Logo UNICEF Innocenti
Office of Research-Innocenti
menu icon

Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

RESULTS:   40     SORT BY:


Select one or more filter options and click search below.

UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
Open Access
1 - 15 of 40
Safety, effectiveness and hesitancy of COVID-19 vaccination in children: a cross-sectional study in Pakistan

Zaufishan Zaufishan; Muhammad Usman; Khandah Fishan Mumtaz (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

The elevated risk of serious complications like myocarditis and pericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination, especially in adolescent has been reported in some instances that need to be tested in regional populations and different ethnicity groups. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the side effects, hesitancy, and effectiveness outcomes following COVID-19 vaccination among children in Pakistan. The study was planned using a cross-sectional design and data from Children and Adolescents (CA) was collected through a convenient sampling method using a validated questionnaire between February to July 2022. A total of 1,108 CA between the age of 12–18 years who received one or two doses of vaccine were selected and data were collected through direct interviews with respondents.

The effects of financial stress and household socio-economic deprivation on the malnutrition statuses of children under five during the COVID-19 lockdown in a marginalized region of South Punjab, Pakistan

Muhammad Babar Alam; Muhammad Shahid; Bashar Isam Alzghoul (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Children
The lockdown after the COVID-19 pandemic not only caused public health crises and income stress but also put millions at risk of food insecurity and malnutrition across the globe, especially in low and middle-income countries [LMICs]. This study evaluated the effects of financial stress and household socio-economic deprivation on the nutritional status of 1551 children under the age of five during COVID-19 in Pakistan. A self-administered questionnaire was used between November 2020 and April 2021 to collect information on age, height, children’s weight, and socio-economic status from 1152 rural households from underdeveloped regions in Punjab, Pakistan. With the help of the proportionate simple random sampling method, this study employed a model (binary logistic regression) to calculate the likelihood of malnourishment.
Common mental disorders among high school students during COVID-19 pandemic with online education satisfaction level in Pakistan

Noreen Maqbool Bokhari; Mubashir Zafar; Muhammad Maaz Arif (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Medical Science
The objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of common mental disorders among high school students and their online education satisfaction levels in Pakistan. It was an observational, cross sectional study. The study took place among students registered across various high schools at different cities in Pakistan. The duration of the study was about six months from January 2021 to June 2021. A cross sectional study was conducted across different high schools in Pakistan. For a total of 275 selected study participants, structured and validated questionnaires were used to determine the common mental disorders such as anxiety, depression, and Psychosis.
The impact of flooding on education of children and adolescents: evidence from Pakistan

Riaz Ahmed; Waseem Barkat; Adeel Ahmed (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Water Economics and Policy
This study traces short- to long-term adverse effects of the colossal flood 2010 on educational outcomes of children and adolescents (age 5–16 years) in the flooded districts of Pakistan. Taking advantage of the flood — a type of quasi-natural experimental research design it utilized a difference-in-differences (DID) approach with inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTWs) to estimate the impact of the flood on educational outcomes by using a household surveys’ dataset (six waves). It compared educational outcomes out-of-school or dropout from school of — children and adolescents in the flooded households with the educational outcomes of individuals of same age groups in the non-flooded households before, during and after the flood.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 8 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 35 | Language: English | Topics: Education | Tags: child education, COVID-19 response, educational policy, school dropouts | Countries: Pakistan
COVID-19 crisis and early childhood care and education in Pakistan

Zunaira Kanwal; Muhammad Shahid Farooq

Published: September 2022   Journal: Journal of Early Childhood Care and Education

The major interruption is going to occur in children learning at all stages of Education because of worldwide closure of Educational institutions. Such interference in formal schooling experiences adversely affect academic outcomes of school age children. This study was qualitative in nature and phenomenology research design was adopted to investigate, how COVID-19 impacted early childhood care and Education in Pakistan. Sample selected through criterion sampling, a purposive sampling method. This study was based on 17 in-depth semi-structured interviews from teachers and parents of pre-school children.

Breastfeeding practices during Covid-19

Tahreem Nisar; Syed Ammar Bin Zia; Sarah Ishaq (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Pakistan BioMedical Journal

The covid-19 has disrupted all parts of life especially maternal-child relationship. Many lactating womenwerequarantinedincovid-19whichhasaffectednourishmentoftheirinfant. Breastfeeding has innumerable benets for both mother and infants as it provides them protection. The Maternal-child relationship is drastically affected if an infant is separated from its mother. It greatly affects lactation, which acts as a shield against infectious diseases. It is approved by all the international agencies and government bodies to promote breastfeeding including the neonates of infected mothers. It is suggested to adopt proper hand and respiratory hygiene measures to prevent transmission from mother to infant. Although many studies and literature reviews have conrmed that there are no direct transmission cases related to coronavirus during breastfeeding. However, WHO, UNICEF, and many other organizations suggested to adopt some hygiene-specic guidelines while practicing lactation. These include wearing a mask, washing hands, and disinfecting surfaces. As we are in the middle of this pandemic and new information is being gathered by scientists, it is hoped that they will also support promoting breastfeeding. As its advantages outweigh the risks of COVID-19. The main aim of this review is to promote early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding during COVID-19.

The impact of COVID-19 on the behaviors and attitudes of children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study

Swetha Annam; Maria F. Fleming; Azouba Gulraiz (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Medical Journeys

Over the past few decades, new infectious diseases have emerged, and these have played a key role in changing behavior and lifestyle in all age groups. More recently, with the emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, governments around the world have made unprecedented efforts to contain the epidemic by implementing quarantine measures, social distancing, and isolating infected individuals. Social behavioral adaptations (e.g., social distancing, isolation, etc.) impact children's and adolescents' lifestyle activities and lead to increased incidence of psychosocial problems, worsening of preexisting mental illness, and fears of infection, uncertainty, isolation, and stress. In light of this, this study aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 on the behaviors and lifestyles of the children and adolescent population of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 323 children and adolescents by targeting parents of children and adolescents in the age group of 4-18 years living in Pakistan. The study was conducted from April 2021 to September 2021. A well-designed structured questionnaire was used to collect data about the sociodemographic profile, attitudes, and behavioral factors impacted by COVID-19 in children and adolescents. SPSS Statistics version 23 (IBM, Armonk, NY) was used to enter and analyze data.

Perceptions of health care providers and parents related to benefits and predisposition factors of skin-to-skin contact

Shelina Bhamani; Areeba Syed; Maliha Abbas (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health

Skin-to-skin contact is often termed as “Kangaroo Care”. It is a method of holding a baby skin-to-skin or chest-to-chest with a parent, typically mothers. This nursing intervention helps in establishing a strong bond between a parent and a child, provides adjustment to extra-uterine life, and contributes to the holistic growth and development of the child. Moreover, Kangaroo Care is a key intervention to support the development and nurturing of preterm infants. The study aims to identify the perceptions of healthcare providers pertaining to predisposition factors and the perceived benefits of skin-to-skin contact in times of COVID-19. A cross-sectional study design was implemented in the study. The data collected from the participants attended the workshop on skin-to-skin from a wide range of health care settings (primary, secondary, and tertiary care hospitals) from Karachi, Pakistan.

Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 8 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child care, COVID-19, maternal and child health, parents | Countries: Pakistan
Understanding the role of psychosocial factors in Pakistani parents' hesitancy to vaccinate their kids: the mediating role of knowledge and mistrust of science about the COVID-19 vaccine

Riffat Shahani; Jianxun Chu; Olayemi Hafeez Rufai (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Vaccines
Vaccination is a vital component in the battle against outbreaks of infectious diseases. Recognizing parents’ reluctance to vaccinate their children is even more critical now, given the ongoing threat of a COVID-19 pandemic. Conspiracy theories, vaccination safety concerns, parental efficacy and risk perception, and a lack of confidence in science all influence intention. To investigate how these variables interact with vaccination behavior against COVID-19,  a model was developed, with psychosocial factors serving as the predictor and mistrust in science and vaccine knowledge serving as the mediator. In order to validate the model, the parents’ intentions regarding their children’s vaccination with COVID-19 were used. The study included 454 Pakistani parents who completed an online questionnaire assessing their intention to vaccinate their children.
Spotlight on the adolescent's mental health: distress and coping amid the COVID-19 pandemic

Jawed Akbar Dars; Nadeem Iqbal; Zubair Ahmed Khoso (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Pakistan Journal of Medical & Health Sciences

COVID-19 pandemic globally challenged the healthcare sector as well as posed a serious threat to mental health among both young and adults rendering people with a sense of uncertainty and loss. This study aims to assess the psychological burden among the adolescent population during the pandemic and lockdown. A cross sectional study was moderated by the research team at the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center between April 2020 to October 2021. All individuals between the ages of 13 to 17 years were included. The proforma was circulated among residents of the province of Sindh that assessed the emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity-inattention, peer relationship problems, and prosocial behaviors among participants.

Pediatric off-label COVID-19 vaccination: the concerns of healthcare professionals in Pakistan

Sadia Shakeel; Shagufta Nesar; Ghazala Noor Nizami (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Vaccines
Global health authorities have emphasized the vital role of healthcare professionals (HCPs) as a reliable source of vaccination information for patients in primary care. However, HCPs are concerned whether COVID-19 vaccinations can be used off-label. Hence, the current study was conducted to assess their perspectives towards off-label COVID-19 immunization in children. The study tool, consisting of 40 items, was utilized to evaluate HCPs’ knowledge and attitudes towards the off-label use of the COVID-19 vaccine in children under 12 years of age. To assess the unfavorable attitudes regarding vaccinations, the Vaccination Attitudes Examination Scale was employed. Overall, 477 completed questionnaires were incorporated in the present study, with a response rate of 88.9%.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 10 | Issue: 8 | No. of pages: 12 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, immunization, immunization programmes, infectious disease, pandemic, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Pakistan
Challenges faced by working mothers and housewives during online education of their children

Qudsia Umaira Khan; Amna Nadeem; Muallah (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Pakistan Journal of Medical & Health Sciences

WHO  recognized COVID-19 a pandemic on March 12, 2020 and National Health Commission officially declared it as a Class-B infectious disease. The technological advancements enabled the teaching staffs to keep their students involved during this period of COVID-19 pandemic. Online classes become the efficient medium to learn by staying at home. To find out the challenges faced by mothers during online learning in order to devise a systematic plan for smooth and effective learning in case of another crises like COVID-19. It was a cross sectional study carried out at CMH LMC&IOD ,  in which a user-defined questionnaire was introduced to the participants which were mothers of school going children from all over the city. The questionnaire got 161 responses in total, but two were incomplete so 159 were considered while doing the analysis. The results were analyzed using SPSS25.

Loneliness, emotional eating, and COVID-19 in youth

Humaira Jamshed; Jamshed Arslan

Published: June 2022   Journal: Current Developments in Nutrition

Negative emotions, such as the feeling of loneliness, are significantly associated with emotional eating. As a coping mechanism to regulate and reduce negative emotions, adolescents and young adults are found to lose control and binge. The global pandemic and enforced lockdowns have imposed psychological changes, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress. COVID-19 has led to psychiatric morbidity and dietary changes in youth. This study was designed to see if the feeling of loneliness and emotional eating is associated with contraction COVID-19. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using internationally validated questionnaires such as the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), UCLA loneliness scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). An online survey comprised of these questionnaires and the history of diagnosed COVID-positive contractions was administered among undergraduate and graduate students in Karachi, Pakistan.

Covid-19 pandemic: a qualitative study on adolescents' stress, anxiety, and family communication

Zeynep Çetin

Published: May 2022   Journal: Pakistan Journal of Medical & Health Sciences
Eight high-school students participated in this qualitative study to investigate the adolescents’ stress, anxiety, and family communication during the COVID-19 pandemic. To collect data, a list of questions was prepared by the researchers based on experts’ opinions, and open-ended interviews were carried out with the participants. Consequently, four models were created and thoroughly investigated.
The effect of an educational intervention on COVID-19 awareness, preventive behaviors, and risk perceptions among secondary school students

Sadia Ibrar Khan; Mohi Ud Din; Syed Fawad Mashhadi (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: The Journal of Bahria University Medical and Dental College
 This study aimed to determine the impact of an educational intervention on secondary school students' Covid-19 awareness
and risk perception, as well as their preventive practices. A quasi-experimental study conducted in private secondary schools.
Methodology: The study duration was two months. Students who gave consent and didn’t have COVID-19 infection in
past were included by non-probability purposive sampling. Raosoft sample size calculator was used to calculate the sample
size and it came out to be 385 but a total of 380 students could be enrolled.
1 - 15 of 40

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Subscribe to updates on new research about COVID-19 & children



facebook twitter linkedin google+ reddit print email
Article Article

Check our quarterly thematic digests on children and COVID-19

Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
Campaign Campaign

COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.