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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Association of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy with incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in infants.

Ellen Øen Carlsen; Maria C. Magnus; Laura Oakley (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: JAMA Internal Medicine

Pregnant women are recommended to receive COVID-19 vaccination to reduce risk of severe COVID-19. Whether vaccination during pregnancy also provides passive protection to infants after birth remains unclear. This study aimed to determine whether COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy was associated with reduced risk of COVID-19 in infants up to age 4 months during COVID-19 pandemic periods dominated by Delta and Omicron variants. This nationwide, register-based cohort study included all live-born infants born in Norway between September 1, 2021, and February 28, 2022.

Kindergarten practitioners' perspectives on intergenerational programs in Norwegian kindergartens during the COVID-19 pandemic: exploring transitions and transformations in institutional practices

Czarecah Tuppil Oropilla; Elin Eriksen Ødegaard; Gloria Quinones (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: European Early Childhood Education Research Journal
Intergenerational programs have benefits for both children and older adults; however, the ongoing pandemic has changed social situations across the globe. The focus of this article is on exploring transitions and transformations due to societal conditions and demands that drive the implementation of intergenerational programs during a time of a global crisis that is the COVID-19 pandemic. Through an online survey form and focus group discussion, a total of 64 kindergarten practitioners shared their perspectives on intergenerational programs between young children and older adults in kindergartens in Norway. Kindergarten practitioners identified challenges that hinder intergenerational programs in kindergarten settings during the pandemic, as well as conditions that facilitate its implementation. Implications from this research indicate the need to think differently to be able to provide children with intergenerational experiences in kindergarten settings in Norway even during the pandemic and beyond.
Worries about COVID-19 and adolescents' mental health and life satisfaction: the role of sociodemographics and social support

Rubén Rodríguez-Cano; Laura Cortés-García; Vidar S. Ulset (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Worries related to the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with mental health problems and reduced life satisfaction. However, the association between different types of worries about COVID-19 and adolescent mental health is unclear. Moreover, there is a lack of information about whether certain groups of adolescents are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of worries and how social support may moderate these effects. Adolescents (N = 12,686) completed a survey during the lockdown in spring 2020 in Oslo, Norway (37% response rate, 56.4% girls).
Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalisation in children and adolescents in Norway: a nationwide population-based study

Ketil Størdal; Paz Lopez-Doriga Ruiz; Margrethe Greve-Isdahl (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: BMJ Open

This study aims to determine risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalisation among children and adolescents. It is a nationwide, population-based cohort study which was conducted in Norway from 1 March 2020 to 30 November 2021 and included all Norwegian residents<18 years of age.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 12 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 8 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, child health, COVID-19, disease transmission, hospitalization, infectious disease, pandemic, risk | Countries: Norway
Giving birth and becoming a parent during the COVID-19 pandemic: A qualitative analysis of 806 women's responses to three open-ended questions in an online survey

Tine S. Eri; Ellen Blix; Soo Downe (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Midwifery

When Europe was hit by the COVID-19 pandemic, changes were made in maternity care to reduce infections. In Norway, hospital maternity wards, postnatal wards, and neonatal units’ companions and visitors were restricted. We aimed to explore the experiences of being pregnant, giving birth and becoming a parent in Norway during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study is based on the responses from women who provided in-depth qualitative accounts to the ongoing Babies Born Better survey version 3 during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. The responses were analysed with inductive thematic analysis.

Posttraumatic growth during the COVID-19 lockdown: a large-scale population-based study among Norwegian adolescents

Vidar Sandsaunet Ulset; Tilmann von Soest (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Journal of Traumatic Stress
The negative consequences of the COVID-19 lockdown during the spring of 2020 have been documented. However, adolescents may also have experienced positive personal and interrelational changes. This was the first study to examine the prevalence of posttraumatic growth (PTG) during the lockdown. It additionally explored how potential risk and protective factors, as well as experiences with the pandemic, were related to PTG and whether these associations were moderated by mental health resources and social support. It used data from a representative survey of 12,686 junior and senior high school students from Oslo, Norway, conducted during the lockdown (37% response rate, 56.4% girls).
Increased gaming during COVID-19 predicts physical inactivity among youth in Norway: a two-wave longitudinal cohort study

Ellen Haug; Silje Mæland; Stine Lehmann (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

This paper aimed to examine the stability and change in internet and offline gaming and the association with physical inactivity among adolescents in Norway during the pandemic. A total of 2940 youth (58% girls) aged 12–19 years participated in an online longitudinal two-wave survey during the first Norwegian national lockdown in April 2020 (t1) and in December 2020 (t2). Gaming behavior and physical activity status were assessed at both time points. Age, gender, and socioeconomic status were included as covariates.

Reopening schools in a context of low COVID-19 contagion: consequences for teachers, students and their parents

Anna Godøy; Maja Weemes Grøtting; Rannveig Kaldager Hart

Published: February 2022   Journal: Journal of Population Economics
Knowing how school reopenings affect the spread of COVID-19 is crucial when balancing children’s right to schooling with contagion management. This paper considers the effects on COVID-19 testing prevalence and the positive test rate of reopening Norwegian schools after a 6-week closure aimed at reducing contagion. It estimates the effects of school reopening on teachers, parents and students using an event study/difference-in-differences design that incorporates comparison groups with minimal exposure to in-person schooling.
Healthcare use in 700 000 children and adolescents for six months after covid-19: before and after register based cohort study

Karin Magnusson; Katrine Damgaard Skyrud; Pål Suren (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: BMJ

 This study aimed to explore whether and for how long use of healthcare services is increased among children and adolescents after covid-19. Norwegians aged 1-19 years (n=706 885) who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 from 1 August 2020 to 1 February 2021 (n=10 279 positive, n=275 859 negative) or not tested (n=420 747) and were not admitted to hospital, by age groups 1-5, 6-15, and 16-19 years.

Emerging mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic among presumably resilient youth -a 9-month follow-up

Stine Lehmann; Jens Christoffer Skogen; Gro M. Sandal (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: BMC Psychiatry

The COVID-19 pandemic may have multifarious adverse effects on the mental health of some youth. To our knowledge, no study has followed young people beyond the first 6 months of the pandemic outbreak. The aim of this study was to examine 1) Change in internalizing, externalizing, and total mental health problems over two time-points with a nine-month interval during the COVID-19 outbreak and 2) Whether contextual and COVID-19-related factors contribute to change in mental health problems. Youth within the municipality of Bergen aged 11-19 years were invited via SMS to participate in an online survey in April and again in December 2020. A total of 2997 (40% response rate) youth participated at baseline in the present study, and 1598 (53.3%) completed the second survey. At baseline, the mean age was 16.0 (standard deviations 1.7) years, about 60% were girls, and 93% were born in Norway. Comparison across time was approached using inferential statistics and mixed linear models with maximum likelihood estimation and mixed-effects logistic regression models.

Parenting in a pandemic: parental stress, anxiety and depression among parents during the government-initiated physical distancing measures following the first wave of COVID-19

Miriam S. Johnson; Nora Skjerdingstad; Omid V. Ebrahimi (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Stress & Health
Drawing on the tenets of family stress theory, the aim of this study is to examine parents' perceived stress, symptoms of anxiety, depression, and associated risk- and protective factors across demographic subgroups during in the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Norwegian parents (N = 2868; 79.5% mothers) with >1 child under 18 years of age completed an online survey two weeks after the implementation of government-initiated distancing measures. The survey includes measures of COVID-related risk factors (parental stress, burnout, depression, anxiety, anger of parents towards children, difficulty working from home, and positive beliefs about worry) and protective factors (self-efficacy and social support).
Parental burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic

Nora Skjerdingstad; Miriam S. Johnson; Sverre U. Johnson (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Family Process
Increased and long-term parental stress related to one's parental role can lead to parental burnout. In the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, families experienced intensified pressure due to the government-initiated contact restrictions applied to prevent the spread of the virus in the population. This study investigates the risk factors and predictors of parental burnout in a large sample of parents (N = 1488) during the COVID-19 pandemic in Norway. Demographic and psychosocial factors were assessed at two timepoints: at the beginning of the pandemic outbreak in March 2020 (T1) and at 3 months follow-up (T2). A hierarchical regression analysis was applied to identify the factors that contribute to parental burnout at T2. Parental burnout was additionally explored across subgroups
Preterm birth after the introduction of COVID-19 mitigation measures in Norway, Sweden and Denmark: a registry-based difference-in-differences study

Laura L. Oakley; Anne K. Örtqvist; Jonas Kinge (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Although some studies have reported a decrease in preterm birth following the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, findings are inconsistent. This study aimed to compare the incidence of preterm birth before and after the introduction of COVID-19 mitigation measures in Scandinavian countries, using robust population-based registry data.

Sleep during COVID-19-related school lockdown, a longitudinal study among high school students

Ingvild West Saxvig; Ståle Pallesen; Børge Sivertsen (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Sleep Research
There has been great concern about the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related school lockdown on adolescent health. The aim of the present study was to compare sleep patterns before and during COVID-19-related school lockdown, in a large sample of high school students. The present study is based a prospective, longitudinal survey on adolescent sleep health. Phase 1 was conducted in 2019, whereas phase 2 was conducted in 2020 (response rate 60.2%), during the last 10 days of a 60-day long school lockdown. Main outcomes comprised sleep parameters from the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ). A total of 2,022 students provided valid responses to MCTQ in both survey phases.
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on mental well-being of Norwegian adolescents during the first wave—socioeconomic position and gender differences

Arnhild Myhr; Linn Renée Naper; Indira Samarawickrema (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health
The lockdowns associated with the COVID-19 pandemic has been called a crisis in mental health, and adolescents may have been among the most affected. Comparing the first period of societal lockdown in spring 2020 to periods going back to 2014 using a rich cross-sectional dataset based on repeated surveys, we explore the potential changes in self-reported mental well-being across sociodemographic groups among Norway's adolescents. Norway closed schools and implemented strict restrictions in March 2020; an electronic questionnaire survey was distributed to lower secondary school students in Trøndelag county (N = 2,443) in May 2020. Results were compared with similar surveys conducted annually in the same county dating back to 2014. Logistic regression models were applied to investigate potential changes in depressive symptoms, loneliness, and quality of life and life satisfaction, and to detect possible differences in the impact of lockdown between the genders and socioeconomic groups.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.