. Anigilaje (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: BMC Public Health
Following the COVID-19 pandemic, school closures were part of the global public health response to limit community spread of the virus. In recent times, there has been an emphasis on safe school re-opening. This concept is likely to differ between developed and developing country settings. There are however no published studies on barriers hindering safe school re-opening within developing country contexts. This study evaluates aspects of the school health program (SHP) in some selected Nigerian schools that might relate to the pandemic control during school re-opening.
Challenges in access and satisfaction with reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health services in Nigeria during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional survey

AUTHOR(S)
Mobolanle Balogun; Aduragbemi Banke-Thomas; Adekemi Sekoni (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Plos One
The presence of COVID-19 has led to the disruption of health systems globally, including essential reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) services. This study aimed to assess the challenges faced by women who used RMNCH services in Nigeria’s epicentre, their satisfaction with care received during the COVID-19 pandemic and the factors associated with their satisfaction.
COVID-19-induced disruptions of school feeding services exacerbate food insecurity in Nigeria

AUTHOR(S)
Kibrom A. Abay; Mulubrhan Amare; Luca Tiberti (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: The Journal of Nutrition
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and associated lockdown measures have disrupted educational and nutrition services globally. Understanding the overall and differential impacts of disruption of nutritional(school feeding) services is critical for designing effective post-COVID-19 recovery policies.Objectives:The aim of this study was to examine the impact of COVID-19-induced disruption of school feeding services on household food security in Nigeria.
A rapid review of the reopening of schools in this COVID-19 pandemic? How ready are we in Nigeria?

AUTHOR(S)
Chinonyelum Thecla Ezeonu; Chigozie Jesse Uneke; Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu

Published: February 2021   Journal: Nigerian Journal of Medicine
Reopening schools raise several ethical issues, including safety, privacy, autonomy, vulnerability. Some countries have gradually reopened their schools with explicit guidelines for safety. The safe reopening of schools demands sensitivity to community inequities. This paper aimed to conduct a rapid review of the strategies adopted in the reopening of schools in some countries amid the Covid-19 and highlight the lessons learned and to consider the feasibility of some of the existing Nigerian guidelines on school reopening. A rapid review technique using PubMed search was conducted using the combination of the following keywords: Covid-19, school, reopening along with a Google search using the phrase 'schools reopened in COVID-19 pandemic.'
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 30 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 8-16 | Language: English | Topics: Education | Tags: child education, COVID-19 response, educational policy, lockdown, school attendance | Countries: Nigeria
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) in an adolescent Nigerian girl with COVID-19: a call for vigilance in Africa

AUTHOR(S)
Chizaram Onyeghala; Datonye Alasia; Orezioghene Eyaru (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: International journal of infectious diseases : IJID
Most reports of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C) have come from Europe and North America. The paucity of reports in Africa is in contrast with the demographics of the series in New York, Paris and UK with children of African ancestry accounting for over 40%, of all cases of MIS-C. With the global trend of higher prevalence of MIS-C in children of African ancestry, enhanced surveillance and awareness for this syndrome in children with COVID-19 in Africa are therefore important. A case report of a 12-year old Nigerian girl with MIS-C is presented in line with the WHO global surveillance especially in areas were MIS-C is considered a rarity. This case report stimulates a call for vigilance and expanded effort at surveillance to promote early recognition and diagnosis of MIS-C in Nigeria and Africa. The favourable outcome and experience from this case will create awareness, expand knowledge, and support clinicians in Nigeria and the African continent in their approach to other potential cases.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 16 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, disease transmission, infectious disease | Countries: Nigeria
COVID-19: knowledge of mode of spread and preventive practices among college adolescents in Nigeria

AUTHOR(S)
Ann E. Aronu; Awoere T. Chinawa; Edmund N. Ossai (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics

Corona virus pandemic (COVID 19) has emerged as the single most important topical issue and poses a challenge to medicine. Adolescent school children are exposed to a varying degree. The study is aimed to determine the knowledge of the mode of spread and preventive practices among college adolescents attending six secondary schools in Enugu metropolis.

Common mental disorders in mothers of children attending out-patient malnutrition clinics in rural North-western Nigeria: a cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Aminu T. Abdullahi; Zubaida L. Farouk; Abdulazeez Imam

Published: January 2021   Journal: BMC Public Health
Children with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition are managed routinely within out-patient malnutrition treatment programs. These programs do not offer maternal mental health support services, despite maternal mental health playing a significant role in the nutritional status of children. Additionally, the burden of maternal Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) is poorly described among mothers of children attending these programs. This study thus determined the burden and risk factors for maternal CMDs among children attending out-patient malnutrition clinics in rural North-western Nigeria
Exploring parental responses to social and safety needs of school-age children during COVID-19 pandemic in Ogun State, Nigeria

AUTHOR(S)
Omolade O. Akinsanya; Olusegun S. Olaniyi; Peter O. Oshinyadi

Published: December 2020   Journal: Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment
The corona virus has emerged as a dreaded disease globally, and it is no longer a news that the virus is a killer disease. It has paralyzed individual and nations’ economic activities due to the governments’ orders made to curtail its spread. Based on this, the researchers explored parental responses to social and safety needs of their school children during the pandemic in Ogun State, Nigeria. Four research questions were raised, and a questionnaire titled “COVID-19 Pandemic and Parental Response to School Children Survey” (online) was used to elicit data from 5,340 respondents. The data collected were analyzed using frequency count, simple percentage, mean, standard deviation, and Analysis of Variance.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.