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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Attitudes of parents with regard to vaccination of children against COVID-19 in Poland: a nationwide online survey

Mateusz Babicki; Dagmara Pokorna-Kałwak; Zbigniew Doniec (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Vaccines
Within a few months, the scientific world achieved a great success, developing effective and safe vaccines against COVID-19. Many countries with full access to vaccines have introduced recommendations for the vaccination of not only people who are at risk of developing severe COVID-19, i.e., the elderly and chronically ill, but all members of society, including children aged 12 and above as the currently registered preparations can be used above the said age. However, the use of COVID-19 vaccines in children arouses strong emotions, with their sense being frequently questioned. The aim of the paper was to assess the attitudes of Polish parents with regard to vaccinations against COVID-19 administered to their children. The study was conducted with the use of the authors’ original questionnaire, which was distributed online.
Stress level and general mental state in Polish pregnant women during COVID-19 pandemic

Agata Mikolajkow; Krzysztof Małyszczak

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology

COVID-19 pandemic may contribute to mental state worsening. Mental health disorders in pregnancy are known to have adverse outcomes both for mothers and their children. It is the first study in Poland to investigate the impact of the pandemic on stress level and general mental state in pregnant women. Three hundred sixteen pregnant women completed an online survey containing four instruments. The main research questions were investigated with Bayesian regression analyses.

Providing contact with nature for young generation - a case study of preschools in the City of Poznań, Poland

Iwona Zwierzchowska; Piotr Lupa

Published: September 2021   Journal: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening
Contact with nature is valuable for the health, wellbeing and development of children. Meanwhile, the urban environment and the contemporary urban lifestyle limit the opportunity for contact with nature. Given that children aged three to six years spend a significant amount of time in preschool, this study aimed to: 1) investigate children’s opportunities to contact with nature during their time in preschool, including the availability of these schools’ own outdoor spaces and neighbouring green spaces for visiting; 2) recognise preschools’ practices in using available green spaces to enable children to have contact with nature; 3) identify the impact on the outdoor activities provided by preschools of factors such as the COVID-19 pandemic and preschool managers’ awareness of the importance of children’s contact with nature.
An online cross-sectional survey of complementary feeding practices during the COVID-19 restrictions in Poland

Andrea Horvath; Agata Stróżyk; Piotr Dziechciarz (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Nutrients
This cross-sectional online survey performed in Poland aimed to improve understanding of how COVID-19 pandemic restrictions affected complementary feeding practices among parents of infants aged 4 to 12 months. Self-selected parents were recruited through the internet. The anonymous questionnaire was opened during two intervals during COVID-19 restrictions. The primary outcome was an assessment of sources of information and infant feeding practices in the context of COVID-19 restrictions. Data from 6934 responders (92.2% mothers) were analyzed.
Investigating the impact of covid-19 socialisation restrictions on children’s spiritual well-being: case studies from Poland and the UK

Krystyna Heland-Kurzak; Sarah Holmes

Published: August 2021   Journal: International Journal of Children's Spirituality
Parent and practitioners observations were examined to provide insights into the impact of covid-19 restrictions on children’s spiritual well-being, specifically related to reduced physical meeting of church communities in two case study contexts: Poland and the UK. Exploration of the four domains of spiritual wellbeing was carried out, with specific focus on how the abrupt changes in the communal domain may have impacted on other aspects of the child’s spiritual well-being. Significant variations in the response by churches during the pandemic were overlaid by disparate perceptions of the spiritual needs of children in these contexts. The extent to which these responses dovetailed with parental responsibilities and expectations of the church was considered alongside awareness of the changed nature of church’s activity with children during the pandemic.
Religiosity, meaning-making and the fear of COVID-19 affecting well-being among late adolescents in Poland: a moderated mediation model

Dariusz Krok; Beata Zarzycka; Ewa Telka

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Religion and Health
Adolescents have come to be greatly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and the ensuing containment measures in recent months. The aim of the present study was to examine the relations among religiosity, meaning-making, fear of COVID-19, and subjective well-being within a moderated mediation model. Three hundred and sixteen late adolescents (173 women and 143 men) in Poland volunteered to take part in the study. The results show that meaning-making mediated relationships between religiosity and life satisfaction, religiosity and positive affect, and religiosity and negative affect. In addition, these mediation effects were moderated by the fear of COVID-19. Specifically, the indirect effects were stronger for adolescents with high fear than for those with low fear, which indicates that fear of COVID-19 serves as a ‘warning’ factor.
Associations between food preferences, food approach, and food avoidance in a Polish adolescents’ COVID-19 experience (PLACE-19) study population

Dominika Guzek; Dominika Skolmowska; Dominika Głabska

Published: July 2021   Journal: Nutrients
Food preferences are among the strongest predictors of the food choices of adolescents. These are associated with appetitive traits (food approach and avoidance) to some extent. However, no research has been conducted so far analyzing the association between food preferences and appetitive traits of adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between food preferences and appetitive traits in adolescents (aged 15–20 years) within the Polish Adolescents’ COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study population. The PLACE-19 Study was carried out in a population-based sample of 2448 secondary school students sampled across the country (random quota sampling).
Children’s eating habits, physical activity, sleep, and media usage before and during COVID-19 pandemic in Poland

Edyta Łuszczki; Anna Bartosiewicz; Iwona Pezdan (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Nutrients
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused huge changes in people’s lifestyle, health, and social relationships. This situation has had an impact on children and adolescents, affecting their health, intellectual, physical, and emotional development. The survey aimed to compare eating behaviors, level of physical activity (PA), hours of sleep, and screen time among Polish children and adolescents aged 6–15 years before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We obtained self-reported data from 1016 participants at two measurement points before and during the COVID-19 lockdown in Poland to examine the influence of the lockdown and the distance learning on PA, dietary habits, sleep, and media usage of children and adolescents aged 6–15 years.
Head teachers’ opinions on the future of school education conditioned by emergency remote teaching

Katarzyna Potyrała; Nataliia Demeshkant; Karolina Czerwiec (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Education and Information Technologies
The study explores the school transformation process as evidenced by the opinions of head teachers. The main goal of the research was to present a content analysis study of the Polish educational environment on the basis of primary and secondary head teachers’ views on the risks and perspectives brought by the global Covid-2019 lockdown. The conceptual framework was based on the theoretical perspective (the cognitive and affective processes in multimedia learning, the theory of motivation, and goal setting) as well as the model of the school as a learning organization and the assumptions of Emergency Remote Teaching. The categorized interviews with the head teachers were conducted using a categorized interview questionnaire and the respondents considered various categories problems within educational practice related to the functioning of schools during the pandemic.
Transnational communication between children and grandparents during the COVID-19 lockdown. The case of migrant children in Poland

Anzhela Popyk; Paula Pustułka

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of Family Communication
Transnational intergenerational communication between migrant children and their grandparents depends on family relationships and the specific migration context, but also shifts in response to emerging factors, such as the current COVID-19 crisis. The goal of this study is to offer an agile typology of communication between migrant children in Poland and their grandparents in other countries. It points to two types of family communication practices, namely direct (face-to-face) and technology-mediated communication (TMC). Drawing on data from a qualitative study of immigrant children (n = 19) and parents (n = 18) conducted during the lockdown and associated travel restrictions caused by the pandemic, the study offers a typology of emotional, symbolic, mediated, and discontinuous modes of intergenerational family communications. It also indicates that cessation of direct contact during an “immobility regime” reduces the scope of intergenerational communication in transnational families.
Physical activity of early school-age children in Poland during classes in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic

Stanisława Nazaruk; Joanna Marchel; Aleksandra Kruszewska (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Education 3-13
Family and educational institutions play a decisive role in learning and strengthening habits related to physical activity and health. School has a specific mission in this scope, especially at the first stage of education. Attempting to answer the question of how schools in practice realise these tasks, a study was conducted on the level of physical activity of pupils in classes I–III of primary school, during their participation in compulsory school activities. The study took into account many conditions, in particular, the organisation of school work during the COVID-19 pandemic. Physical activity of the pupils was measured with the use of Actigraphs GT3X+, known also as accelerometers, and the Steps Per Minute Test. The study covered pupils (N = 159) aged 7–9 years, who attended classes I–III of several schools in the region of Eastern Poland.
Pandemic-related pregnancy stress assessment – psychometric properties of the Polish PREPS and its relationship with childbirth fear

Michalina Liska; Anna Kołodziej-Zaleska; Anna Brandt-Salmeri (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Midwifery

The aim of the study was to create and to validate the Polish version of the original English version of the Pandemic-Related Pregnancy Stress Scale (PREPS) developed by Preis and colleagues (2020a; 2020b) We additionally investigated the association of maternal obstetrical and pandemic related factors with the PREPS in order to test its sensitivity. A cross-sectional study design with nonrandom sampling was used. The sample consisted of a total of 1148 pregnant women in various trimesters. They were recruited via social media and completed an online study questionnaire in April-May 2020.

Children's dental anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic: Polish experience

Aneta Olszewska; Piotr Rzymski

Published: August 2020   Journal: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Dental fear and anxiety is a significant issue that affects pediatric patients and creates challenges in oral health management. Considering that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, along with its associated sanitary regime, social distancing measures and nationwide quarantines, could itself induce public fears, including in children, it is of great interest to explore whether this situation and the necessity of reorganizing dental care could potentially affect the emotional state of pediatric patients facing a need for urgent dental intervention.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 12 | Language: English | Topics: Health, Mental Health | Tags: child mental health, health care, psychological distress | Countries: Poland
Population-based study of the changes in the food choice determinants of secondary school students: polish adolescents’ COVID-19 experience (PLACE-19) study

Dominika Glabska; Dominika Skolmowska; Dominika Guzek

Published: August 2020
The study aimed to analyze the changes in the food choice determinants of secondary school students in a national sample of Polish adolescents within the Polish Adolescents’ COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study population. The study was conducted in May 2020, based on the random quota sampling of schools (for voivodeships and counties) and a number of 2448 students from all the regions of Poland participated.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 15 | Language: English | Topics: Health, Nutrition | Tags: adolescent health, food | Countries: Poland
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.