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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Violence and sexual abuse rates before and during the Covid-19 pandemic: a prospective population-based study on Norwegian youth

Else-Marie Augusti; Mia Cathrine Myhre; Tore Wentzel-Larsen (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Considerable concern is raised as to whether the pandemic has led to an increase in violence and sexual abuse against children. The present study objective is to provide rates of violence and sexual abuse against adolescents the year before the pandemic compared to one year into the pandemic. Two samples of Norwegian 12–16-year-olds were approached. A representative pre-pandemic sample of 9240 adolescents (M age (SD) = 14.11(0.88), and a sample recruited one year into the pandemic resulting in 3540 responses (M age (SD) = 14.5 (0.96)). An online survey was administered during school hours including established measures of violence and sexual abuse exposure. Sociodemographic characteristics were assessed.

Menstrual disturbances in 12- to 15-year-old girls after one dose of COVID-19 Comirnaty vaccine: population-based cohort study in Norway

Ida Henriette Caspersen; Lene K. Juvet; Berit Feiring (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Vaccine

A worldwide COVID-19 mass vaccination campaign targeting adults was launched in late December 2020. Subsequently, the Comirnaty (BNT162b2) vaccine was recommended for children aged 12–15 years in May 2021. In Norway, only one dose of the Comirnaty vaccine was recommended to children aged 12–15 years. Vaccination was not recommended for children who had been infected with SARS-CoV-2. In line with findings in older age groups, the most prevalent adverse events after vaccination that have been reported in 12- to 15-year-old adolescents are injection site pain (in 79 to 86 % of participants), fatigue (in 60 to 66 %), and headache (in 55 to 65 %). Adolescents aged 12–17 years have been found to have a moderately higher risk of adverse reactions than adults. For new vaccines, clinical trials typically collect data on commonly recognized adverse events and safety profiles. However, questions about the menstrual cycle have not been included in clinical studies. A significant number of reports on menstrual disturbances after COVID-19 vaccination have been registered in spontaneous adverse events surveillance systems in several countries (USA, UK, Norway, the Netherlands).

Parental stress during the COVID-19 pandemic: a one-year follow-up

Ragnhild Bjørknes; Jens Christoffer Skogen; Ane Nærde (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Plos One

This two-wave longitudinal study aimed at increasing knowledge about levels of parental stressors and rewards among mothers and fathers of children aged 1–18 during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in Norway. The COVID-19 pandemic and infection-control measures have caused changes to family life. Managing homeschooling or caring for younger children while working from home may have posed significant strain on parental stress, negatively impacting the quality of parent-child relationships and parents’ sensitivity to their children’s needs. This study employed data collected in April 2020 and April 2021 from the longitudinal population-based survey in Bergen/Norway (Bergen in ChangE-study). 7424 parents participated (58.6% mothers and 41.5% fathers).

How did children with disabilities experience education and social welfare during Covid-19?

Kjetil Klette‐Bøhler; Dagmara Bossy; Vyda Mamley Hervie

Published: November 2022   Journal: Social Inclusion
Research suggests that children with disabilities have been systemically marginalised during the Covid-19 pandemic as contamination measures complicated some social policies. School closure, quarantine, and the increased use of social media in remote schooling have placed children with disabilities in a vulnerable situation. This article explores the subjective consequences of such processes through the analysis of qualitative interviews with parents who had children with disabilities. To contextualise our analysis, we also draw on expert interviews with bureaucrats and social workers and data from a survey that was sent out to parents who had children with disabilities. Taken together, these data sources provide a rich empirical context to study how the pandemic influenced the access of children with disabilities to education and social services in Norway.
Adolescents' alcohol use and related expectancies before and during the early COVID-19 pandemic: evidence from the nationwide MyLife study

Andreas J. Burdzovic; G. S. Brunborg

Published: October 2022   Journal: European Addiction Research
This research examined a range of alcohol use indicators among Norwegian adolescents before and during the early COVID-19 pandemic. It examined two cohorts of Norwegian 16-year-olds from the nationwide MyLife study who entered high school in fall 2020 (i.e., COVID-19 pandemic cohort; n = 915) and fall 2019/18 (i.e., prepandemic cohort; n = 1,621). Through e-surveys, adolescents reported their past year drinking frequencies and quantities (generating the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Concise; AUDIT-C scores) and completed Social Facilitation (SF) and Tension Reduction (TR) subscales of the Alcohol Outcome Expectancies Scale. Cohort differences across these outcomes were examined with linear and modified Poisson regression models.
COVID-19 hospitalization among children <18 years by variant wave in Norway

Robert Whittaker; Margrethe Greve-Isdahl; Håkon Bøås (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Pediatrics
here is limited evidence on whether the relative severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children and adolescents differs for different severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants. This study compares the risk of hospitalization to acute COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) among unvaccinated persons <18 years with COVID-19 (cases) between waves of the Alpha, Delta, and Omicron (sublineage BA.1) variants in Norway.
Experience with open schools and preschools in periods of high community transmission of COVID-19 in Norway during the academic year of 2020/2021

Sara Stebbings; Torill Alise Rotevatn; Vilde Bergstad Larsen (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health volume

Schools and preschools have largely remained open in Norway throughout the pandemic, with flexible mitigation measures in place. This contrasts with many other high-income countries that closed schools for long periods of time. Here we describe cases and outbreaks of COVID-19 in schools and preschools during the academic year 2020/2021, to evaluate the strategy of keeping these open with infection prevention control measures in place. In this descriptive study, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health initiated systematic surveillance for COVID-19 cases and outbreaks in schools and preschools in October 2020. Data was compiled from the national outbreak alert system VESUV, municipality websites, and media scanning combined with the national emergency preparedness register Beredt C-19. An outbreak was defined as ≥ 2 cases among pupils or staff within 14 days at the same educational setting. Settings were categorized as preschool (1–5-years), primary school (6–12-years), lower secondary school (13–15-years) and upper secondary school (16–18- years).

Mothers' domestic responsibilities and well-being during the COVID-19 lockdown: the moderating role of gender essentialist beliefs about parenthood

Kjærsti Thorsteinsen; Elizabeth J. Parks-Stamm; Marie Kvalø (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Sex Roles
The present work investigates how the increased domestic responsibilities created by the Spring 2020 lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic in Norway and gender ideologies relate to the well-being of mothers with elementary school children. In June 2020, a cross-sectional online study including current and retrospective measures with 180 mothers (Mage = 39.96 years, SD = 6.11) of elementary school children across Norway was conducted. First, in line with earlier research on the strain of the pandemic on parents, and especially mothers, this study found that Norwegian mothers’ well-being during the lockdown significantly declined compared to before the lockdown (both measured retrospectively). Furthermore, mothers’ well-being after the Spring 2020 lockdown did not immediately return to pre-lockdown levels. Finally, it predicted that gender ideologies (i.e., essentialist beliefs about parenthood) would exacerbate the negative impact of increased domestic responsibilities (i.e., childcare and housework) on mothers’ well-being (i.e., higher standard-higher stress hypothesis).
Health-related quality of life, health literacy and COVID-19-related worries of 16- to 17-year-old adolescents and parents one year into the pandemic: a cross-sectional study

Hilde Timenes Mikkelsen; Siv Skarstein; Sølvi Helseth (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health

The uncertain and challenging situation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic affects adolescents and their parents in an exceptional way. More knowledge of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), health literacy (HL) and COVID-19-related worries in adolescents and parents 1 year into the pandemic is needed. The present study aimed to describe HRQoL, HL and COVID-19-related worries of 16- to 17-year-old adolescents and parents of adolescents. Further, to assess the strength of associations between gender, HL, COVID-19-related worries and HRQoL. A cross-sectional study involving 215 adolescents and 320 parents was conducted, exploring HRQoL, HL, COVID-19-related worries and sociodemographic variables. KIDSCREEN-10 and RAND-36 were used to measure HRQoL. Data were analyzed using bivariate methods, multiple linear regression and robust regression.

Changes in adolescent mental and somatic health complaints throughout the COVID-19 pandemic: a three-wave prospective longitudinal study

Gertrud Sofie Hafstad; Sjur Skjørshammer Sætren; Tore Wentzel-Larsen (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health
Measures taken to limit the spread of the COVID-19 may have had unintended consequences for the mental and somatic health of children and adolescents. A nationwide three-wave survey in a representative sample of 12–16 year olds in Norway, with baseline data collected in January 2019 (n = 9,240; 49% girls) and follow-ups in June 2020 (n = 3,564; 49% girls) and June 2021 (n = 3,540; 47% girls). Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate change and identify predictors thereof in mental and somatic health complaints.
Association of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy with incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in infants.

Ellen Øen Carlsen; Maria C. Magnus; Laura Oakley (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: JAMA Internal Medicine

Pregnant women are recommended to receive COVID-19 vaccination to reduce risk of severe COVID-19. Whether vaccination during pregnancy also provides passive protection to infants after birth remains unclear. This study aimed to determine whether COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy was associated with reduced risk of COVID-19 in infants up to age 4 months during COVID-19 pandemic periods dominated by Delta and Omicron variants. This nationwide, register-based cohort study included all live-born infants born in Norway between September 1, 2021, and February 28, 2022.

Kindergarten practitioners' perspectives on intergenerational programs in Norwegian kindergartens during the COVID-19 pandemic: exploring transitions and transformations in institutional practices

Czarecah Tuppil Oropilla; Elin Eriksen Ødegaard; Gloria Quinones (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: European Early Childhood Education Research Journal
Intergenerational programs have benefits for both children and older adults; however, the ongoing pandemic has changed social situations across the globe. The focus of this article is on exploring transitions and transformations due to societal conditions and demands that drive the implementation of intergenerational programs during a time of a global crisis that is the COVID-19 pandemic. Through an online survey form and focus group discussion, a total of 64 kindergarten practitioners shared their perspectives on intergenerational programs between young children and older adults in kindergartens in Norway. Kindergarten practitioners identified challenges that hinder intergenerational programs in kindergarten settings during the pandemic, as well as conditions that facilitate its implementation. Implications from this research indicate the need to think differently to be able to provide children with intergenerational experiences in kindergarten settings in Norway even during the pandemic and beyond.
Worries about COVID-19 and adolescents' mental health and life satisfaction: the role of sociodemographics and social support

Rubén Rodríguez-Cano; Laura Cortés-García; Vidar S. Ulset (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Worries related to the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with mental health problems and reduced life satisfaction. However, the association between different types of worries about COVID-19 and adolescent mental health is unclear. Moreover, there is a lack of information about whether certain groups of adolescents are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of worries and how social support may moderate these effects. Adolescents (N = 12,686) completed a survey during the lockdown in spring 2020 in Oslo, Norway (37% response rate, 56.4% girls).
Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalisation in children and adolescents in Norway: a nationwide population-based study

Ketil Størdal; Paz Lopez-Doriga Ruiz; Margrethe Greve-Isdahl (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: BMJ Open

This study aims to determine risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalisation among children and adolescents. It is a nationwide, population-based cohort study which was conducted in Norway from 1 March 2020 to 30 November 2021 and included all Norwegian residents<18 years of age.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 12 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 8 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, child health, COVID-19, disease transmission, hospitalization, infectious disease, pandemic, risk | Countries: Norway
Giving birth and becoming a parent during the COVID-19 pandemic: A qualitative analysis of 806 women's responses to three open-ended questions in an online survey

Tine S. Eri; Ellen Blix; Soo Downe (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Midwifery

When Europe was hit by the COVID-19 pandemic, changes were made in maternity care to reduce infections. In Norway, hospital maternity wards, postnatal wards, and neonatal units’ companions and visitors were restricted. We aimed to explore the experiences of being pregnant, giving birth and becoming a parent in Norway during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study is based on the responses from women who provided in-depth qualitative accounts to the ongoing Babies Born Better survey version 3 during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. The responses were analysed with inductive thematic analysis.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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