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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Fear of COVID-19 and vaccine hesitancy among pregnant women in Poland: a cross-sectional study

Kinga Janik; Kinga Nietupska; Grazyna Iwanowicz-Palus (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Vaccines
Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to anxiety and stress, and the COVID-19 pandemic has definitely contributed to anxiety in this group. Researchers continue their work on COVID-19 vaccine formulations to reduce the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and minimise the impact of the pandemic. Despite the increased prevalence and severity of anxiety among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic, their attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccine vary. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of anxiety experienced by pregnant women due to COVID-19 and their attitudes to vaccination. Materials and methods: A total of 595 women voluntarily participated in the study. The respondents were divided into two groups: the study group (n = 288), which consisted of women who were pregnant at the time of the survey, and the control group (n = 307), which included women of reproductive age (18–49 years). The study used a diagnostic survey method with a web-based questionnaire consisting of the author’s survey questionnaire and the following standardised tools: the Scale to Measure the Perception of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines Acceptance (VAC-COVID-19 SCALE), the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S), the Drivers of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale (DrVac-COVID19S) and the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS).
Experiencing pregnancy during the COVID-19 lockdown in Poland: a cross-sectional study of the mediating effect of resiliency on prenatal depression symptoms

Anna Studniczek; Karolina Kossakowska

Published: September 2022   Journal: Behavioral Sciences
The COVID-19 pandemic in Poland brought uncertainty, not only to the general population but also to women preparing for childbirth, which increased the risk of mental health illnesses during this special period of life. Resilience, which refers to positive adaptation or the ability to maintain good mental health, can be a protective factor against the development of psychiatric problems such as depressive symptoms. This study aimed to assess the protective role of resilience in the relationship of such risk factors as traumatic childbirth perception and pandemic-related pregnancy stress with prenatal depressive symptoms. The study was performed at the end of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 80 pregnant women took part.
[No] Knowledge of pre-school children on the covid-19 pandemic - in the light of parents and teachers' opinions

Aleksandra Romana Kruszewska; Stanisława Katarzyna Nazaruk; Ewa Grygiel

Published: August 2022   Journal: Rozprawy Społeczne/Social Dissertations
The main aim of the research was to find out about their knowledge or ignorance about the pandemic, about the principles of safe behavior, about virus transmission. The development of the proprietary research tools resulted from an objective fact, because no standardized measurement tools were found for the aforementioned research problems. Surveys, two types of research tools were used: an original questionnaire for parents and worksheets for children.
"Assessment of children's readiness for school by preschool teachers /reminiscences from the time of the pandemic/"

Stanisława Katarzyna Nazaruk; Magdalena Szydłowska

Published: August 2022   Journal: Rozprawy Społeczne = Social Dissertations
The aim of the undertaken research was to find out the assessment carried out by preschool education teachers on the school readiness of children during the pandemic. The research was carried out by the method of survey using the author's questionnaire survey among 90 teachers in kindergartens on the territory of Biała Podlaska and Biała district.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 16 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 15 | Language: English | Topics: Education | Tags: COVID-19 response, lockdown, preschool children, preschool education, social distance, teachers, teaching methods | Countries: Poland
The Impact of Distance Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic on Physical Activity and Well-Being of Czech and Polish Adolescents.

Karel Frömel; Dorota Groffik; Petr Valach (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of School Health

The aim of this study was to identify the changes in the structure of weekly physical activity (PA) and well-being among adolescent boys and girls between habitual education (HE) and distance education (DE) during the pandemic in secondary schools. The research was carried out in 12 Czech and 18 Polish schools during 2019 to 2020 academic session for HE and 2020 to 2021 academic session for DE. The research involved 723 girls and 626 boys aged 15 to 18 years. The structure of the weekly PA was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Long Form, while well-being was assessed using the World Health Organization-5 Well-Being Index.

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of children with psychiatric diagnoses - multidimensional CCPCA Model

Anna Maria Kalenik; Mariusz Topolski; Justyna Górnik (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: BMC Psychiatry

The study aimed to assess the severity of symptoms of anxiety and depression in children with previously diagnosed psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland. Online questionnaires were used to investigate three groups of subjects: patients with a psychiatric diagnosis, primary school pupils, and children from children’s homes. A total of 167 children with their parents or guardians participated in the study. In addition to basic statistics, a multidimensional Centroid Class Principal Component Analysis (CCPCA) model was used.

Long-COVID in immunocompromised children

Karolina Kuczborska; Piotr Buda; Janusz Książyk

Published: July 2022   Journal: European Journal of Pediatrics
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to an illness characterized by persistent symptoms which affect various organs and systems, known as long-COVID. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and clinical characteristics of long-COVID in children with immunodeficiency, in comparison to those without. A self-constructed questionnaire was created, which included questions regarding the child’s general health, the course of their COVID-19, their symptoms of long-COVID and its impact on their daily functioning, the diagnosis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C), and vaccination status. The questionnaire was completed by parents of 147 children — 70 children with a diagnosis of immunodeficiency (47.6%) and 77 who were immunocompetent (52.4%). Immunocompetent children were more significantly affected by long-COVID than those immunocompromised. Its prevalence in the first 12-week post-infection was 60.0% and 35.7% in these groups, respectively. Beyond this period, these percentages had dropped to 34.6% and 11.43%, respectively. Children who were immunocompetent reported more often symptoms of fatigue, reduced exercise tolerance, and difficulty concentrating. Meanwhile, there was a slight increase in complaints of gastrointestinal symptoms in immunocompromised patients. The risk of developing long-COVID increased with age and COVID-19 severity in both groups.
Children's experience of distance learning – the everyday life of first graders

Jolanta Bonar; Zuzanna Zbróg

Published: July 2022   Journal: Studies on the Theory of Education
The purpose of this paper is to present the everyday school life of younger pupils in pandemic times. The rationale behind the study (conducted from the child’s perspective) lies in the conviction that minors are active actors who understand and interpret the social reality around them and, therefore, are the most reliable source of information (for adults) on the meaning of everyday situations for them (Corsaro, 2005). The research material was collected through a focus group interview with first grade pupils from selected primary schools in Poland. This helped the authors understand children’s experience of distance learning. Analysis of the collected material reveals the many and diverse experiences children have regarding e-learning. The study makes it possible to identify the main categories impacting their daily school-related activities, the tangible environment that constitutes the physical space behind these activities, and the accompanying emotions.
COVID-19 infections in infants

Małgorzata Sobolewska-Pilarczyk; Maria Pokorska-Śpiewak; Anna Stachowiak (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Scientific reports
The study aimed to analyse the clinical course of COVID-19 in 300 infants, selected from 1283 children diagnosed with COVID-19 between March and December 2020, registered in the SARSTerPED multicenter database. Most of the infants were registered in October and November 2020. 44% of the group were girls, and 56% were boys. At diagnosis, the most common symptoms were fever in 77% of the children, cough in 40%, catarrh in 37%. Pneumonia associated with COVID-19 was diagnosed in 23% of the children, and gastrointestinal symptoms in 31.3%. In 52% of the infants, elevated levels of D-dimers were observed, and in 40%, elevated levels of IL-6 serum concentration were observed. During the second wave of the pandemic, 6 times more infants were hospitalized, and the children were statistically significantly younger compared to the patients during the first wave (3 months vs 8 months, p < 0.0001 respectively). During the second wave, the infants were hospitalized for longer. COVID-19 in infants usually manifests as a mild gastrointestinal or respiratory infection, but pneumonia is also observed with falls in oxygen saturation, requiring oxygen therapy.
COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in pregnant and lactating women and mothers of young children in Poland

N. Kuciel; J. Mazurek; K. Hap (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: International Journal of Women's Health

The World Health Organization indicated vaccine hesitancy as one of the top 10 threats to global health. The success of a vaccine depends not only on its efficacy but also on its acceptance. This study aims to define COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in a sample of pregnant and lactating women in Poland. Since mothers are often key decision-makers for whether their children will receive vaccination, it is vital to measure vaccine confidence among this group. An anonymous online survey was distributed to assess the level of acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination among pregnant and lactating women for themselves and their children in Poland.

Body mass and emotional eating: emotional eater questionnaire (EEQ) in the Polish adolescents’ COVID-19 experience (PLACE-19) study

Dominika Skolmowska; Dominika Głąbska; Dominika Guzek (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Nutrients
Stress caused by the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may lead to emotional eating which may have a negative impact on the weight status. This study aimed to analyze the association between emotional eating and body mass, as well as changes in body mass during the COVID-19 pandemic, within the Polish Adolescents’ COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study. A total of 1126 Polish adolescents, aged 15–20, were included. A random quota sampling was performed within a national sample, and emotional eating was assessed using Emotional Eater Questionnaire (EEQ). Based on the declared height and weight before and during the pandemic, the respondents were categorized according to their body mass (malnourished, normal weight, overweight, obese) and changes in body mass during the COVID-19 pandemic (lost weight, no body mass change, gained weight).
A peer-based educational intervention effects on SARS-CoV-2 knowledge and attitudes among Polish high-school students

Maria Ganczak; Oskar Pasek; Łukasz Duda-Duma (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health
To support high school students to develop knowledge they need to adhere to control measures during the pandemic, a peer-based educational intervention on SARS-CoV-2 was developed and its impact was evaluated. Multistage random sampling was used. The 50 min peer-based intervention was conducted by final year medical students. Baseline and post-intervention knowledge and attitudes were assessed. Significance was tested by McNemar’s/Wilcoxon rank tests. Of 518 participants (mean age 17.8 years ± 0.43), 81.0% did not receive any school-based education on SARS-CoV-2. After intervention, the knowledge score improved from 65.2% to 81.6%, attitudes from 63.2% to 70.8% (both p < 0.0001). The effect size after the intervention compared to pre-intervention showed moderate improvement of knowledge, but not attitudes (d = 0.46 and d = 0.18, respectively). Pre- and post-intervention, females, students in non-science programs, living in cities < 250,000 inhabitants had lower knowledge, while fewer males, non-science program students, living in smaller cities presented positive attitudes. Before intervention, 67.0% students correctly named SARS-CoV-2 preventive methods and 73.6% were concerned COVID-19 is a serious disease; these improved after intervention (to 80.1% and 86.3%; p < 0.0001). The intervention was not very successful in increasing the intent to vaccinate for COVID-19 (pre-intervention 52.9%, post-intervention 56.4%; p < 0.007). Peer-based teaching for high school students can be effective in increasing SARS-CoV-2 knowledge and awareness.
New realities for Polish primary school informatics education affected by COVID-19

Taras Panskyi; Ewa Korzeniewska; Małgorzata Serwach (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Education and Information Technologies
In the paper, the authors discuss the first research effort to explore the transition from traditional teaching into distance teaching in Polish primary schools enforced by COVID-19. The first research question was addressed to primary school students and was dedicated to furnishing them with ICT equipment for crisis-prompted distance informatics learning. According to the obtained results, almost all Polish students during the pandemic have a technical opportunity to participate in distance learning and to use digital devices to develop their digital competences. Hence the second research question was addressed to the experts, demystifies whether the accessibility and the availability of ICTs could increase students’ informatics learning outcomes in out-of-school primary education settings.
Gender and educational inequalities during the COVID-19 pandemic: preliminary insights from Poland

Małgorzata Krywult-Albańska; Łukasz Albański

Published: November 2021   Journal: Sustainability
The global pandemic of COVID-19 has had a profound impact on many spheres of social life across the world. One of them has been the deepening of social inequalities and the aggravating of discrimination based on gender. Emerging studies in the field of education and occupation systems point to the fact that women seem to have been particularly affected, along with layoffs in those sectors of the economy where female staffs prevail. Additionally, in many countries, the burden of combining professional careers and supporting the education of young children falls disproportionately on mothers. These transformations pose a challenge to meeting the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, wherein gender equality is an important factor. This article uses official statistical data to examine gender and educational structures during the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland, set against the backdrop of other European nations and analyzed in the context of sustainability. Have educational and gender inequalities been exacerbated as data from other countries suggest? In order to answer this question, the article traces changes in the education system in Poland and their implications for gender structures. The latter have also been affected by transformations on the labor market in various sectors of the economy, therefore, the second part of the analysis focuses on the labor market changes during the pandemic. The final section offers conclusions on the implications of the pandemic for the studied issues. Throughout the article, we apply the principles of unobtrusive research. Following the theoretical framework outlined in the first part of the paper, we carry out a descriptive analysis of existing statistical data collected by the Eurostat. These official statistics are supplemented by an overview of public opinion polls to allow for perspectives on structural changes, as they are perceived by those affected by them.
Analysis of food habits during pandemic in a Polish population-based sample of primary school adolescents: diet and activity of youth during COVID-19 (DAY-19) study

Aleksandra Kołota; Dominika Głąbska

Published: October 2021   Journal: Nutrients
The improper dietary behaviors of children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic, which are associated with lockdowns and reduced physical activity, are a complex problem, potentially resulting in increased risk of diet-related diseases, including overweight and obesity and their consequences. The aim of the study was to assess the food habits during the COVID-19 pandemic and to define their association with physical activity and body mass changes in a Polish population of primary school adolescents within the Diet and Activity of Youth During COVID-19 (DAY-19) Study. The DAY-19 Study was conducted in June 2020 in a national cohort of 1334 primary school students aged 10–16 years, recruited based on a stratified random sampling of schools (sampling counties from voivodeships and schools from counties). The Adolescent Food Habits Checklist (AFHC) was used to assess food habits, associated with food purchase, preparation, and consumption, which in the studied group were analyzed separately for the period before (retrospective data) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (prospective data). The recognizable physical activity changes and recognizable body mass changes were also assessed (retrospective data) and respondents were classified as those declaring that their physical activity and body mass decreased, remained stable, or increased during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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