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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Effect of COVID-19 on the need for and access to family planning among Nigerian women: secondary analysis of an international survey

Olanrewaju Kolawole; Mufulihat T. Ibagbe; Promise C. Ugochukwu (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science

During the lockdown, there was a disruption in the provision of and access to family planning (FP) services in developing countries due to the covid 19 pandemic mostly because of restrictions on transportation, border closures, and closure of some healthcare institutions.This study examined the impact of covid-19 on the need for and access to family planning among Nigerian women and access to family planning among Nigerian women.

Social consequences of COVID-19 on fertility preference consistency and contraceptive use among Nigerian women: insights from population-based data

Joshua O. Akinyemi; Oluwafemi I. Dipeolu; Ayodeji M. Adebayo (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Contraception and Reproductive Medicine

Emerging evidence from high income countries showed that the COVID-19 pandemic has had negative effects on population and reproductive health behaviour. This study provides a sub-Saharan Africa perspective by documenting the social consequences of COVID-19 and its relationship to fertility preference stability and modern contraceptive use in Nigeria. It analysed panel data collected by Performance Monitoring for Action in Nigeria. Baseline and Follow-up surveys were conducted before the COVID-19 outbreak (November 2019-February 2020) and during the lockdown respectively (May-July 2020). Analysis was restricted to married non-pregnant women during follow-up (n = 774). Descriptive statistics and generalized linear models were employed to explore the relationship between selected social consequences of COVID-19 and fertility preferences stability (between baseline and follow-up) as well as modern contraceptives use.

Intervention for treating depression in parents of children with intellectual disability of Down's syndrome: a sample of Nigerian parents

Moses Onyemaechi Ede; Chinedu Ifedi Okeke; Patience E. Obiweluozo

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior
A good number of parents of children with Down syndrome are prone to depressive disorders. The depressive feelings are attributed to negative perceptions of the situation, self, and the future. This study explored the impact of the family health model of rational-emotive behavior therapy on depressive symptoms in parents of children with intellectual disability of Down syndrome in the COVID-19 pandemic era. This is a randomized pretest–posttest control group design that recruited 88 parents of children with intellectual disability of Down syndrome. The depressive symptoms in parents at Time 1, Time 2, and Time 3 using the Beck depressive inventory and Hamilton depression rating scale was measured. A family health model rational emotive behaviour therapy intervention in treating the depressive symptoms affecting the parents was adopted.
COVID-19 and the state of mental health challenges among Women, Girls and Children: the case of Nigeria

Egharevba Matthew Etinosa; Adejumo Olubunmi Gbadebo; Olonade Yunusa Olawale (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal

Health is a resource for daily existence and wellbeing. Mental, social, emotional, spiritual, psychological and physical health constitute an overall essence of that well-being. The COVID-19 epidemic has had a profoundly negative impact on women, children, and society as a whole by causing unfathomable loss, grief, pain, and solitude. The pandemic has pushed many families into poverty and exacerbated conditions of inequality with women and children exposed to violence and other deprivation which deeply impacted on their mental health. The study employed the use of content analysis of secondary sources of data, and the social stress, social model and general strain theories constituting the theoretical framework for examining the subject under investigation.

Exploring children's knowledge of COVID-19 and stress levels associated with the pandemic in Nigeria: a mixed-method study

Osamagbe Aiyudubie Asemota; Sharanya Napier-Raman; Hajime Takeuchi (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: BMJ Paediatrics Open

Children have been relatively spared from the direct effects of COVID-19 globally, but there are significant concerns about indirect effects on the most vulnerable children’s well-being. Nigeria is the largest African nation, but little is known about children’s experience of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our aims were to determine children’s knowledge of COVID-19 and their mental health responses to the pandemic. Children aged 6–17 years living in Calabar, Nigeria, were surveyed using a combination of online data collection assisted by parents and on-site data collection at schools. Parents filled out sociodemographic details, while children answered questions about COVID-19 knowledge and preventive measures. An adapted version of the ‘Perceived Stress Scale for Children’ was used to assess stress with additional free text space for expression of views and experiences of COVID-19.

Inclusive learning for children in Northeast Nigeria: radio school response during a global pandemic

Margaret Ebubedike; Michael Boampong; Kiki James

Published: May 2022   Journal: Social Inclusion
With a burgeoning out‐of‐school population and illiteracy rate, the situation of protracted conflict and crises fuelled by the Boko‐Haram insurgency further exacerbates educational inequality for children in northern Nigeria. The Covid‐19 pandemic further deepened the “educational poverty” experienced there. This article focuses on data generated around ACE radio school, an initiative to mitigate the impact of Covid‐19‐related school closures in northern Nigeria. The initiative targeted young learners using radio as a medium to support their continued learning remotely in numeracy, literacy, sciences, and civics education. Daily learning activities were broadcasted in the local Hausa language, supported through “listening groups” that engaged local learning facilitators in the communities. Despite the known existing barriers that have been identified to hinder access to quality education in the region, including poverty, religion, socio‐cultural factors, and protracted conflict situations, our interviews revealed that parents were committed to supporting their children’s attendance at listening groups, due to the use of their mother tongue as a mode of instruction.
A comparative assessment of secondary school students' satisfaction with ICT studies: Implications for managing secondary school education for global competitiveness in post COVID-19 era

M. E. Asuquo; K. V. Emeribe; E. G. Anam (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Global Journal of Educational Research
Technological advancement has ushered Computer studies which is also regarded as Information and Communication Technology (ICT) instruction into educational curriculum. The aim of ICT studies in secondary school system is to equip every student with the prerequisite skills and competence to function effectively in the contemporary society that is characterized by emerging technologies. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to assess students’ satisfaction with ICT instruction in secondary schools in Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria. Three research hypotheses were formulated to give direction to the study. The study sample was 5245 students drawn from the population of Senior Secondary (SS) 2 and Senior Secondary (SS) 3 classes across public and private schools in 2019/2020 academic session. A survey research design was adopted for the study. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire entitled "Secondary School Students' Satisfaction with Computer Studies Questionnaire (SSSSCSQ)". The data collected were analyzed using population t-test and independent t-test.
Barriers and facilitators of access to maternal, newborn and child health services during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria: findings from a qualitative study

Godwin O. Akaba; Osasuyi Dirisu; Kehinde S. Okunade (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: BMC Health Services Research

COVID-19 pandemic may have affected the utilization of maternal and newborn child health services in Nigeria but the extent, directions, contextual factors at all the levels of healthcare service delivery in Nigeria is yet to be fully explored. The objective of the study was to explore the barriers and facilitators of access to MNCH services during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. A qualitative study was conducted among different stakeholder groups in 18 public health facilities in Nigeria between May and July,2020. In-depth interviews were conducted among 54 study participants (service users, service providers and policymakers) selected from across the three tiers of public health service delivery system in Nigeria (primary health centers, secondary health centers and tertiary health centers). Coding of the qualitative data and identification of themes from the transcripts were carried out and thematic approach was used for data analyses.

Looking back on Nigeria’s COVID-19 school closures: effects of parental investments on learning outcomes and avoidance of hysteresis in education

Moses Ogenyi

Institution: Research on Improving Systems of Education
Published: March 2022

This insight note explores how COVID-19 and related school closures impacted Nigerian schools, parents, and students. National data collected by the National Bureau of Statistics in 2020 through a monthly phone survey show that children had extremely limited contact with the education system during this time, and that families preferred low-cost alternatives such as in-home tutoring and increased parental involvement in education to e-learning tools. Additional data collected by the RISE Nigeria Team in a survey of 73 low-cost private schools in Abuja suggest that some schools did maintain contact with students during mandated school closures, that students experienced absolute learning losses equivalent to about 5-6 months of school missed in other contexts (Cooper et al, 1996), despite participation in alternative learning activities, and that the pandemic led to severe financial hardships for schools and teachers.

Socio-demographic determinants of children home learning experiences during COVID 19 school closure

Esther Ariyo; Micheal Amurtiya; Olaleye Yemisi Lydia (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: International Journal of Educational Research Open
There were concerns about the inclusivity of learning for children living in countries with limited technology facilities during the COVID 19 school closure. This study investigates the socio-demographic determinant of engagement in home learning and the type of activity engagement for school children across Nigeria during the COVID 19 school closure. Regression and descriptive analysis of 1121 respondents revealed that household size, school communication and perceived socioeconomic status of parents were related to engagement in home learning while household wealth was associated to all types of activity engagement.
Gender-responsive education in emergency in Nigeria: safeguarding girls' presents and futures

Edem Dorothy Ossai

Published: November 2021

This policy brief highlights ways that a gender-responsive perspective can be fully incorporated into planning, policy design, and implementation models for education in emergencies (EiE) in Nigeria, so that governments and education stakeholders can ensure that girls, like boys, can continue learning in times of crisis. Girls’ education is historically vulnerable to crises, which has led to concerns that the school closures caused by the COVID-19 pandemic might reverse decades of advances in their schooling. The data discussed here were collected through qualitative research involving the Oyo State Ministry of Education, private-sector education partners of the government, broadcast stations, female and male upper secondary students, and members of community-based school governing boards and school management committees, as well as analysis of program content.

Time to teach: teacher attendance and time on task in primary schools in Nigeria

Spogmai Akseer; Ximena Jativa

Institution: *UNICEF
Published: October 2021

Prior to COVID-19 lockdowns, the Federal Republic of Nigeria had taken measures to improve the quality of education and of teachers’ working conditions such as by improving school infrastructure and accelerating teacher training programs, and providing incentive schemes for teachers. While education is free and compulsory, Nigeria reports the highest number of out-of-school children in the world. Economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, the impact of school closures, and the shift towards remote learning are anticipated to pose further constraints and push even more vulnerable children out of the education system. Teacher absenteeism and the poor use of instructional time are also significant problems for the Nigerian education system, negatively affect students’ academic performance and learning. This Time to Teach study seeks to support both federal and state governments by providing a comprehensive understanding of teacher attendance in the country’s primary schools. It also aims to provide insights into how attendance challenges may be similar or different across the types of schools (public/Quranic/private) and settings (urban/rural) and more importantly, how these can inform teacher policy design and implementation. Though data were collected prior to COVID-19 school closures, this study also aims to provide insights on how the pandemic may further exacerbate existing challenges. 

Maternal level of awareness and predictors of willingness to vaccinate children against COVID 19; a multi-center study

Awoere T. Chinawa; Josephat M. Chinawa; Edmund N. Ossai (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

Several controversies surround mothers’ willingness to vaccinate against the COVID-19 pandemic especially when mortality is not frequently reported in children. This study aimed to ascertain the willingness of mothers of children attending two institutions in Southeast Nigeria to accept the COVID-19 vaccine and factors that may be associated with their choices.This was a cross-sectional study carried out among 577 mothers who presented with their children in two tertiary health institutions in southeast Nigeria.

COVID-19 and children’s school resilience : evidence from Nigeria

Sylvain Dessy; Horace Gninafon; Luca Tiberti (et al.)

Institution: The World Bank
Published: July 2021
This paper analyzes the impact of COVID-19 lockdown measures on children's school resilience. Using an individual fixed-effect linear probability model on Nigeria data, it exploits the quasi-randomness of these measures to estimate their effect on school attendance after the lockdown was lifted. The results show that COVID-19 lockdown measures reduced children's probability of attending school after the school system reopened. This negative impact increased with children's age, reaching a peak among those whose education was no longer compulsory. For schoolchildren in that age group, the negative effect of COVID-19 lockdown measures is likely to be permanent, which, if not reversed, will undermine the quality of the economy-wide future labor force. The paper also finds evidence that in the child marriage-prone North-West part of Nigeria that these measures increased gender inequality in education among children aged 12 to 18. This result suggests that COVID-19 lockdown measures may exacerbate harmful traditional practices such as child marriage.
Early marriage and teenage pregnancy: the unspoken consequences of COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria

Shuaibu Saidu Musa; Goodness Ogeyi Odey; Muhammad Kabir Musa (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Public Health in Practice
Early marriage and its sad consequences to the girl child and socio-economic development of the nation has been an age-long issue being advocated against in many parts of Nigeria. At the onset of COVID-19, the teeming efforts to curb this issue almost got jeopardized with harsh economic situations in many households due to the lockdown and the willingness to marry off their girls to reduce this burden. Closure of schools and cases of sexual gender based violence also impacted the prevalence of early marriage during the pandemic in Nigeria.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.