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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Impact of the COVID-19 virus outbreak on 24-h movement behaviours among children in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional survey

AUTHOR(S)
Yazeed A. Alanazi; Anne-Maree Parrish; Anthony D. Okely

Published: March 2022   Journal: Child

In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak as a pandemic. This led many governments to place restrictions on population movement to aid in pandemic control. These restrictions were expected to produce some type of impact on the daily lives of children and their families. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on 24-h movement behaviours among Saudi children aged 6–12 years, during the pandemic. An online survey of Saudi parents (n = 1021) was conducted between 1 October to 11 November 2020 to gather information about the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on children's 24-h movement behaviours, parent and child factors that may be associated with movement behaviours, and perceived changes in children's movement behaviours.

Saudi Arabia's digital and distance education: experiences from the COVID-19 pandemic and opportunities for educational improvement

AUTHOR(S)
Anna Boni; Laura Gregory

Published: February 2022

Faced with the crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020, Saudi Arabia embarked on a journey to adapt the way in which schooling operated, enabling a continued education for children across the country. This was a unique journey, and one that will have lasting impacts on education in Saudi Arabia. The World Bank studied this journey in detail over the 2020–21 school year, as the pandemic was underway. This report compiles the results of this study and provides a comprehensive review of the experiences of digital and distance education in Saudi Arabia, along with an analysis of opportunities for future educational improvement. The study aimed to answer three main questions. Firstly, how well did Saudi Arabia provide for, and achieve, continued education of K–12 students during the COVID-19 pandemic? Secondly, what were the strengths of Saudi Arabia’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic in K–12 education? And finally, what are the opportunities for educational improvement following the digital and distance education experience?

Parental involvement in children's online education during COVID-19: a phenomenological study in Saudi Arabia

AUTHOR(S)
Maryam Alharthi

Published: January 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Education Journal
The global spread of COVID-19 has caused disruptions in many aspects of our lives. Education systems worldwide have changed dramatically. Numerous countries have encouraged schools to shift to e-learning and, as a result, parental involvement in their children’s education has changed. This study focused on parental involvement in children’s education during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study applied a qualitative phenomenological approach following a constructive social framework, whereby the researcher pursued an understanding of the world in which she lives and works. The primary tool employed to collect relevant data was in-depth interviews with six parents who voluntarily participated in the study in the western province of Saudi Arabia. Thematic analysis is applied to analyse the collected data.
The impact of extended e-learning on emotional well-being of students during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia

AUTHOR(S)
Sehar-un-Nisa Hassan; Fahad D. Algahtani; Mohammad Raafat Atteya (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Children
Educational institutions in Saudi Arabia extended e-learning until the third semester of the academic calendar to prevent the spread of COVID-19 infection and to achieve 70% inoculation for the Saudi population. This study assesses the impact of extended e-learning and other associated stressors on the emotional health of university students in Saudi Arabia. An online cross-sectional survey collected data between the months of January–March 2021. The emotional signs of stress were measured by using a subset of items from the COVID-19 Adolescent Symptom and Psychological Experience Questionnaire (CASPE). Data about demographic variables, educational characteristics and academic performance were also collected. A regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of emotional health. A total of 434 university students including females (63%) and males (37%) provided responses.
Parents’ willingness to vaccinate their children against seasonal influenza after the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia: a retrospective cross-sectional survey

AUTHOR(S)
Emad Salawati; Hassan Alwafi; Mohammed Samannodi (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Patient Preference and Adherence
This paper aims to explore the impact of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on caregivers’ willingness to vaccinate their children against influenza in 2021 in Saudi Arabia and the factors influencing this decision. An online survey of 2501 caregivers in Saudi Arabia with children aged 6 months– 18 years was conducted between July 15, 2021, and August 2, 2021. A convenience sample of participants that met the inclusion criteria was used as the study sample. Social Science Package Statistical (SPSS) was used for the statistical analysis. Categorical variables were reported as frequencies and percentages. The Chi-square test was used for categorical variables to assess the difference between the variables and the parents’ willingness to vaccinate their children against seasonal influenza after the COVID-19 pandemic.
Assessment of caregiver willingness to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Mohammed Samannodi; Hassan Alwafi; Abdallah Y. Naser (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

Vaccination against COVID-19 is the key to controlling the pandemic. Parents are the decision makers in the case of children vaccination as they are responsible for them. This study aims to investigate the acceptability of COVID-19 vaccination for children among parents in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study used an online self-administered questionnaire. A 35-items questionnaire was distributed via social media platforms between June 6 and July 9–2021. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the participants’ characteristics. Categorical variables were reported as frequencies and percentages. Predictors of vaccination acceptance were identified using binary logistic regression.

The perceptions of female breadwinner parents regarding their children’s distance learning during the Covid-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Hibah Khalid Aladsani

Published: November 2021   Journal: Education and Information Technologies
Covid-19 has affected the everyday educational lives of students, teachers, administrators, and parents. Parents who are living in low-income and disadvantaged communities are probably more likely than others to have been affected by the pandemic in relation to their children’s distance learning. This study focused on the perceptions, predictions, and suggestions of female breadwinner parents from low-income families regarding their children’s distance learning. Data were collected from 12 mothers who participated in a three-stage focus group study. The data from the focus group discussions were thematically analyzed into three categories: (1) financial issues, (2) social and cultural issues, and (3) educational issues. Additionally, the findings presented the breadwinners’ general and technological reasons for their predictions for enhancing education in the future if schools return to face-to-face learning or pursue a blended learning approach. The breadwinners suggested three approaches to teaching and learning for the following academic year. The findings of this study may be useful in the development of educational policies and training programs to provide essential social and technological support to low-income families to address their needs in the online learning environment and to improve digital equity for low-income families who are likely to be educationally disadvantaged.
Epidemiology, clinical features, and outcomes of coronavirus disease among children in Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia: a retrospective study
Published: November 2021   Journal: International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is milder with favorable outcomes in children than in adults. However, detailed data regarding COVID-19 in children from Saudi Arabia are scarce. This study aimed to describe COVID-19 among children in Al-Madinah, Saudi This retrospective observational study included children <14 years old hospitalized with COVID-19 between May 1, 2020 and July 31, 2020. Clinical data, COVID-19 disease severity, and outcomes were collected. The total number of presenting symptoms and signs were computed by counting those recorded upon presentation. The Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test was used to compare the number of symptoms and signs across all levels of COVID-19 severity.

Parental attitudes and hesitancy about COVID-19 vs. routine childhood vaccinations: a national survey

AUTHOR(S)
Mohamad-Hani Temsah; Abdullah N. Alhuzaimi; Fadi Aljamaan (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

This study aims to quantify parental acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine and assess the vaccine hesitancy (VH) for COVID-19 vs. childhood vaccines. Eight vaccine hesitancy scale (VHS) items, adopted from WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Immunization (SAGE), were used to assess VH for COVID-19 vaccine vs. routine childhood vaccines. We distributed the online survey to parents with the commence of the national childhood COVID-19 vaccination program in Saudi Arabia.

Quality of life, needs and fears of mothers of children with disabilities in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Nisreen Al Awaji; Monira ldhahi; Shahnaz Akil (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Substantial changes in life dynamics resulting from the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could have an impact on the quality of life (QoL) of mothers of children with and without disabilities. This study compared the quality of life (QoL) of mothers of children with disabilities (MCD) to the QoL of mothers of children without disabilities (CON) in Saudi Arabia during COVID-19 lockdown. It explored mothers’ concerns and the type of support they need during the quarantine. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted during the lockdown. An online questionnaire was distributed to mothers raising children with and without disabilities in Saudi Arabia. A total of 340 mothers participated in the study by completing the survey: 93 MCD and 247 CON. The QoL of MCD and CON was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Furthermore, detailed information was provided by the mothers regarding their needs and concerns during the lockdown.
Grandparents’ Mental Health and Lived Experiences while Raising Their Grandchildren at the Forefront of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia

AUTHOR(S)
Nazik M .A. Zakari; Hanadi Y. Hamadi; Chloe E. Bailey (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
Understanding grandparents’ lived experiences and healthy aging is essential to designing efficient, effective, and safe services to support a family structure in which grandparents care for their grandchildren. However, no study to date has explored this concept in an Arab and Muslim country during a pandemic. The purpose of this study was to examine grandparents’ experiences raising their grandchildren to provide recommendations for needed mental health interventions during and after COVID-19. To gain a detailed and in-depth understanding of the lived experiences of 15 grandparents caring for their grandchildren a phenomenological approach was usewd. This study shows the need for support service interventions (support groups, health professional support, and respite care) for grandparents in Saudi Arabia, especially during global crises like COVID-19, that enhance social distance and social isolation. Raising grandchildren affects the physical, mental, and social wellbeing of the grandparents.
The relationships of watching television, computer use, physical activity, and food Preferences to Body mass index: gender and nativity differences among adolescents in Saudi Arabia

AUTHOR(S)
Ahmad H. Alghadir; Zaheen A. Iqbal; Sami A. Gabr

Published: September 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Adolescents and ethnic subgroups have been identified at high risks of overweight and its associated complications. Although some studies have investigated overweight, obesity, nutritional status, physical activity, and associated factors among Saudi students, no studies have examined these characteristics among non-Saudi students or compared non-Saudi to Saudi adolescent students. The objective of this study was to compare differences between Saudi and non-Saudi adolescent students regarding time spent watching television, using computers, engaging in physical activity, and their food preferences. The relationships between these lifestyle behaviors and body mass index by Saudi nativity and gender were tested.
Preparedness of current and future Saudi pediatricians to face vaccine hesitancy: cross-sectional study within the capital city of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh

AUTHOR(S)
Yossef Alnasser; Mahdi A. Alnamnakani; Jawahir M. Abuhaimed (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Annals of Medicine and Surgery

Vaccines have helped in eradicating many communicable diseases. They are considered major players in preserving children's health. However, concerns about vaccines' ingredients and safety became hot topics globally. With doubt, some parents became hesitant to vaccinate their children. A recent study documented high prevalence of vaccine hesitancy among Saudi parents. This study aims to explore preparedness of current and future pediatricians to face vaccine hesitancy, a growing public health issue in Saudi Arabia. This study adopted non-interventional cross-sectional online questionnaire specifically designed to encompass general vaccine hesitancy related questions including Covid-19's vaccines.

Cite this research | Vol.: 69 | No. of pages: 5 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, immunization programmes, infectious disease, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Saudi Arabia
Evaluation of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the reporting of maltreatment cases to the National Family Safety Program in Saudi Arabia

AUTHOR(S)
Shuliweeh Alenezi; Mahdi Alnamnakani; Mohamad-Hani Temsah (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

The COVID-19 pandemic represents a global and nationwide public health crisis. Although protective, socially restrictive measures may cause social isolation, which amounts to an increased ecological risk for mental health disturbance in vulnerable populations. Previous reports have suggested a significant association between the occurrence of public health crises and increased rates of multiple risk factors related to child mental health disturbances, domestic violence, and child-maltreatment. This study conducted a retrospective data review of reported child maltreatment cases from the National Family Safety Program during the period of September 2019 to September 2020. A descriptive analysis approach was used to compare rates before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Caregivers’ sources of information about immunization as predictors of delayed childhood vaccinations in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional questionnaire study

AUTHOR(S)
Leena R. Baghdadi; Marwah M. Hassounah; Afnan Younis (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
Of 628 women, 11.8% (n = 74) were pregnant at the time of survey. Most of the pregnant women (89.2%, n = 66) had some degree of concerns about their unborn babies getting infected during delivery in the hospital. Among mothers of children under 10 years of age (n = 564), half (n = 282) reported change in their children’s behavior during the lockdown. Most mothers and pregnant women (94.9%, n = 569) had some degree of psychological distress. Mothers and pregnant women with a college degree had significantly lower psychological distress (β = -1.346; p = 0.014) than women with a high school education or less. Similarly, mothers and pregnant women with monthly family income ≥ US$ 1,333 had lower psychological distress than those with < US$ 1,333. Women with pre-existing chronic physical (β = 2.424; p < 0.001) or mental (β = 4.733; p < 0.001) conditions had higher psychological distress than those without these conditions. Having children in the house was a contributory factor for higher psychological distress. For example, mothers with one child (β = 2.602; p = 0.007) had significantly higher psychological distress compared to expectant mothers without children in the house.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.