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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Perturbed nuptiality, delayed fertility: childbirth effects of Covid19

AUTHOR(S)
Mazhar Mughal; Rashid Javed

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Population Research
An aspect of the Covid-19 pandemic that merits attention is its effects on marriage and childbirth. Although the direct fertility effects of people getting the virus may be minor, the impact of delayed marriages due to the first preventive lockdown, such as that imposed in Pakistan from March 14 to May 8 2020, and the closure of marriage halls that lasted till September 14 may be non-negligible. These demographic consequences are of particular import to developing countries such as Pakistan where birth rates remain high, marriage is nearly universal, and almost all child-bearing takes place within marriage. Based on historic marriage patterns, this study estimates that the delay in nuptiality during the first wave of the coronavirus outbreak may affect about half of the marriages that were to take place during the year. In Pakistan, childbearing begins soon after marriage, and about 37% of Pakistani married women give birth to their first child within twelve months of marriage. A sizeable number out of these, around 400,000 annual births that occur within twelve months of the marriage, may consequently be delayed. Postponement of marriages due to the accompanying difficult economic situation and employment precariousness will accentuate this fertility effect. The net fertility impact of the Covid-19 outbreak will ultimately depend not only on the delay in marriages but also on the reproductive behavior of existing couples.
Child education in the time of pandemic: learning loss and dropout

AUTHOR(S)
Muhammad Jehangir Khan; Junaid Ahmed

Published: June 2021   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
The disruptive effects of the COVID-19 pandemic had affected the education sector at an unprecedented scale. In order to contain the spread of the virus, a large number of countries across the globe have shut their schools to handle the pandemic. However, it has adversely affected students' learning and school attendance. In this regard, we assess the impact of COVID-19 on the learning loss, school dropout, and the economic costs in term of foregone earnings for children in Pakistan. The study finds a substantial decrease in Learning Adjusted Years of Schooling (LAYS) with worsening consequences for girls than boys. Likewise, the aggregate economic cost amounts to 107 billion dollars when adjusted for human capital utilisation. Besides, our simulation results suggest that about 7.2 million children dropout due to a reduction in household expenditure by 50 percent. In comparison, the dropout is more pronounced at the primary level of schooling. The results recommend that the government design robust social protection and remote education strategies to mitigate school closure’s adverse effect on children's learning. The emphasis should be rather on the long run strategies to cope with a resilient education system of futuristic orientation.
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the schooling of public and private school students in Pakistan

AUTHOR(S)
Hazir Ullah; Johar Ali

Published: May 2021   Journal: Education 3-13
More than 200 countries across the globe, including Pakistan, have closed educational institutions (schools, colleges, universities and madrassas) to contain the spread of coronavirus (COVID-19 pandemic). These closures have disrupted the learning of more than 1.7 billion learners (representing 91 per cent of the total enrolled students) across the world. It attempts to critically examine how schools’ closures in Pakistan perpetuate and reproduce inequalities in education. We have attempted to explore and explain inequalities in education during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown and bring the issue of public school students’ learning loss into public debate. The paper is based on qualitative primary data and is analysed and interpreted vis-à-vis the social reproduction theories. We deduce that unequal schools, unequal parenting and geographical location have further inflamed education inequalities in Pakistan during COVID-19 pandemic.
Covid-19: experiences of teaching-mothers in Pakistan

AUTHOR(S)
Qudsia Kalsoom

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of Gender Studies
Disasters are experienced by, and responded to, differently based on the gender of those experiencing these. The responsibilities of women, particularly mothers, are amplified during times of pressure. This study investigated the experiences of teaching-mothers in Pakistan during the Covid-19 pandemic to understand the challenges they faced as professionals and as mothers. The data were collected through in-depth interviews of 24 teaching-mothers. The study participants were identified through the snowball sampling technique. The data were collected until the point of data saturation and analysed through. The analysis indicates that teaching-mothers in Pakistan faced issues in terms of maintaining their work-life balance, managing space and resources for online teaching, and learning a new set of skills in order to teach online. These multiple challenges affected their mental health. The findings indicate a sharp division of gendered roles in Pakistan and their negative impact on the mental health of women during Covid-19. The study suggests devising organizational policies to support teaching-mothers generally and especially during crises.
Factors affecting delivery health service satisfaction of women and fear of COVID− 19: implications for maternal and child health in Pakistan

AUTHOR(S)
Sara Rizvi Jafree; Ainul Momina; Amina Muazzam (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Maternal and Child Health Journal
High maternal and neonatal mortality rates in developing regions like Pakistan are linked to low rates of institutional deliveries. One way to improve rates of institutional deliveries is through improving institutional delivery service satisfaction in women. The aim of this research is to identify which factors influence delivery service satisfaction during the period of COVID-19 and which socio-demographic characteristics of women are associated with greater fear of catching COVID-19 during institutional deliveries.
Digital health literacy intervention to support maternal, child and family health in primary healthcare settings of Pakistan during the age of coronavirus: study protocol for a randomised controlled trialhttps://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/11/3/e045163

AUTHOR(S)
Sara Rizvi Jafree; Nadia Bukhari; Anam Muzamill (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: BMJ Open
There is a need to continue primary healthcare services through digital communication for disadvantaged women living in underdeveloped areas of Pakistan, especially in the age of the coronavirus pandemic, social distancing and lockdown of communities. This project will be the first of its kind in aiming to implement a digital health literacy intervention, using smartphone and internet, to disadvantaged women through female community healthcare workers. Improved health literacy in women of reproductive years is known to promote maternal, child and family health overall. Methods and analysis The study will include a baseline survey, a pre- and post-test survey and a 3-month lasting intervention on (1) hygiene and prevention and (2) coronavirus awareness and prevention.
Exploring the need for a responsive school curriculum to cope with the Covid-19 pandemic in Pakistan

AUTHOR(S)
Rani Gul; Gulab Khilji

Published: March 2021   Journal: Prospects
The article investigates the response of the Pakistani curriculum to the Covid19 outbreak. It also looks into the development of a curriculum that addresses the specifcities of students’ situations, while reminding them of global connectedness. The article is based on semi-structured interviews with 10 curriculum experts, 20 principals, and 35 teachers, as well as content analysis of the 2018 National Curriculum Framework of Pakistan.
Effects of COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on lifestyle and mental health of students: a retrospective study from Karachi, Pakistan

AUTHOR(S)
Abraish Ali; Asad Ali Siddiqui; Muhammad Sameer Arshad (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Annales médico-psychologiques
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries imposed lockdowns on their citizens in an attempt to contain the disease. Pakistan is one of these countries. A government mandated lockdown can have mitigating psychological effects on young adults, out of which a large fraction is made up of students. This study aims to investigate the correlations between changes in sleep pattern, perception of time, and digital media usage. Furthermore, it explores the impact of these changes on the mental health of students of different educational levels.
Impact of COVID‐19 on polio vaccination in Pakistan: a concise overview

AUTHOR(S)
Misbahud Din; Hammad Ali; Mudassir Khan (et al.)

Published: November 2020
The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) has disrupted immunization programs around the globe, potentially increasing life‐threatening vaccine‐preventable diseases. Pakistan and Afghanistan are the only countries, which are still struggling to eradicate wild poliovirus. All vaccination campaigns in Pakistan were suspended in April due to the COVID‐19 outbreak, leading 40 million children to miss out on polio vaccination. Like the climate crisis, the COVID‐19 pandemic could be regarded as a child‐rights crisis because it could have life‐threatening impact over children, who need immunization, now and in the long‐term.
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19 in children in Pakistan

AUTHOR(S)
Masood Sadiq; Omeir Ali Aziz; Uzma Kazmi (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
The knowledge of COVID-19 is evolving with new aspects of the disease continuing to emerge. Children and adolescents younger than 20 years of age constitute 10·6% of the total reported confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Pakistan as of July 8, 2020, with a mortality of 0·3% for those aged 10 years or younger and 0·5% for those aged 11–20 years. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), also known as paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (PIMS-TS) is being reported primarily from Europe and the USA. Many of these children meet the criteria for complete or incomplete Kawasaki disease, but different clinical presentations of this inflammatory disorder are being reported. The ethnic origin of reported cases show that Black, Hispanic, and Asian children might be disproportionally affected. Similarly, unlike Kawasaki disease, these cases have occurred in older children and adolescents.
Evolution to online education around the globe during a SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic: do develop and underdeveloped cope alike?

AUTHOR(S)
Javaria Qazi; Khulla Naseer; Atika Qazi (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review

Educational institutes around the globe in this 21st century is facing challenges of SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus infectious disease. They are required to conduct online learning to avoid face to face contact in emergency scenarios such as COVID-19 pandemic and continuing academic year while keeping social distancing. Students need to adapt to new roles of learning through information technology to succeed in academics amid COVID-19. However, access to the impact of access & use of online learning resources, to what extent, these students are satisfied with online learning amid COVID-19 particularly in handling new challenges are critical to explore. Therefore, this paper aims to assess and compare the access & use of online learning of Bruneians and Pakistanis amid enforced lockdown imposed by the governments using a five-items satisfaction scale underlying existing literature.

Learning losses in Pakistan due to COVID-19 school closures: a technical note on simulation results

AUTHOR(S)
Koen Geven; Amer Hasan

Published: October 2020
Pakistan was among the first countries in the world to institute widespread school closures as a result of Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). This note presents results from a series of simulations that aim to capture the impacts that school closures in Pakistan may have on the learning levels, enrollment, and future earnings of children and students. In this note, the authors present an overview of how these numbers are calculated and how to interpret them. This note draws on a simulation exercise for all countries on which data is available, including Pakistan, conducted by researchers at the World Bank.
Cite this research | No. of pages: 9 | Language: English | Topics: Education | Tags: child education, educational policy, remote learning, school attendance | Countries: Pakistan | Publisher: World Bank
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.