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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Adolescents' alcohol use and related expectancies before and during the early COVID-19 pandemic: evidence from the nationwide MyLife study

Andreas J. Burdzovic; G. S. Brunborg

Published: October 2022   Journal: European Addiction Research
This research examined a range of alcohol use indicators among Norwegian adolescents before and during the early COVID-19 pandemic. It examined two cohorts of Norwegian 16-year-olds from the nationwide MyLife study who entered high school in fall 2020 (i.e., COVID-19 pandemic cohort; n = 915) and fall 2019/18 (i.e., prepandemic cohort; n = 1,621). Through e-surveys, adolescents reported their past year drinking frequencies and quantities (generating the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Concise; AUDIT-C scores) and completed Social Facilitation (SF) and Tension Reduction (TR) subscales of the Alcohol Outcome Expectancies Scale. Cohort differences across these outcomes were examined with linear and modified Poisson regression models.
COVID-19 hospitalization among children <18 years by variant wave in Norway

Robert Whittaker; Margrethe Greve-Isdahl; Håkon Bøås (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Pediatrics
here is limited evidence on whether the relative severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children and adolescents differs for different severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants. This study compares the risk of hospitalization to acute COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) among unvaccinated persons <18 years with COVID-19 (cases) between waves of the Alpha, Delta, and Omicron (sublineage BA.1) variants in Norway.
Experience with open schools and preschools in periods of high community transmission of COVID-19 in Norway during the academic year of 2020/2021

Sara Stebbings; Torill Alise Rotevatn; Vilde Bergstad Larsen (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health volume

Schools and preschools have largely remained open in Norway throughout the pandemic, with flexible mitigation measures in place. This contrasts with many other high-income countries that closed schools for long periods of time. Here we describe cases and outbreaks of COVID-19 in schools and preschools during the academic year 2020/2021, to evaluate the strategy of keeping these open with infection prevention control measures in place. In this descriptive study, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health initiated systematic surveillance for COVID-19 cases and outbreaks in schools and preschools in October 2020. Data was compiled from the national outbreak alert system VESUV, municipality websites, and media scanning combined with the national emergency preparedness register Beredt C-19. An outbreak was defined as ≥ 2 cases among pupils or staff within 14 days at the same educational setting. Settings were categorized as preschool (1–5-years), primary school (6–12-years), lower secondary school (13–15-years) and upper secondary school (16–18- years).

Mothers' domestic responsibilities and well-being during the COVID-19 lockdown: the moderating role of gender essentialist beliefs about parenthood

Kjærsti Thorsteinsen; Elizabeth J. Parks-Stamm; Marie Kvalø (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Sex Roles
The present work investigates how the increased domestic responsibilities created by the Spring 2020 lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic in Norway and gender ideologies relate to the well-being of mothers with elementary school children. In June 2020, a cross-sectional online study including current and retrospective measures with 180 mothers (Mage = 39.96 years, SD = 6.11) of elementary school children across Norway was conducted. First, in line with earlier research on the strain of the pandemic on parents, and especially mothers, this study found that Norwegian mothers’ well-being during the lockdown significantly declined compared to before the lockdown (both measured retrospectively). Furthermore, mothers’ well-being after the Spring 2020 lockdown did not immediately return to pre-lockdown levels. Finally, it predicted that gender ideologies (i.e., essentialist beliefs about parenthood) would exacerbate the negative impact of increased domestic responsibilities (i.e., childcare and housework) on mothers’ well-being (i.e., higher standard-higher stress hypothesis).
Health-related quality of life, health literacy and COVID-19-related worries of 16- to 17-year-old adolescents and parents one year into the pandemic: a cross-sectional study

Hilde Timenes Mikkelsen; Siv Skarstein; Sølvi Helseth (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health

The uncertain and challenging situation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic affects adolescents and their parents in an exceptional way. More knowledge of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), health literacy (HL) and COVID-19-related worries in adolescents and parents 1 year into the pandemic is needed. The present study aimed to describe HRQoL, HL and COVID-19-related worries of 16- to 17-year-old adolescents and parents of adolescents. Further, to assess the strength of associations between gender, HL, COVID-19-related worries and HRQoL. A cross-sectional study involving 215 adolescents and 320 parents was conducted, exploring HRQoL, HL, COVID-19-related worries and sociodemographic variables. KIDSCREEN-10 and RAND-36 were used to measure HRQoL. Data were analyzed using bivariate methods, multiple linear regression and robust regression.

Changes in adolescent mental and somatic health complaints throughout the COVID-19 pandemic: a three-wave prospective longitudinal study

Gertrud Sofie Hafstad; Sjur Skjørshammer Sætren; Tore Wentzel-Larsen (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health
Measures taken to limit the spread of the COVID-19 may have had unintended consequences for the mental and somatic health of children and adolescents. A nationwide three-wave survey in a representative sample of 12–16 year olds in Norway, with baseline data collected in January 2019 (n = 9,240; 49% girls) and follow-ups in June 2020 (n = 3,564; 49% girls) and June 2021 (n = 3,540; 47% girls). Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate change and identify predictors thereof in mental and somatic health complaints.
Association of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy with incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in infants.

Ellen Øen Carlsen; Maria C. Magnus; Laura Oakley (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: JAMA Internal Medicine

Pregnant women are recommended to receive COVID-19 vaccination to reduce risk of severe COVID-19. Whether vaccination during pregnancy also provides passive protection to infants after birth remains unclear. This study aimed to determine whether COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy was associated with reduced risk of COVID-19 in infants up to age 4 months during COVID-19 pandemic periods dominated by Delta and Omicron variants. This nationwide, register-based cohort study included all live-born infants born in Norway between September 1, 2021, and February 28, 2022.

Kindergarten practitioners' perspectives on intergenerational programs in Norwegian kindergartens during the COVID-19 pandemic: exploring transitions and transformations in institutional practices

Czarecah Tuppil Oropilla; Elin Eriksen Ødegaard; Gloria Quinones (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: European Early Childhood Education Research Journal
Intergenerational programs have benefits for both children and older adults; however, the ongoing pandemic has changed social situations across the globe. The focus of this article is on exploring transitions and transformations due to societal conditions and demands that drive the implementation of intergenerational programs during a time of a global crisis that is the COVID-19 pandemic. Through an online survey form and focus group discussion, a total of 64 kindergarten practitioners shared their perspectives on intergenerational programs between young children and older adults in kindergartens in Norway. Kindergarten practitioners identified challenges that hinder intergenerational programs in kindergarten settings during the pandemic, as well as conditions that facilitate its implementation. Implications from this research indicate the need to think differently to be able to provide children with intergenerational experiences in kindergarten settings in Norway even during the pandemic and beyond.
Worries about COVID-19 and adolescents' mental health and life satisfaction: the role of sociodemographics and social support

Rubén Rodríguez-Cano; Laura Cortés-García; Vidar S. Ulset (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Worries related to the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with mental health problems and reduced life satisfaction. However, the association between different types of worries about COVID-19 and adolescent mental health is unclear. Moreover, there is a lack of information about whether certain groups of adolescents are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of worries and how social support may moderate these effects. Adolescents (N = 12,686) completed a survey during the lockdown in spring 2020 in Oslo, Norway (37% response rate, 56.4% girls).
Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalisation in children and adolescents in Norway: a nationwide population-based study

Ketil Størdal; Paz Lopez-Doriga Ruiz; Margrethe Greve-Isdahl (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: BMJ Open

This study aims to determine risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalisation among children and adolescents. It is a nationwide, population-based cohort study which was conducted in Norway from 1 March 2020 to 30 November 2021 and included all Norwegian residents<18 years of age.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 12 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 8 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, child health, COVID-19, disease transmission, hospitalization, infectious disease, pandemic, risk | Countries: Norway
Giving birth and becoming a parent during the COVID-19 pandemic: A qualitative analysis of 806 women's responses to three open-ended questions in an online survey

Tine S. Eri; Ellen Blix; Soo Downe (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Midwifery

When Europe was hit by the COVID-19 pandemic, changes were made in maternity care to reduce infections. In Norway, hospital maternity wards, postnatal wards, and neonatal units’ companions and visitors were restricted. We aimed to explore the experiences of being pregnant, giving birth and becoming a parent in Norway during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study is based on the responses from women who provided in-depth qualitative accounts to the ongoing Babies Born Better survey version 3 during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. The responses were analysed with inductive thematic analysis.

Posttraumatic growth during the COVID-19 lockdown: a large-scale population-based study among Norwegian adolescents

Vidar Sandsaunet Ulset; Tilmann von Soest (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Journal of Traumatic Stress
The negative consequences of the COVID-19 lockdown during the spring of 2020 have been documented. However, adolescents may also have experienced positive personal and interrelational changes. This was the first study to examine the prevalence of posttraumatic growth (PTG) during the lockdown. It additionally explored how potential risk and protective factors, as well as experiences with the pandemic, were related to PTG and whether these associations were moderated by mental health resources and social support. It used data from a representative survey of 12,686 junior and senior high school students from Oslo, Norway, conducted during the lockdown (37% response rate, 56.4% girls).
Increased gaming during COVID-19 predicts physical inactivity among youth in Norway: a two-wave longitudinal cohort study

Ellen Haug; Silje Mæland; Stine Lehmann (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

This paper aimed to examine the stability and change in internet and offline gaming and the association with physical inactivity among adolescents in Norway during the pandemic. A total of 2940 youth (58% girls) aged 12–19 years participated in an online longitudinal two-wave survey during the first Norwegian national lockdown in April 2020 (t1) and in December 2020 (t2). Gaming behavior and physical activity status were assessed at both time points. Age, gender, and socioeconomic status were included as covariates.

Reopening schools in a context of low COVID-19 contagion: consequences for teachers, students and their parents

Anna Godøy; Maja Weemes Grøtting; Rannveig Kaldager Hart

Published: February 2022   Journal: Journal of Population Economics
Knowing how school reopenings affect the spread of COVID-19 is crucial when balancing children’s right to schooling with contagion management. This paper considers the effects on COVID-19 testing prevalence and the positive test rate of reopening Norwegian schools after a 6-week closure aimed at reducing contagion. It estimates the effects of school reopening on teachers, parents and students using an event study/difference-in-differences design that incorporates comparison groups with minimal exposure to in-person schooling.
Healthcare use in 700 000 children and adolescents for six months after covid-19: before and after register based cohort study

Karin Magnusson; Katrine Damgaard Skyrud; Pål Suren (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: BMJ

 This study aimed to explore whether and for how long use of healthcare services is increased among children and adolescents after covid-19. Norwegians aged 1-19 years (n=706 885) who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 from 1 August 2020 to 1 February 2021 (n=10 279 positive, n=275 859 negative) or not tested (n=420 747) and were not admitted to hospital, by age groups 1-5, 6-15, and 16-19 years.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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