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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Social relations of urban children in the liminal time of the pandemic period

Marzenna Nowicka

Published: December 2022   Journal: The New Educational Review
This paper analysed the social relations of Polish children during the SARSCoV- 2 pandemic. The period of isolation and remote learning was approached as a transitional time using Victor Turner’s concept of liminality. The concept offered a new perspective on children’s experiences during the regime of health protection constraints and the resulting limitations. The research material was collected using focus group interviews with 41 urban children aged 7 and 9 to describe liminal features of their everyday life and characterise their social interactions.
"Digital natives in online classes. Internet use among Warsaw adolescents prior to, and during, the COVID-19 pandemic. Mokotów Study 2016-2020"

Jakub Greń; Krzysztof Ostaszewski; Krzysztof Jan Bobrowski (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
The internet has become a part of adolescents’ lives with all the positive and negative consequences. The major risks include so-called problematic internet use (PIU). The latest Mokotów Study provided an opportunity to examine adolescents’ internet use during the pandemic. This is one of the few studies in this area conducted on adolescents from Poland. The study participants’ group consisted of first-year high school students from Warsaw (N = 769, 14-16 years of age, 47.6% female). An online questionnaire was used for the study. The IADQ developed by Kimberly Young was used to measure internet-use patterns. The results were compared to the previous round of the Mokotów Study from 2016.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 35 | Issue: 2 | No. of pages: 141-170 | Language: English | Topics: Education | Tags: child education, COVID-19 response, internet, lockdown, new media, remote learning, school attendance, social distance | Countries: Poland
Postpartum depression crisis since the second lockdown and 'screening paradox': many women identified, very few treated

Magdalena Chrzan-Dętkoś; Tamara Walczak-Kozłowska

Published: December 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health
Exposure to stressful situations, such as emergencies, infectious diseases, and natural disasters, may lead to a heightened risk of perinatal mental health problems. Declared on March 11th, 2020, the global COVID-19 pandemic triggered an additional burden on women in the perinatal period. Safety recommendations, such as social distancing and isolation, were opposite to the usual advice given to new mothers. Besides fear, changes in financial stability and daily life reorganization contributed to increased depressive symptoms. As the periods of epidemic waves and lockdowns were associated with a more significant burden for young families, we aimed to assess the intensification of depressive and anxiety symptoms during the pandemic concerning the time intervals of the three lockdowns introduced in Poland. 1588 postpartum women took part in the online self-assessment with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and General Anxiety Disorder 2 (GAD-2) questionnaire between January 1, 2020, and March 31, 2021. This self-screening is a part of a prevention program The Next Stop: Mum, implemented in the North of Poland.
Psychosocial and pandemic determinants of psychoactive substance use by adolescents aged 14-15. Mokotów study 2020

Krzysztof Jan Bobrowski; Krzysztof Ostaszewski; Agnieszka Pisarska (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
Psychosocial factors determining the use of psychoactive substances by adolescents have been identified in numerous empirical studies conducted over the past few decades. Specific features of the peer environment like contacts with substance users, prevalence of use in the peer environment or experiencing direct peer pressure towards substance use are indicated to be of particular importance. Features of the family environment, particularly parental support and control and features of the school environment like school bonding are important. Numerous studies have shown that the group of strongest factors include subjective norms and normative beliefs about use, expectations about the effects of alcohol and individual, temperamental and personality characteristics, such as sensation-seeking, impulsivity, self-control and sense of coherence. The Mokotów study presented in this paper, while primarily focused on monitoring changes in the prevalence of risk behaviours and other mental health problems also takes into account the possibility of analysing, as described above, the many strong determinants of various problems in the study population of adolescents.
Fear of COVID-19 and vaccine hesitancy among pregnant women in Poland: a cross-sectional study

Kinga Janik; Kinga Nietupska; Grazyna Iwanowicz-Palus (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Vaccines
Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to anxiety and stress, and the COVID-19 pandemic has definitely contributed to anxiety in this group. Researchers continue their work on COVID-19 vaccine formulations to reduce the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and minimise the impact of the pandemic. Despite the increased prevalence and severity of anxiety among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic, their attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccine vary. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of anxiety experienced by pregnant women due to COVID-19 and their attitudes to vaccination. Materials and methods: A total of 595 women voluntarily participated in the study. The respondents were divided into two groups: the study group (n = 288), which consisted of women who were pregnant at the time of the survey, and the control group (n = 307), which included women of reproductive age (18–49 years). The study used a diagnostic survey method with a web-based questionnaire consisting of the author’s survey questionnaire and the following standardised tools: the Scale to Measure the Perception of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines Acceptance (VAC-COVID-19 SCALE), the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S), the Drivers of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale (DrVac-COVID19S) and the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS).
Experiencing pregnancy during the COVID-19 lockdown in Poland: a cross-sectional study of the mediating effect of resiliency on prenatal depression symptoms

Anna Studniczek; Karolina Kossakowska

Published: September 2022   Journal: Behavioral Sciences
The COVID-19 pandemic in Poland brought uncertainty, not only to the general population but also to women preparing for childbirth, which increased the risk of mental health illnesses during this special period of life. Resilience, which refers to positive adaptation or the ability to maintain good mental health, can be a protective factor against the development of psychiatric problems such as depressive symptoms. This study aimed to assess the protective role of resilience in the relationship of such risk factors as traumatic childbirth perception and pandemic-related pregnancy stress with prenatal depressive symptoms. The study was performed at the end of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 80 pregnant women took part.
[No] Knowledge of pre-school children on the covid-19 pandemic - in the light of parents and teachers' opinions

Aleksandra Romana Kruszewska; Stanisława Katarzyna Nazaruk; Ewa Grygiel

Published: August 2022   Journal: Rozprawy Społeczne/Social Dissertations
The main aim of the research was to find out about their knowledge or ignorance about the pandemic, about the principles of safe behavior, about virus transmission. The development of the proprietary research tools resulted from an objective fact, because no standardized measurement tools were found for the aforementioned research problems. Surveys, two types of research tools were used: an original questionnaire for parents and worksheets for children.
"Assessment of children's readiness for school by preschool teachers /reminiscences from the time of the pandemic/"

Stanisława Katarzyna Nazaruk; Magdalena Szydłowska

Published: August 2022   Journal: Rozprawy Społeczne = Social Dissertations
The aim of the undertaken research was to find out the assessment carried out by preschool education teachers on the school readiness of children during the pandemic. The research was carried out by the method of survey using the author's questionnaire survey among 90 teachers in kindergartens on the territory of Biała Podlaska and Biała district.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 16 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 15 | Language: English | Topics: Education | Tags: COVID-19 response, lockdown, preschool children, preschool education, social distance, teachers, teaching methods | Countries: Poland
The Impact of Distance Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic on Physical Activity and Well-Being of Czech and Polish Adolescents.

Karel Frömel; Dorota Groffik; Petr Valach (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of School Health

The aim of this study was to identify the changes in the structure of weekly physical activity (PA) and well-being among adolescent boys and girls between habitual education (HE) and distance education (DE) during the pandemic in secondary schools. The research was carried out in 12 Czech and 18 Polish schools during 2019 to 2020 academic session for HE and 2020 to 2021 academic session for DE. The research involved 723 girls and 626 boys aged 15 to 18 years. The structure of the weekly PA was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Long Form, while well-being was assessed using the World Health Organization-5 Well-Being Index.

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of children with psychiatric diagnoses - multidimensional CCPCA Model

Anna Maria Kalenik; Mariusz Topolski; Justyna Górnik (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: BMC Psychiatry

The study aimed to assess the severity of symptoms of anxiety and depression in children with previously diagnosed psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland. Online questionnaires were used to investigate three groups of subjects: patients with a psychiatric diagnosis, primary school pupils, and children from children’s homes. A total of 167 children with their parents or guardians participated in the study. In addition to basic statistics, a multidimensional Centroid Class Principal Component Analysis (CCPCA) model was used.

Long-COVID in immunocompromised children

Karolina Kuczborska; Piotr Buda; Janusz Książyk

Published: July 2022   Journal: European Journal of Pediatrics
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to an illness characterized by persistent symptoms which affect various organs and systems, known as long-COVID. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and clinical characteristics of long-COVID in children with immunodeficiency, in comparison to those without. A self-constructed questionnaire was created, which included questions regarding the child’s general health, the course of their COVID-19, their symptoms of long-COVID and its impact on their daily functioning, the diagnosis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C), and vaccination status. The questionnaire was completed by parents of 147 children — 70 children with a diagnosis of immunodeficiency (47.6%) and 77 who were immunocompetent (52.4%). Immunocompetent children were more significantly affected by long-COVID than those immunocompromised. Its prevalence in the first 12-week post-infection was 60.0% and 35.7% in these groups, respectively. Beyond this period, these percentages had dropped to 34.6% and 11.43%, respectively. Children who were immunocompetent reported more often symptoms of fatigue, reduced exercise tolerance, and difficulty concentrating. Meanwhile, there was a slight increase in complaints of gastrointestinal symptoms in immunocompromised patients. The risk of developing long-COVID increased with age and COVID-19 severity in both groups.
Children's experience of distance learning – the everyday life of first graders

Jolanta Bonar; Zuzanna Zbróg

Published: July 2022   Journal: Studies on the Theory of Education
The purpose of this paper is to present the everyday school life of younger pupils in pandemic times. The rationale behind the study (conducted from the child’s perspective) lies in the conviction that minors are active actors who understand and interpret the social reality around them and, therefore, are the most reliable source of information (for adults) on the meaning of everyday situations for them (Corsaro, 2005). The research material was collected through a focus group interview with first grade pupils from selected primary schools in Poland. This helped the authors understand children’s experience of distance learning. Analysis of the collected material reveals the many and diverse experiences children have regarding e-learning. The study makes it possible to identify the main categories impacting their daily school-related activities, the tangible environment that constitutes the physical space behind these activities, and the accompanying emotions.
COVID-19 infections in infants

Małgorzata Sobolewska-Pilarczyk; Maria Pokorska-Śpiewak; Anna Stachowiak (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Scientific reports
The study aimed to analyse the clinical course of COVID-19 in 300 infants, selected from 1283 children diagnosed with COVID-19 between March and December 2020, registered in the SARSTerPED multicenter database. Most of the infants were registered in October and November 2020. 44% of the group were girls, and 56% were boys. At diagnosis, the most common symptoms were fever in 77% of the children, cough in 40%, catarrh in 37%. Pneumonia associated with COVID-19 was diagnosed in 23% of the children, and gastrointestinal symptoms in 31.3%. In 52% of the infants, elevated levels of D-dimers were observed, and in 40%, elevated levels of IL-6 serum concentration were observed. During the second wave of the pandemic, 6 times more infants were hospitalized, and the children were statistically significantly younger compared to the patients during the first wave (3 months vs 8 months, p < 0.0001 respectively). During the second wave, the infants were hospitalized for longer. COVID-19 in infants usually manifests as a mild gastrointestinal or respiratory infection, but pneumonia is also observed with falls in oxygen saturation, requiring oxygen therapy.
COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in pregnant and lactating women and mothers of young children in Poland

N. Kuciel; J. Mazurek; K. Hap (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: International Journal of Women's Health

The World Health Organization indicated vaccine hesitancy as one of the top 10 threats to global health. The success of a vaccine depends not only on its efficacy but also on its acceptance. This study aims to define COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in a sample of pregnant and lactating women in Poland. Since mothers are often key decision-makers for whether their children will receive vaccination, it is vital to measure vaccine confidence among this group. An anonymous online survey was distributed to assess the level of acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination among pregnant and lactating women for themselves and their children in Poland.

Body mass and emotional eating: emotional eater questionnaire (EEQ) in the Polish adolescents’ COVID-19 experience (PLACE-19) study

Dominika Skolmowska; Dominika Głąbska; Dominika Guzek (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Nutrients
Stress caused by the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may lead to emotional eating which may have a negative impact on the weight status. This study aimed to analyze the association between emotional eating and body mass, as well as changes in body mass during the COVID-19 pandemic, within the Polish Adolescents’ COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study. A total of 1126 Polish adolescents, aged 15–20, were included. A random quota sampling was performed within a national sample, and emotional eating was assessed using Emotional Eater Questionnaire (EEQ). Based on the declared height and weight before and during the pandemic, the respondents were categorized according to their body mass (malnourished, normal weight, overweight, obese) and changes in body mass during the COVID-19 pandemic (lost weight, no body mass change, gained weight).
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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