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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Myopia progression among school-aged children in the COVID-19 distance-learning era

Yasser I. Althnayan; Nawal M. Almotairi; Manal M. Alharbi (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Clinical Ophthalmology
This study aimed to investigate the effect of online learning and other environmental factors on myopia progression during the Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). A retrospective cohort study from 2018 to 2021. Data from children aged 6– 14 were gathered during three visits: pre-pandemic, at the beginning, and during the pandemic. Demographics (hours spent on screens for educational, recreational purposes, outdoors, and type of screen), best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA), uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCDVA), and cycloplegic refraction were gathered.
Understanding the epidemiology and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on domestic violence and child abuse in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

Fadiah Alkhattabi; Nawaf Al Faryan; Manar Alsaleh (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the impact of a pandemic on the lives of vulnerable members of the community who have experienced or are ‘at risk’ of experiencing intimate family violence and child abuse in Saudi Arabia. By reviewing the experience in Saudi Arabia in the context of the international literature, the study explores similarities and differences in the impact of the pandemic on family violence. The study investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on family violence and child abuse in Saudi Arabia by conducting a comparative analysis of the prevalence of cases, types of abuse, and geographical location of those experiencing violence between the years 2019 and 2020. Data were obtained from the Family Violence Reporting Center 1919 in Saudi Arabia.

A cross-sectional study to assess mRNA-COVID-19 vaccine safety among Indian children (5–17 years) living in Saudi Arabia

Marya Ahsan; Riyaz Ahamed Shaik; Ayaz K. Mallick (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Vaccines
The objective of this study is to assess the frequency and severity of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in Indian children aged 5–17 years who received the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, as well as to investigate for predictors of AEFI. To examine AEFI following the first and second doses of Pfizer’s vaccine, semi-structured questionnaires were distributed as Google forms at Indian schools in Saudi Arabia. The 385 responses included 48.1% male and 51.9% female children, with 136 responses of children aged 5–11 years (group A) and 249 responses from children aged 12–17 years (group B). Overall, 84.4% of children had two shots. The frequency of AEFI was reported to be higher after the first dose than after the second (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.57–2.86). The reported AEFIs included myalgia, rhinitis, local reaction with fever, a temperature of 102 °F or higher, and mild to moderate injection site reactions. While group B frequently reported multiple AEFIs, group A typically reported just one. Local reaction with low grade fever was more frequently reported in group B after the first dose (24.1%) and second dose (15.4%), while local reaction without low grade fever was most frequently observed in group A after the first (36.8%) and second dose (30%). Only prior COVID-19 infection (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.44–6.2) was associated with AEFI after the second dose in the study sample, whereas male gender (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.13–2.6) and prior COVID-19 infection (OR = 2.95, 95% CI = 1.38–6.3) were predictors of AEFI after the first dose. Non-serious myocarditis was reported by only one child. According to the analysis conducted, the Pfizer’s mRNA COVID-19 vaccination was found to be safe in Indian children.
Socio-behavioural factors associated with child oral health during COVID-19

Ravi Kumar Gudipaneni; Mohammed Farhan O. Alruwaili; Kiran Kumar Ganji (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: International Dental Journal

The aim of this study was to identify the sociobehavioural factors that influenced children's oral health during the COVID-19 pandemic. The online cross-sectional study was conducted in Al Jouf Province in the northern region of Saudi Arabia. A total of 960 parents of children aged 5 to 14 years were invited by multistage stratified random sampling. Descriptive, multinomial, and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios and determine the relationship between independent and dependent variables. P < .05 was considered statistically significant.

COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among pregnant and lactating women in Saudi Arabia

Amal S. Bagalb; Dlal Almazrou; Amani A. Albraiki (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Cureus

The acceptance of vaccines among pregnant and breastfeeding women is vital to alleviate the risk of contracting and transmitting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, we aimed to assess the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among pregnant and breastfeeding/lactating women and the factors associated with the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant and breastfeeding women living in Saudi Arabia. A 23-item, self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among pregnant or lactating women.

COVID-19 vaccination side effects among the child age group: a large cross-sectional online based survey in Saudi Arabia

Hassan Alwaf1; Abdallah Y. Naser; Abdulelah M. Aldhahir (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: BMC Infectious Diseases
Multiple vaccines have been tested in clinical trials for their efcacy and safety. In Saudi Arabia, Pfzer– BioNTech or Moderna were approved for children, however, previous studies to report their safety profle are limited. This research aims to understand the side efect of children’s vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 infection in Saudi Arabia. This was an observational retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey in Saudi Arabia from March to May 2022. The inclusion criteria were parents aged 18 years and above who live in Saudi Arabia and have vaccinated their children. The self-reported questionnaire was adopted from published studies to investigate the study objectives Descriptive statistics were used to describe patients’ demographic characteristics, continuous data were reported as mean±S.D., categorical data were reported as percentages (frequencies), and logistic regression was used to identify predictors of persistent post-COVID-19 symptoms.
Parental perceptions and barriers towards childhood COVID-19 vaccination in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional analysis

Yusra Habib Khan; Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi; Muhammad Salman (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Vaccines
The vaccination of children against Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a prime area of focus around the globe and is considered a pivotal challenge during the ongoing pandemic. This study aimed to assess parents′ intentions to vaccinate their children and the barriers related to pediatric COVID-19 vaccination. An online web-based survey was conducted to recruit parents with at least one child under the age of 12 years from Saudi Arabia’s Al-Jouf region. The parental intentions to vaccinate children were assessed via six items, while barriers against vaccination were assessed through seven items in validated study instrument. A 5-point Likert scale was used to record the responses of parents regarding both their intentions and barriers.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 10 | Issue: 12 | No. of pages: 16 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, immunization, immunization programmes, pandemic, parents, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Saudi Arabia
The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health among high school students in Medina, Saudi Arabia

Nadir Makki; Lina Aljohani; Ahlam Aljohani (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of healthcare sciendes
The COVID-19 pandemic led to many adverse mental health consequences from the lockdown. It caused an exacerbation of depression, anxiety, and other mental disorders. Among the affected populations, high school students were one of the most commonly affected groups. This study is aimed to assess the psychological impact as well as the prevalence of depression and anxiety levels among high school female students during the COVID-19 outbreak in Medina, Saudi Arabia. This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted on a total of 300 high-school female students in Medina, Saudi Arabia between April 2021 and June 2021. Data were collected via an online survey to measure depression and anxiety using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7) questionnaires, respectively.
Prevalence of computer vision syndrome among school-age children during the COVID-19 pandemic, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional survey

Ismail Abuallut; Reham E. Ajeebi; Alanoud Y. Bahari (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Children
Computer vision syndrome (CVS) can be described as ocular-related symptoms that result from prolonged exposure and use of computers, smartphones, tablets, and other devices with digital displays. The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of CVS among school-age children, the associated signs, risk factors, and the association between the disease before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional research design. The targeted population was school-going children aged 6 to 18 in the Jazan region in the Southwest of Saudi Arabia. A sample of 440 participants was selected to represent the population under study. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Sociodemographic characteristics were recorded, such as age, gender, education level, parents’ education, occupation, frequency, and intensity of eye symptoms if present. Results: Most of the participants were adolescents between 16 and 18 and at a high-school education level.
Parental willingness for COVID-19 vaccination among children aged 5 to 11 years in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

Awad Mohammed Al-Qahtani; Basheerahmed Abdulaziz Mannasaheb; Mohammed Ashique K. Shaikh (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Vaccines
To manage the COVID-19 outbreak, the WHO recommends adult and child vaccination. Vaccine skepticism has been a major worldwide health concern for decades, and the situation is worsening. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate parental willingness to vaccinate their children (aged 5 to 11 years) against COVID-19 and to describe its relationship with attitude, barriers, facilitators, and sources of knowledge regarding the vaccine. Methods: From February to March 2022, a community-based cross-sectional survey was undertaken among the parents of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. We employed a convenient sampling procedure to gather the required sample. Using the Raosoft sample size calculator, a minimum sample size of 385 was determined based on a 95% confidence level, a 5% margin of error, and a 5% precision level. The data were analyzed using version 26 of SPSS. A p-value less than 0.05 was judged statistically significant. The Chi-square test and likelihood ratio were utilized to describe the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, driving factors, and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Vaccine hesitancy associated factors were identified using multivariate binary logistic regression. A total of 528 replies were received.
The impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in children in Saudi Arabia: a mixed-methods study

Khlood Baghlaf; Dania Bormah; Anwar Hakami (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Nutrients
In 2020, there seems to have been a global shift in lifestyle and eating habits with the emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the ensuing lockdowns implemented by national governments. This study assessed the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on SSBs consumption among healthy 6–11 years old children in Saudi Arabia; This is a mixed-methods study, incorporating a quantitative component, which was a validated Arabic online questionnaire completed by parents, and a qualitative component, involving structured interviews with 10 selected parents using a criterion sampling method.
Relationship between screen time and dry eye symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in the pediatric population of the Western region of Saudi Arabia

Wejdan Alnahdi; Manal Hadrawi; Enam Danish (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Medical Journeys

This research aimed to measure the prevalence of dry eye disease (DED) and study the relationship between screen time and dry eye symptoms in the pediatric population during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire. This descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study included the pediatric population, ages 1 to 18 years, of both genders, who attended outpatient clinics of two main hospitals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Collected data included age, gender, dry eye symptoms, and common DED risk factors, followed by the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, which consists of 12 items graded on a five-point scale (0 = never to 4 = all the time).

Effect of the COVID-19 lockdown on children's behavior in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Ahdab S. Bawashkhah; Afnan A. Sulaiman; Maram Alshareef

Published: November 2022   Journal: Medical Journeys

Children’s mental health is one of the major concerns during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Multiple strategic policies are applied to reduce the spread of the COVID-19 virus, including boundaries closure, social distancing, lockdown, and quarantine. These measures affect the mental health of adults as well as children. In Saudi Arabia, many studies investigated the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on adults’ mental health, but few were done on children. Children's behavior can be assessed through parents' observation, which can be an important indication of children's mental health. This study aimed to assess the psychological impact of the COVID-19 quarantine on children's mental health and to evaluate the effect of familial and social-demographic characteristics on children’s psychology during the COVID-19 crisis in the Makkah region of Saudi Arabia.

Parents' knowledge and management of children's fevers in Saudi Arabia after the COVID-19 pandemic

Somaya Abdulrahman; Shada Fayad; Najd Al Anazi (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Medical Science
 Fever is a common childhood symptom that is considered to be the cause of around 70% of pediatric visits. This study aimed to assess parents’ knowledge about and management of fevers in children since the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study collected data from 488 Saudi Arabian parents using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the parents’ knowledge about fevers and how to manage them in children. SPSS was used for analysis.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 26 | Issue: 128 | No. of pages: 9 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19 response, lockdown, parent-child relationship, social distance | Countries: Saudi Arabia
Willingness and attitudes of parents of children under the age of 12 about the COVID- 19 vaccine in Taif city

Ayman A. Atalla; Jamal Faydh; Saad Althuwaybi (et al.)

Published: October 2022

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV2), is currently a global pandemic with the highest number of people affected in the modern era; only a small proportion of children have been infected with COVID-19. Most of them were asymptomatic or only had mild symptoms. Both direct and indirect advantages will result from an effective and a safe COVID-19 vaccination. Vaccine hesitancy is a potential threat to global public health. Parental attitudes to-wards the vaccines play a key role in the success of the herd immunity for COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate the parents’ willingness and attitudes about the COVID- 19 vaccine in Taif city in K.S.A. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a representative sample of 384 parents. The data collection tool was an online questionnaire that consisted of sociodemographic data of parents and children, and questions for assessment of parents’ willingness to vaccinate their children with the COVID-19 vaccine. All data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS program version 22. The committee is accredited by the National Committee for Bioethics with No. (HAO-02-T-105) and the proposal fulfills the requirements of Taif Uni-versity and accordingly ethical approval was granted.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 30 | Issue: 10 | No. of pages: 59-66 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, immunization, immunization programmes, infectious disease, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Saudi Arabia
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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